Rajasthani Language Grammar

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यहां आप राजस्थानी भाषा व्याकरण लिख सकते हैं

To write in Hindi see हिन्दी में कैसे लिखें
Please expand this article

Rajasthani is one of the prominent members of Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by around eighty million persons (total number of speakers 36 million as per Census of India, 2001) in Rajasthan and other states of India, and has eight major dialects: Bagri, Shekhawati, Mewati, Dhundhari, Harauti, Marwari, Mewari, and Wagri. Most of these dialects of Rajasthani are chiefly spoken in the state of Rajasthan but also in Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Besides, Rajasthani is spoken in some parts of western Madhya Pradesh in Malwa, and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh. Rajasthani language is classified in the Central Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages, which also includes Hindi and Urdu. Some of the dialects of Rajasthani are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi; however, many linguists agree that Rajasthani is a different language from Hindi at phonological, morphological, syntactical and lexical levels.

Dialects of Rajasthani

Some major dialects of Rajasthani are:

Bagri, Shekhawati, Mewati, Marwari, Dhundhari Harauti, Mewari, Wagri or Bhili,

Some of the recognized minor dialects of Rajasthani are (last two are questionable in this category):

Dhatki, Goaria, Loarki, Gade Lohar Thali, Sansiboli, Romany, Gujari or Gojari, Malvi, Nimadi

Rajasthani Literature

Rajasthani has a vast literature written in various genres starting from 1000 AD. In the past, the language spoken in Rajasthan was regarded as a dialect of western Hindi (Kellogg, 1873). George Abraham Grierson (1908) was the first scholar who gave the nomenclature ‘Rajasthani’ to the language, which was earlier known through its various dialects. Today, however, Sahitya Akademi, National Academy of Letters and University Grants Commission recognize it as a distinct language. It is also taught as such in the Universities of Jodhpur and Udaipur. The Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan included Rajasthani in the course of studies and it has been an optional subject since 1973. Since 1947, several movements have been going on in Rajasthan for its recognition, but unfortunately it is still considered a ‘dialect’ of Hindi. Recently, the Rajasthan Government has recognized it as a state language, but still, there is a long way for Rajasthani language to go. The reason is it lacks a comprehensive reference grammar and latest dictionary prepared based on a thorough linguistic survey of Rajasthan. Now an extensive descriptive grammar of Rajasthani is under process.

Rajasthani Language Grammar

Rajasthani Language has a very similar grammar to that of Hindi. Its primary sentence structure is SOV (Subject, Object, Verb). It shares a 50%-65% lexical similarity with Hindi (this is based on a Swadesh 210 word list comparison). It has many cognate words with Hindi. Notable phonetic correspondences include /s/ in Hindi with /h/ in Rajasthani. For example /sona/ 'gold' (Hindi) and /hono/ 'gold' (Marwari). /h/ sometimes elides. There are also a variety of vowel changes. Most of the pronouns and interrogatives are, however, distinct from those of Hindi.

Use of retroflex consonants

The phonetic characteristics of Vedic Sanskrit, surviving in Rajasthani language, is the series of "retroflex" or "cerebral" consonants, ṭ (ट), ṭh (ठ), ḍ (ड), ḍh (ढ), and ṇ (ण). These to the Indians and Rajasthani are quite different from the "dentals", t (त), th (थ), d (द), dh (ध), n (न) etc. though Europeans find them hard to distinguish without practice. These reflex sounds are not Indo-Europian, either proto-Autraloid or Dravidian. The consonant ḷ(ळ) is frequently used in Rajasthani, which also occurs in vedic and some prakrits, is pronounced by placing the tongue on the top of the hard palate and flapping it forward.

