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Author: Laxman Burdak, IFS (R).

Iran Map
Iran Map
Zagros Mountains
Map of Iran in Middle East Countries
Map of area around the Aral Sea. Aral Sea boundaries are circa 1960. Countries at least partially in the Aral Sea watershed are in yellow.
Names of territories during the Caliphate, Khorasan was part of Persia (in yellow).

Iran (इरान) (Īrān), is a country located in West Asia, known previously as Persia.



Iran borders Armenia, Azerbaijan (including its Nakhichevan exclave), and Turkmenistan to the north, Pakistan and Afghanistan to the east, and Turkey and Iraq to the west. In addition, it borders the Persian Gulf, across which lie Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Shi'a Islam is the official state religion. Throughout history, Iran has been of great geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan and literally means "Land of the Aryans."


The Harsha Charita of Bana/Chapter II mentions The Visit of Bana to the King Harshavardhana....The doorkeeper, having come up and saluted him, addressed him respectfully in a gentle voice, "Approach and enter, his highness is willing to see you." Then Bana entered, as he directed, saying, "I am indeed happy that he thinks me worthy of this honour." He next beheld a stable filled with the king's favourite horses from Vanayu, Aratta, Kamboja, Bharadvaja, Sindh, and Persia....

Provinces of Iran

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica,[2]

  1. Khuzestan and Bakhtiari
  2. Astarabad and Gurgan
  3. Azerbaijan
  4. Fars
  5. Gerrus
  6. Gilan and Talish
  7. Hamadan
  8. Irak, Gulpaigan, Khunsar, (Kezzaz, Ferakan, and Tusirkhan)
  9. Isfahan
  10. Kashan
  11. Kazvin
  12. Kerman and Baluchistan
  13. Kermanshah
  14. Kamseh
  15. Khar
  16. Khorasan
  17. Kum
  18. Kurdistan
  19. Luristan and Burujird
  20. Mazandaran
  21. Nehavend, Malayir and Kamereh
  22. Savah
  23. Samnan and Damghan
  24. Shahrud and Bostam
  25. Teheran
  26. Zerend and Bagdadi Shahsevens

  1. Asadabad
  2. Demavend
  3. Firuzkuh
  4. Josehekan
  5. Kangaver
  6. Natanz
  7. []
  8. Tarom Ulia
  9. Kharakan

Until 1950, Iran was divided into twelve provinces: Ardalan, Azerbaijan, Baluchestan, Fars, Gilan, Araq-e Ajam, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kerman, Larestan, Lorestan, and Mazandaran.[3]

In 1950, Iran was reorganized to form ten numbered provinces with subordinate governorates: Gilan; Mazandaran; East Azerbaijan; West Azerbaijan; Kermanshah; Khuzestan; Fars; Kerman; Khorasan; Isfahan. [4]

From 1960 to 1981 the governorates were raised to provincial status one by one. Since then several new provinces have been created, most recently in 2004 when the province of Khorasan was split into three new provinces[5] as well as splitting of the new Alborz Province from Teheran province in 2010.

Current provinces with capitals:

  • Alborz: Karaj, Until 23 June 2010, Alborz was part of Tehran province.
  • Ardabil: Ardabil, Until 1993, Ardabil was part of East Azerbaijan province.
  • Bushehr: Bushehr, Originally part of Fars province. Until 1977, the province was known as Khalij-e Fars (Persian Gulf).
  • Hormozgān: Bandar Abbas, Originally part of Kerman province. Until 1977, the province was known as Banader va Jazayer-e Bahr-e Oman (Ports and Islands of the Sea of Oman).
  • Khorasan, South: Birjand, On 29 September 2004, Khorasan was divided into three provinces. North Khorasan; Razavi Khorasan; South Khorasan.
  • Qom: Qom, Until 1995, Qom was a shahrestan of Tehran province.
  • Tehran: Tehran, Until 1986, Tehran was part of Markazi province.

Rivers in Iran

Flowing into the Gulf of Oman

Flowing into endorheic basins Lake Urmia

Caspian Sea

Namak Lake


Hamun-e Jaz Murian

Sistan Basin


  • Mashkid River (Mashkel River)

'Karakum Desert

Migrations from Indian to north western countries

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[6] writes that We may now cite at some length from Pococke[7] who has traced Indian migrations to all corners of the world solely through linguistic similarities. This extreme reliance on phonetic similarities seems to weaken his argument, but there is ample support, from other disciplines, techniques and lines of investigation, for his claims. Further, the large body of data, he has massed together cannot be brushed away lightly. When supported by other evidence, his thesis becomes incontrovertible. According to Pococke a great number of adventurous preux chevalier tribes from India migrated to Spain, Italy, Greece, Asia Minor,Persia, Colchis, Armenia and the Caucasus region, all of which provide distinct and startling evidence of Indian colonization in great profusio. We have tried (Appendix No.6) to pinpoint the Indian names and places of the origin of the migrated tribes as well as the altered forms of their names in their new settlements in other countries. The appendix indicating all this, is by no means, exhaustive. It may not be unnecessary here to point out that in some countries the presence of Indian tribes can be construed by their names, though distorted, while, in others their identity can be traced by place names in these transformed phonemic nomenclatures. All the more significant is the fact that almost all the tribes are considered Saca-Getae (Jats) or Scythians by the learned scholar[8].(cf. Appendix No.6).

