Rustam

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
See for Rustam Bharatpur

Rostam or Rustam (Hindi:रुस्तम,Persian: رُستَم‎) is the national hero of Greater Iran from Zabulistan in Persian mythology and son of Zal and Rudaba. In some ways, the position of Rostam in the historical tradition is parallel to that of Surena, the hero of the Carrhae. His figure was endowed with many features of the historical personality of Rostam. The latter was always represented as the mightiest of Iranian paladins, and the atmosphere of the episodes in which he features is strongly reminiscent of the Arsacid period. He was immortalized by the 10th century poet Ferdowsi of Tus in the Shahnameh or Epic of Kings, which contain pre-Islamic folklore and history.


Rustam was the name of the celebrated Persian hero, may be of Indian origin and affinity, his native country being Zabul or Ghazni, and his father's government Sistan and Kabul. [1]

Birth

In Persian mythology, Rudaba's labor of Rostam was prolonged due to the extraordinary size of her baby. Zal, her lover and husband, was certain that his wife would die in labor. Rudaba was near death when Zal decided to summon the Simurgh. The Simurgh appeared and instructed him upon how to perform a "Rostamzad" (Persian equivalent for Caesarean section), thus saving Rudaba and the child.

He passes through a hero's journey to save his sovereign, Kay Kavus who is captured by the demons (Divs) of Mazandaran. This journey is called "Rostam's Seven Quests" (Persian: Haft Khan-e Rostam).

There are some similarities between the legends of Rostam and those pertaining to the great Irish hero Cúchulainn. They both defeat a ferocious beast as a very young man, slay their sons in combat (Rostam and Sohrab, a motif also found in the Lay of Hildebrand), are virtually invincible in combat, and are murdered by treachery while killing their murderer on their last breath.[2]

Two Persian heroes, Rostam and Esfandyar, share Labours stories with Hercules.[3]

It is written by the Royal Central Asian Society in the Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society that the struggle between Rostam and the white demon represents a struggle between Persians and invaders from the north, from the Caspian provinces.

Descent and other relations

With Tahmineh, princess of Samangam, Rostam had a son called Sohrab, who was killed accidentally by his father in the time of Kay Kavus. Rostam later had a daughter called Banu Goshasp, who had a full brother called Faramarz, and both became renowned heroes in Turan and India. Goshasp, through her marriage with Giv had a son, Bijan.

Rostam had also a half brother called Shaghad, who was always jealous of him and provoked his death.

Just as famous as Rostam was his horse Rakhsh, which had an incredibly long life like Rostam, due to divine protection, and died at the same time as Rostam.


In ancient myth, Kolak Chall in Alborz was the house of Div-e-Sepid, who was slain by the great Persian hero Rostam.

Some years later, Shabrang (literally "dark as night"), the son of Div-e-Sepid, came to fight with Rostam. Their first battle was also in Kollak Chall.

Story of Rostam and Sohrab

According to Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery, Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma ("The epic of kings") [4], the national epic of Persia (modern Iran), by Hakīm Abul-Qāsim Firdawsī Tūsī (Persian: حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی‎ ), more commonly transliterated as Firdowsi (935–1020), the most revered Persian poet. The Shāhnāma tells the mythical and historical past of Iran from the creation of the world up until the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century. The Shâhnameh recounts the history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law) to the Aryans and ends with the Arab conquest of Persia. The scene that has been drawn by Firdowsi in his Shahnama is in the legend of Rostam and Sohrab. Sohrab was in search of Rostam, his father. Both, the father and son had heard the heroic deeds of each other, but none of them wanted to disclose his identification. Sohrab while being in search of his father leads his army to the White Castle (Dazh-e-Safid) in Iran. Hujir, guardian of the castle, sees the army come and goes to meet them. Sohrab asked Hujir about the heroes and war champions of Iran as under:[5], [6], [7]

English version

"I would ask all
About the king, the rebellions and the troops
All the renowned ones of that region
Such as Tus, Kaous and Gudarz
The knights and the valliants of the country of Iran
Like, Gostahm[8] and praiseworthy Giv[9]
About Bahram,[10] and the renowned Rostam[11]
I ask you about every Jat, you count them for me" [12]

Persian version in Roman[13]

"Bedu goft kaz to beporsm hamah
ze shah o ze gardankashan o ramah
hamah namdaran e an marz ra
chu tous o chu kaous a gudarz ra
daliran o gordan eIran zamin
chou Gostahm o choun Giv ba afrin
ze Behram o az Rostam e namdar
ze har jat beorsam be man bar shomar"

Rustam clan

Rustam is a Jat clan found in Afghanistan.[14]

References

  1. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.131
  2. Connell Monette, The Medieval Hero: Christian and Muslim Traditions. (Saarsbruck: 2008).
  3. Connell Monette, The Medieval Hero: Christian and Muslim Traditions. (Saarsbruck: 2008), pp.227-28
  4. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052
  5. Farhang-e-Namha-ye-Shah Nama, compiled by Dr Mansur RastgarFasayi, Published by Moassea-e-Motaleat o Thqiqat-e-Farhangi, Tehran 1370 AH/1991 AD, pages 1090-1094
  6. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052.
  7. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery of Delhi university under the title "The Jat in Shah Nama of Firdowsi" is based on the Persian text of Shah Nama by Abdul Qasim bin Ishaq bin Sharaf Shah Firdowsi Tusi, published by Mohammad Ramazani, Mossisa-e-khavar, Tehran 1310 A.H./1931 AD. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery has given English Version as well as Persian versions in his article.
  8. Gostahm :One of the Commanders of Iranian army, and belonged to the royal family
  9. Another war champion of Iranian army
  10. Another war champion of Iranian army
  11. Rostam:The main character of Shahnama of Firdowsi
  12. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:"The Jat in Shah Nama of Firdowsi", The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. P. 37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052, ISBN 81-88629-17-0.
  13. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. Page 39, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052.
  14. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.77, 111, 131,162,184