वचन का प्रयोग

  • एक वचन के संज्ञावाची शब्द जो हिन्दी मे आकारांत होते हैं, राजस्थानी भाषा में ये शब्द ओकारांत हो जाते हैं। जैसे, कुत्ता (हिन्दी) - कुत्तो (राजस्थानी), पोमचा (हिन्दी) - पोमचो (राजस्थानी),
  • राजस्थानी भाषा में एक वचन के जो शब्द ओकारांत होते हैं वे बहुवचन में आकारांत हो जाते हैं। जैसे
घड़ो—घड़ा, उदाहरण— थे सगळा घड़ा भरल्यो।
पीळो—पीळा, पोमचो—पोमचा, उदाहरण— थे कता पीळा पोमचा खरीद'र ल्याया हो।
बोळो—बोळा, उदाहरण— म्हे बोळा सारा काकड़िया ल्याया हां।
  • राजस्थानी भाषा में एक वचन के जो शब्द ईकारांत होते हैं उनमें बहुवचन के लिए 'इयां' लगा देते हैं।
लड़की—लड़क्यां, उदाहरण— थारै कती लड़क्यां हैं।
कड़ी—कड़्यां, उदाहरण— इतिहास की सगळी कड़्यां जोड़ो।
घोड़ी—घोड़्यां, उदाहरण— सगळी घोड़्यां नै पाणी पावो।
  • राजस्थानी भाषा में एक वचन के कुछ शब्द ईकारांत होते हैं उनमें बहुवचन के लिए 'यां' लगा देते हैं।
लुगाई—लुगायां, उदाहरण— सगळी लुगायां नै पाणी पावो।
भोजाई—भोजायां, उदाहरण— भोजायां नॅ बोलो कॅ गीत गावॅं।

अक्षर "ळ (ḷ)" का प्रयोग

यह अक्षर "ळ (ḷ)" हरयाणवी, राजस्थानी और मराठी भाषाओं में खूब प्रयोग होता है। हिन्दी भाषा, जो आम तौर पर लखनऊ और बनारस के पास बोली जाती है, उसमें इसका प्रयोग इतना नहीं है । बाकी प्रदेशों जैसे राजस्थान, महाराष्ट्र, पश्चिमी उत्तर प्रदेश, पंजाब, हरयाणा, दिल्ली आदि में इस अक्षर का बोलने में खूब प्रयोग होता है । हिन्दी प्रेमियों को चाहिये कि वे इस अक्षर को हिन्दी वर्णमाला में शामिल करवाने के लिए जोर डालें । उसका उच्चारण 'ल' और 'ड़' के बीच का है । कुछ नमूने नीचे देखिये - हिन्दी रूप कोष्ठ में लिखे गए हैं ।

  • फळ (फल)
  • हळ (हल)
  • थाळी (थाली)
  • काळा (काला)
  • साळा (साला)
  • हड़ताळ (हड़ताल)
  • भोळा (भोला)
  • गळा (गला)

अक्षर "ण (ṇ)" का प्रयोग

राजस्थानी, हरयाणवी भाषा में अक्षर "ण (ṇ)" का खूब प्रयोग होता है, हालांकि हिन्दी में इसका प्रयोग कम है । हिन्दी में "ण (ṇ)" के स्थान पर "न (n)" प्रयोग होता है। कुछ उदाहरण देखिये :

  • थाणा (थाना)
  • काणा (काना)
  • पाणी (पानी)
  • स्याणा (सयाना)
  • दाणा (दाना)
  • घणा (घना)
  • भाण (बहन)
  • सुणाओ (सुनाओ)
  • पिछाण (पहचान)
  • बजाणा (बजाना)

अक्षर "र्" का प्रयोग

राजस्थानी, हरयाणवी भाषा में अक्षर "र्" का प्रयोग क्रियाओं के साथ बहुतायत से होता है। हिन्दी में इस तरह का प्रयोग नहीं होता है । हिन्दी में "र्" का प्रयोग होने पर या तो इसको उपर चढा देते हैं जैसे "कर्म" अथवा नीचे जोड़ते हैं जैसे "क्रिया" । कुछ उदाहरण देखिये :

  • क र् या
  • ध र् या
  • खा र् या
  • पी र् या
  • जा र् या
  • आ र् या

External links

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