Pococke[9] believes that the major migrations took place from India as a result of internecine wars and religious persecutions in which the Buddhists had been the main victims.

To these may be added the Parasurama-Haihayas (Scythians) wars, Sagar's war against Haihayas and their allies (Sakas, Parthas,Pahlavas etc) the Dasarajna Wars, the Rama-Ravana Yudha, the Mahabharata war. Pococke lays special stress on the virulent religious strife for a long time between the Brahmins and the Buddhists for supremacy, leading to Brahmanic victory and the gigantic expulsion of the Buddhists. Pococke claims[10] that this was the most crucial event which compelled migrations and

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations:End of page 307

banishment of the vanquished to the north-western countries. The Saga of the Kurus and Pandus, though ostensibly political was in reality, as Pococke[11] contends, a struggle between the Brahminical and the Buddhistic parties. Profound night clouds this portion on Indian history. What Pococke regards as clear is that the emigrants coasted along the shores of Mekran, traversed the mouth of Persian Gulf. Adhering to the sea-board of Oman, Hadramant and Yemen (the Eastern Arabia), they sailed up the Red Sea, and ascending the mighty stream - the Nile - that fertilizes a land of wonders, founded the kingdoms of Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia[12] and Ethiopia. Fhilostratus, Julius Africanus, Eusebius and Syncellus, the Greek writers[13] assert that the Ethiopians were originally an Indian race, emigrated from the river Indus and settled in the vicinity of Egypt. This assertion cannot be dismissed lightly.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[14] ने लेख किया है कि....शकस्थान शकों का मूल निवास स्थान था जो ईरान के उत्तर-पश्चिमी भाग तथा परिवर्ती प्रदेश में स्थित था. इसे सीस्तान कहा जाता है. शकस्थान का उल्लेख महा-मायूरि 95, मथुरा सिंहस्तंभ-लेख कदंम्बनरेश मयूरशर्मन् के चंद्रवल्ली प्रस्ताव लेख में है. मथुरा-अभिलेख के शब्द हैं-- 'सर्वस सकस्तनस पुयेइ' जिसका अर्थ, कनिंघम के अनुसार 'शकस्तान निवासियों के पुण्यार्थ' है. राय चौधरी (पॉलीटिकल हिस्ट्री ऑफ अनसियन्ट इंडिया, पृ. 526) के मत में शकस्तान ईरान में स्थित था और शकवंशीय चष्टन और रुद्रदामन के पूर्व पुरुष गुजरात-काठियावाड़ में इसी स्थान से आकर बसे थे.

शकों का उल्लेख रामायण ('तैरासीत् संवृताभूमि: शकैर्यवनमिश्रितै:' बालकांड 54,21; 'कांबोजययवनां श्चैव-शकानांपत्तनानिच' किष्किंधा 23,12 महाभारत ('पहलवान् बर्बरांश्चैव किरातान् यवनाञ्छकान्' सभापर्व 32,17); मनुस्मृति (पौण्ड्रकाश्चौड्रद्रविड़ा:कांबोजा यवना: शका:"' 10,44 तथा महाभाष्य (देखें इंडियन एंटिक्ववेरी 1857,पृ.244) आदि ग्रंथों में है.

ईरान (फारस)

ईरान - तात्पर्य है आर्यों के रहने का देश यानी आर्यावर्त का पश्चिमी भाग। ईरान को फारस भी कहते हैं। फारस अपभ्रंश एवं लघुरूप है भारतवर्ष का। फारस के रहने वाले फारसी तथा पारसी कहलाते हैं। पारसी आर्य लोग ही हैं। ईरानियों के दो खानदान प्रसिद्ध हैं (1) खानदान पेशदादां (2) खानदान सासानियां। पेशदादां यौगिक शब्द है पेश+दाद का। पेश = आगे, दाद = इन्साफ। अर्थात् न्यायप्रणाली (मानव धर्मशास्त्र) को सबसे पहले चलानेवाला खानदान, तात्पर्य है सूर्यवंशियों से। सासानियां अपभ्रंश है शशिनियां का। शशिनियां गुणवाचक है शशि का शशि = चन्द्रमा। तात्पर्य है चन्द्रवंशियों से। [15]

ईरान (फारस) - ईरान को ‘सिकन्दर नामा अंग्रेजी’ में एरियाना करके माना गया है। एरियाना अपभ्रंश है आर्याना का। आर्यान् बहुवचन है आर्य का अर्थात् आर्यों के रहने का देश। तात्पर्य है आर्यावर्त के पश्चिमी भाग से। इसलिए अफगानिस्तान, बिलोचिस्तान और ईरान की उग्रभूमि को प्लेटो ऑफ एरियान कहा जाता है (पृ० 21)।

ईरान को फारस भी कहते हैं। फारस अपभ्रंश और लघुरूप है भारतवर्ष का। त और ब का लोप हो गया। ईरान के रहने वाले ईरानी कहलाते हैं। ईरानी गुणवाचक है एरियान् का। तात्पर्य है आर्यान् से। फारस के रहने वाले फारसी तथा पारसी कहलाते हैं। फारस तथा पारसी अपभ्रंश और लघुरूप है भारतवासी का। त और व का लोप हो गया है। संस्कृत का ‘भ’ अपभ्रंश होकर फारसी में ‘फ’ हो जाता है। जैसे गृभिः से गिर्फ़्त (दी फौनटेन हैड आफ़ रिलीजन बाई बाबू गंगाप्रसाद एम० ए० एम० आर० ए० एस० पृ० 88 व 89)।

आर्य शब्द जिन्दावस्था (पारसियों की धार्मिक पुस्तक) में अनेक स्थानों में आया है। इससे सिद्ध हुआ कि पारसी अपने को स्वयं आर्यजाति से मानते हैं। (पृ० 22-23)

ईरानियों के दो खानदान प्रसिद्ध हैं। 1. खानदान पेशदादा 2. खानदान सासानियां। पेशदादा यौगिक शब्द है पेश + दाद का। पेश = आगे, दाद = इन्साफ़। अर्थात् न्याय प्रणाली (मानव धर्मशास्त्र) को सबसे पहले चलानेवाला खानदान, तात्पर्य है सूर्यवंशियों से। (देखो दी पारसी रिलीजन जिन्दावस्था बाई जौन विल्सन डी० डी० म० आर० ए० एस०)।

सासानियां अपभ्रंश है शशिनियां का। शशिनियां गुणवाचक है शशि का। शशि = चन्द्रमा। तात्पर्य है चन्द्रवंशियों से।[16]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[17] ने लेख किया है ...पारस (AS, p.549) ईरान या फारस का प्राचीन भारतीय नाम है. पारस निवासियों को संस्कृत [p.550]: साहित्य में पारसीक कहा गया है. रघुवंश 4,60 और अनुवर्ती श्लोकों में कालिदास ने पारसीकों और रघु के युद्ध और रघु की उन पर विजय का चित्रात्मक वर्णन किया है, 'भल्लापवर्जितैस्तेषां शिरोभिः श्मश्रुलैर्महीं। तस्तार सरघाव्याप्तैः स क्षौद्रपटलैरिव (4.63) आदि. इसमें पारसीकों के श्मश्रुल शिरों का वर्णन है जिस पर टीका लिखते हुए चरित्रवर्धन ने कहा है--'पाश्चात्या: श्मश्रूणि स्थापियित्वा केशान्वपन्तीति तद्देशाचारोक्ति:'अर्थात ये पाश्चात्य लोग सिर के बालों का मुंडन करके दाढ़ीमूछ रखते हैं. यह प्राचीन ईरानियों का रिवाज था जिसे हूणों ने भी अपना लिया था.

कालिदास को भारत से पारस देश को जाने के लिए स्थलमार्ग तथा जलमार्ग दोनों का ही पता था--'पारसीकांस्ततो जेतुं प्रतस्थे स्थलवर्त्मना । इन्द्रियाख्यानिव रिपूंस्तत्त्वज्ञानेन संयमी' (4.60)

पारसीक स्त्रियों को कालिदास ने यवनी कहा है--'यवनीमुखपद्मानां सेहे मधुमदं न सः । बालातपं इवाब्जानां अकालजलदोदयः (4.61)

यवन प्राचीन भारत में सभी पाश्चात्य विदेशियों के लिए प्रयुक्त होता था यद्यपि आद्यत: यह आयोनिया (Ionia) के ग्रीकों की संज्ञा थी. कालिदास ने 'संग्रामस्तुमुलस्तस्य पाश्चात्यैरश्वसाधनैः । शार्ङ्गकूजितविज्ञेयप्रतियोधे रजस्यभूथ् (4.62) में पारसीकों को पाश्चात्य भी कहा है. इस पद्य की टीका करते हुए टीकाकार, सुमिति विजय ने पारसीकों को 'सिंधुतट वसिनो मलेच्छराजान्' कहा है जो ठीक नहीं जान पड़ता क्योंकि रघु. 4,60 में (देखें ऊपर) रघु का, पारसीकों की विजय के लिए स्थलवर्त्म से जाना लिखा है जिससे निश्चित है कि इनके देश में जाने के लिए समुद्रमार्ग भी था. पारसीकों को को कालिदास ने 4,62 (देखें ऊपर) में अश्वसाधन अथवा अश्वसेना से संपन्न बताया है.

मुद्राराक्षस 1,20 में 'मेधाक्ष: पंचमो-अश्मिन् पृथुतुरगबलपारसीकाधिराज:' लिखकर, विशाखदत्त ने पारसियों के सुदृढ़ अश्वबल की ओर संकेत किया है. कालिदास ने प्राचीन ईरान के प्रसिद्ध अंगूरों के उद्यानों का भी उल्लेख किया है--'विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजयश्रमं । आस्तीर्णाजिनरत्नासु द्राक्षावलयभूमिषु (4.65).

विष्णु पुराण 2,3,17 में पारसीकों का उल्लेख इस प्रकार है-- 'मद्रारामास्तथाम्बाष्ठा:, पारसीका दयास्तथा'.

ईरान और भारत के संबंध अति प्राचीन हैं. ईरान के सम्राट दारा ने छठी सदी ईसा पूर्व में पश्चिमी पंजाब पर आक्रमण करके कुछ समय के लिए वहां से कर वसूल किया था. उसके नक्शे-रुस्तम तथा बहिस्तां से प्राप्त अभिलेखों में पंजाब को दारा के साम्राज्य का सबसे धनी प्रदेश बताया गया है. संभव है गुप्त काल के राष्ट्रीय कवि कालिदास ने इसी प्राचीन कटु ऐतिहासिक स्मृति के निराकरण के लिए रघु को पारसीकों पर

[p.551] विजय का वर्णन किया है. वैसे भी यह ऐतिहासिक तथ्य है कि गुप्त सम्राट महाराज समुद्रगुप्त को पारस तथा भारत के पश्चिमोत्तर अन्य प्रदेशों से संबद्ध कई राजा और सामंत कर देते थे तथा उन्होंने समुद्रगुप्त से वैवाहिक संबंध भी स्थापित किए थे. आठवीं सदी ई. के प्राकृत ग्रंथ गौडवहो (गौडवध) नामक काव्य में कान्यकुब्ज नरेश यशोवर्मन की पारसीकों पर विजय का उल्लेख है.

जात इतिहास

डॉ रणजीतसिंह[18] के अनुसार ... देशराज[19] अपने इतिहास में लिखते हैं- "उनका (जाटों का) विस्तार उत्तर में जगजार्टिस और पश्चिम में ईरान की खाड़ी तक हो गया था। ईरान के डेरियस के अलावा अपने नेताओं के साथ उन्होंने यूनान को पहले ही देख लिया था। समय पाकर तथा अधिक संख्या एवं अन्य परिस्थितियों से वे आगे की ओर बढ़े और रोम तथा इटली में पूर्व की ओर से आक्रमण करने लगे। उधर मध्य एशिया में हूणों का प्रथम उपद्रव खड़ा हुआ तब जगजार्टिस के किनारे पर बसे हुए जाट लोगों का कुछ भाग नए और हरे-भरे देशों की खोज के लिए यूराल पर्वत को पार कर गया और जर्मनी में जा बसा। उससे भी अधिक उत्साही लोगों को वहां पहुंचा दिया जहां से आगे थल न था अर्थात जमीन का खात्मा हो गया था, वह देश था स्कंधनाभ अथवा स्कैंडिनेविया।"

डॉ रणजीतसिंह[20] लिखते हैं ...शिवदास गुप्ता[21] ने 'जाटों का विस्तार' के संबंध में अपने विचार इस प्रकार प्रकट किए हैं- "जाटों ने तिब्बत, यूनान, अरब, ईरान, तुर्किस्तान, जर्मनी, साइबेरिया, स्कैंडिनेविया, इंग्लैंड, ग्रीक, रोम तथा मिस्र में कुशलता, दृढ़ता और साहस के साथ राज्य किया और वहां की भूमि को विकासवादी उत्पादन के योग्य बनाया था।"

डॉ रणजीतसिंह[22] लिखते हैं....जाटों के विस्तार की पुष्टि एंटीक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस के लेखक उजागर सिंह महल के विचारों से भी होती है। महल महोदय अपनी पुस्तक में लिखते हैं - "मैं अब विशालतम जाट साम्राज्य का वर्णन करता हूं जो कि मात्र भौगोलिक सीमाओं के कारण ही बड़ा नहीं था, अपितु इजिप्ट और असीरिया के साम्राज्यों से भी बड़ा था। यह स्मरण रखना चाहिए कि पर्शियन साम्राज्य जाट साम्राज्य की देन है और पर्शियन राजाओं में जाट रक्त विद्यमान है। जाटों के इस साम्राज्य को मेड़ा साम्राज्य कहते हैं[23] महल के मतानुसार जाटों ने रोमन साम्राज्य, स्पेन और ब्रिटेन तक को जीता था [24] [पृष्ठ.5]: इससे आगे वे लिखते हैं ....:"यूरोप की डेन्यूब नदी जाटों के पुरातात्विक इतिहास की दृष्टि से बड़ी महत्वपूर्ण है। इस नदी के दोनों किनारों पर जाट ही निवास करते थे। डेन्यूब नदी जाटों से इतनी संबंधित है कि वह उनके स्वप्नों में भी आती है।"

सिकंदर महान ने अपने एशिया आक्रमण के समय सोगड़ियाना (तुर्किस्तान) पर आक्रमण किया था। उस समय सोगड़ियाना की राजधानी समरकंद थी। उजागर सिंह के विचार अनुसार यह प्रदेश उस समय जाटों के अधीन था जो कि पंजाब के जाटों के बहुत दूर के पूर्वज थे।

डॉ रणजीतसिंह[25] लिखते हैं...जाटों के विषय में सर्वप्रथम जानकारी देने वाले हेरोडोटस थे। इन्होंने अपने यात्रा विवरणों के अध्ययन के आधार पर यह लिखा है कि प्रथम दारा के पुत्र जरक्सीज के यूनान पर आक्रमण के समय उसके साथ भारतीय जाटों का दल था। इसी प्रकार बहुत से विद्वान भागवत और महाभारत के आधार पर यह मानते हैं कि अर्जुन के साथ में द्वारिका से आने वाला यादव कुलीन जाटों का समूह था और यह परिवार (जाट) घुमक्कड़ कबीलों के रूप में भारतीय सीमाओं से बाहर इधर-उधर बिखर गया। सिकंदर के आक्रमणों के बाद ईसाई तथा मुस्लिम संघर्षों के बाद वे पुनः ईरान के मार्ग से भारत में लौट आए। इस प्रकार के जाट पच्छान्दे कहलाते हैं। इलियट तथा डाउसन के विचार में इस्लाम धर्म की स्थापना के समय सिंधु प्रांत (शाक द्वीप) में जाट शक्ति का बोलबाला था। इस प्रांत के जाट शासक जागीरदार तथा उपजाऊ भूमि के स्वामी होने के साथ-साथ वैदिक संस्कृति के पोषक भी थे और वे आत्मा के अमरत्व में विश्वास करते थे।

जाटों ने ईरान और अफगानिस्तान को आबाद किया

ठाकुर देशराज[26] ने लिखा है .... शिवियों का एक समूह है उद्यान से ईरान की और भी बढ़ गया था। वहां उन्होंने शिवस्थान नामक एक नगर अपने नाम से आबाद किया जो अब सीसतान कहलाता है।

बाना लोगों ने ईरान के देश में जाकर बस्ती आबाद की जहां उनके नाम पर ही उस नदी का नाम मशहूर हो गया जिसके कि किनारे वे जाकर बसे थे। भारत में बाणगंगा के किनारे से उठकर गए थे जहां पर कि आजकल बयाना आबाद है। उषा इन्हीं लोगों की पुत्री थी। कृष्ण से लड़ने के कारण भक्त लोगों ने बान लोगों के सरदार को बाणासुर कहा है किंतु बात ऐसी नहीं है। कंस, बान, दंतवक्र यह सब चंद्रवंशी थे असुर नहीं थे। कुछ लोग मानते हैं कि स्कैंडेनेविया को बान के लड़के स्कंद ने आबाद किया था।

गांधार लोग कंदहार में एक लंबे अरसे से राज्य कर रहे थे। अफगानिस्तान में गातई एक स्थान है जो आज भी इसी नाम से मशहूर है। यहां पर गात्रवान ने जो कि श्रीकृष्ण की

[पृ.151]: लक्ष्मणा नामक रानी से पैदा हुआ था, अपने राज्य की नींव डाली थी। गोताला और गटवाल इसी इसी गातवान के वंशज हैं और गातई से लौटने वाले जाट हैं।

बाल्हीकों ने अफगानिस्तान में बलख नाम से पुकारे जाने वाले नगर को अपनी राजधानी बनाया था। एक समूह ईरान में भी इनका बढ़ गया था जो आजकल आजकल बलिक कबीले के नाम से मशहूर है। याद रहे कबीला जत्थे और वंश को कहते हैं। यह बलिक आजकल मुसलमान हैं और सिदव प्रांत में रहते हैं। अच्छे घुड़सवार समझे जाते हैं। काश्यप गोत्री जाटों का एक जत्था इन्हीं बलिकों के पड़ोस में रहता है जो आजकल कास्पी कहलाता है। ईरान के सोलहुज जिले में कारापाया एक कबिला है। यह कारपश्व लोगों में से हैं। ये कारपश्व जाट मथुरा जिले से उठकर गए थे जहांकि उनकी राजधानी आजकल के कारब में रही थी। अफगानिस्तान में हमें महावन नामक परगना भी मिलता है। इसका नामकरण मालूम होता है इन्हीं कारपश्व लोगों ने किया होगा। फिर बिचारे वहां से भी सोलहुज जिला (ईरान) में चले गए होंगे। कारपाया लोग बड़े अच्छे घुड़सवार गिने जाते हैं। कहा जाता है कि आरंभ में यह इस जिले में केवल 800 कुटुंब लेकर आबाद हुए थे। आजकल भी यह इस सोलहुज जिले के अधिकारी हैं और मुसलमान धर्म का पालन करते हैं।

[पृ.152]: उत्तर प्रदेश के जिन गदर जाटों को आजकल हम मामूली सी हालत में देखते हैं, वे उशना (शुक्राचार्य) के प्रदेश उशनेई के पास बहने वाली गदर नदी के किनारे बहुत दिन रह चुके हैं।

ईरान में रोअंडिज़1 एक प्रांत है। उसमें सोहरान एक कबिला अब तक रहता है। वे रोअंदिज के मालिक हैं। भारत में लोहारु में इन सोहरान अथवा स्यौरान के 52 गांव पाते हैं। विधि की विचित्रता से रोअंदिज के सोहरान (मांडलिक) शासक हैं और लोहारू के श्यौरान शासित हैं। अगर मजहब का पचड़ा बीज से हटा दिया जाए तो क्या लोहारू और ईरान के सोहरान भाई नहीं हैं?

यूरोप के लोग जाटों को यूरोप में असीरिया से आया हुआ मानते हैं। यह असीरिया ईरान का ही प्रांत है। जिसे मालवा के असीगढ़ से जाकर जाटों ने बसाया था। यहीं पर एक लाहियान जिला भी है। भारत के लोहियान जाट इसी जिले से लौटे हुए हैं।

जाटों में आंजना जाट जयपुर राज्य में पाए जाते हैं। जो वास्तव में किसी समय अराजण (अराजक) रहे हैं। इनका भी एक समूह बहुत समय तक अजरी नदी के किनारे रहा है। जाटाली प्रांत जाटों के नाम से ईरान में काफी प्रसिद्धि पा गया था।

पंजाब के हिसार जिले को सभी लोग जाटों का जिला मानते हैं। ईरान में जगातू नदी के पास हिसार एक प्रसिद्ध शहर रह चुका है। अब तो वह उजाड़ पड़ा है। ईरान के हिसार

नोट-1: रोअंडिज़ शहर इराक में है। Laxman Burdak (talk)

[पृ.153]: पास सेई कलह और सहना दो प्रसिद्ध स्थान हैं। हम नहीं जानते पंजाब के हिसार के पास भी इन्हीं नाम के जाटों के कोई नगर हैं या नहीं। इसके अलावा दो हिसार हम अफगानिस्तान के भूगोल में आज भी पढ़ते हैं। एक बाला हिसार और दूसरा मूंदा हिसार है। क्या इन में से एक हो बालाइन जाटों का और दूसरे को मूंद जाटों का हिसाब कहना उचित नहीं होगा।

अफगानिस्तान में शिवि और कुर्रम दो जिले हैं, जो शिवि और कृमि जाटों के नाम पर मशहूर हुए थे। हाला जाटों के नाम पर एक हाला पहाड़ भी है, जिसे सोमगिरि के नाम से भी पुकारते हैं।

ईरान को लोग पारसियों का देश समझते हैं किंतु पारसी सारे संसार में पौने दो लाख ही हैं। वास्तव में तो ईरान का अधिकांश भाग भारतीय क्षत्रियों से भर गया था।

अफगानों के कई जिरगे जाटों में से हैं यूसुफजई जिरगा को कुछ लोगों ने गुर्जरों में से लिखा है। हम भी मानते हैं कि वह गुर्जरों में से हैं किंतु पंजाब के गुजरात नाम के इलाके के जाटों का जो गुर्जर गोत्र है वह उसमे से हैं।

जाटों का यूरोप की ओर बढ़ना

ठाकुर देशराज[27] ने लिखा है .... हूणों के आक्रमण के समय जगजार्टिस और आक्सस नदियों के किनारे तथा कैस्पियन सागर के तट पर बसे हुए जाट यूरोप की ओर बढ़ गए। एशियाई देशों में जिस समय हूणों का उपद्रव था, उसी समय यूरोप में जाट लोगों का

[पृ.154]: धावा होता है। कारण कि आंधी की भांति उठे हुए हूणों ने जाटों को उनके स्थानों से उखाड़ दिया था। जाट समूहों ने सबसे पहले स्केंडिनेविया और जर्मनी पर कब्जा किया। कर्नल टॉड, मिस्टर पिंकर्टन, मिस्टर जन्स्टर्न, डिगाइन, प्लीनी आदि अनेक यूरोपियन लेखकों ने उनका जर्मनी, स्केंडिनेविया, रूम, स्पेन, गाल, जटलैंड और इटली आदि पर आक्रमण करने का वर्णन किया है। इन वर्णनों में में कहीं उन्हें, जेटा, कहीं जेटी, और कहीं गाथ नाम से पुकारा है। क्योंकि विजेता जाटों के यह सारे समूह ईरान और का कैस्पियन समुद्र के किनारे से यूरोप की ओर बढ़े थे। इसीलिए यूरोपीय देशों में उन्हें शकसिथियन के नाम से भी याद किया गया है। ईरान को शाकद्वीप कहते हैं। इसीलिए इरान के निवासी शक कहलाते थे। यूरोपियन इतिहासकारों का कहना है कि जर्मनी की जो स्वतंत्र रियासतें हैं, और जो सैक्सन रियासतों के नाम से पुकारी जाती हैं। इन्हीं शक जाटों की हैं। वे रियासतें विजेता जाटों ने कायम की थी। हम यह मानते हैं और यह भी मानते हैं कि वे जाट शाकद्वीप से ही गए थे। किंतु यूरोपियन लेखकों के दिमाग में इतना और बिठाना चाहते हैं कि शाल-द्वीप में वे जाट भारत से गए थे। और वे उन खानदानों में से थे जो राम, कृष्ण और यदु कुरुओं के कहलाते हैं।

यूरोप में जाने वाले जाटों ने राज्य तो कायम किए ही थे साथ ही उन्होंने यूरोप को कुछ सिखाया भी था। प्रातः बिस्तरे

[पृ.155]: से उठकर नहाना, ईश्वर आराधना करना, तलवार और घोड़े की पूजा, शांति के समय खेती करना,भैंसों से काम लेना यह सब बातें उन्होंने यूरोप को सिखाई थी। कई स्थानों पर उन्होंने विजय स्तंभ भी खड़े किए थे। जर्मनी में राइन नदी के किनारे का उनका स्तंभ काफी मशहूर रहा था।

भारत माता के इन विजयी पुत्रों ने यूरोप में जाकर भी बहुत काल तक वैदिक धर्म का पालन किया था। किंतु परिस्थितियों ने आखिर उन्हें ईसाई होने पर बाध्य कर ही दिया। यदि भारत के धर्म प्रचारक वहां पहुंचते रहते तो वह हरगिज ईसाई ना होते। किंतु भारत में तो सवा दो हजार वर्ष से एक संकुचित धर्म का रवैया रहा है जो कमबख्त हिंदूधर्म के नाम से मशहूर है। उनकी रस्म रिवाजों और समारोहों के संबंध में जो मैटर प्राप्त होता है उसका सारांश इस प्रकार है:-

  • जेहून और जगजार्टिस नदी के किनारे के जाट प्रत्येक संक्रांति पर बड़ा समारोह किया करते थे।
  • विजयी अटीला जाट सरदार ने एलन्स के किले में बड़े समारोह के साथ खङ्ग पूजा का उत्सव मनाया था।
  • जर्मनी के जाट लंबे और ढीले कपड़े पहनते थे और सिर के बालों की एक बेणी बनाकर गुच्छे के समान मस्तक के ऊपर बांध लेते थे।

  • उनके झंडे पर बलराम के हल का चित्र था। युद्ध में वे शूल (बरछे) और मुग्दर (गदा) को काम में लाते थे।
  • वे विपत्ति के समय अपनी स्त्रियॉं की सम्मति को बहुत महत्व देते थे।
  • उनकी स्त्रियां प्रायः सती होने को अच्छा समझती थी।
  • वे विजिट लोगों को गुलाम नहीं मानते थे। उनकी अच्छी बातों को स्वीकार करने में वे अपनी हेटी नहीं समझते थे।
  • लड़ाई के समय वे ऐसा ख्याल करते थे कि खून के खप्पर लेकर योगनियां रणक्षेत्र में आती हैं।

बहादुर जाटों के ये वर्णन जहां प्रसन्नता से हमारी छाती को फूलाते हैं वहां हमें हृदय भर कर रोने को भी बाध्य करते हैं। शोक है उन जगत-विजेता वीरों की कीर्ति से भी जाट जगत परिचित नहीं है।

The Land of the Aryans

In former ages, the names Ariana and Persian were used to describe the region which is today known as the Iranian plateau. The earliest Iranian reference to the word (airya/arya/aryana etc), however, predates the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (est. anywhere between 1200 to 1800 BCE, according to Plato and other Greek sources as early as 7000 BCE.) and is attested in non-Gathic Avesta; it appears as airya, meaning noble/spiritual/elevated; as airya dainhava (Yt.8.36, 52) meaning the land of the Aryans; and as airyana vaejah, the original land of the Aryans. Other peoples were called Anairya and later Aniranian, meaning un-aryan or non-Aryan.

During the Achaemenid dynasty (550-330 BCE), the Persian people called their provincial homeland Pārsa, the Old Persian name for Cyrus the Great's kingdom which belonged to the Persian tribe of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranians and which can still be found in the term Pars or Fars as part of the heartland of Iran and for example in the map by Eratosthenes and other historical or modern maps.

However, the country as a whole was called Aryanam. The word Ariya, noble/spiritual/elevated, is attested in the Inscriptions of Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes; it is used both as a linguistic and a racial designation as Darius refers to this at the Behistun inscription (DBiv.89), which is written in Aryan language/airyan, also known as Old Persian. Both Darius and Xerxes state in Naqsh-i Rustam (DNa.14), Susa (DSe.13), and Persepolis (XPh.13):

Adam Pārsa, Pārsahyā puça; Ariya, Ariya ciça...

I am Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, belonging to the Aryan race." --Darius the Great (549 BCE - 486 BCE)

In Parthian times (248 BCE–224 CE), Aryanam was modified to Aryan. In the early Sassanid Period (224–651 CE), it had already evolved to Middle Persian Ērān or Ērān Shahr which finally resulted in New Persian Iran or Iran Shahr.

At the time of the Achaemenid empire, the Greeks called the country Persis, the Greek name for Pars (Fars), the central region where the empire was founded; this passed into Latin and became Persia, the name widely used in Western countries which causes confusion as Persia is actually Pars (Fars) province. [28]

Jats in Iran

Giving an account of the Jats’ settlement in Persia, Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri had stated that they had been living in this region since a long time, and they had developed many big and flourishing towns of their own as we are informed by Ibn-i-Khurdazbeh (d.893 AD) that at about sixty miles away from the city of Ahwaz, there is a big city of the Jats, which is known after them as al-Zutt. [29] Another geographer of the same period had also observed that in the vicinity of Khuzistan there was a grand city Haumat al-Zutt. [30] These evidences given by the eminent author are enough to suggest that the Jats who settled in Persia gradually built up their economic resources and made significant contribution to urbanization of that country. [31]

Iran was one of an important abode of Jats next to India. There is a river called Ban on western part of Iran. There are evidences of a fort of Bana clan Jats on the banks of this river. Bana Jats are connected with Bayana town in Bharatpur district also. A river in Bayana is known as Banganga. It is believed that Bana people from Iran to Bayana or from Bayana to Iran migrated under certain pressures and named the river Ban on the basis of original name.

Herodotus has written that at the time of war of Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes with Greeks they had an army of Indian Jats. In Sojahaj district of Iran there is a tribe called Karpaya which is of Karav people. It is possible that these people moved from Mathura district. There capital might be at Karav, a place in Mathura district. At present, this area of Mathura is occupied by Hanga Jats. [32]

According to Ram Swarup Joon [33], when Alexander the Great attacked Dara, King of Iran, the major part of Dara's army consisted of Jat troops. Dara was very proud of these soldiers. Confidence in their bravery encouraged him to face Alexander. Todd also supports this fact and writes that the Jat contingent consisted of two hundred chariots and fifty elephants and formed the right flank of Dara's army. The Jat charioteers scattered Alexander's army. Alexander then sent for Scythian Jat troops. These were mostly Dahiya Jats and were equipped with lances. With the help of these troops Alexander defeated Dara. The Greek historian Herodotus writes that these Dahiya Jats contributed a great deal to the later successes of Alexander.

Jats have a big gotra called Shavi or Shivi. Iran was at one time known as Shavi country. Huen Tsang and Fa-Hien nave mentioned in their accounts of their Indian travels, that through Tartary, Kashgar, and Pamir, they reached Shavi country. Lord Shiva or Shavi is known as prophet Shish in Iran, and his shrine on the banks of River Tigris is visited by a large number of Pilgrims. A province in Iran is called Seistan, a derivative of Shivi-Stan. The Jats of Shavi gotra came to be known as Shavisthians or Seythians. The Great Scythian writer Abul Gazi has called himself a Chandravanshi Jat. He also writes that the mother of Scythian community was the daughter of Aila or Ailya Devi.

The Sakas invaded Iran from the coast of Baltic Sea, and looted a lot of treasure. When they were busy dividing the booty amongst themselves, at night the Jats made a surprise raid and snatched everything back.

Thakur Deshraj [34] has mentioned a story of a fort of Bana Jats of Iran. According to him a, fort of Bana Jats on the Ban River was seized by their foes. After a long period of seizure, when the ration was about to finish, the gards of fort got worried and then consulted an elderly lady to tell some method escape. She suggested that a part of the flour they are having with them be thrown away outside the fort. The enemy army would think that there is no dearth of ration in the fort and they will remove the seize. This was advice was followed and the foes removed the seize. (Cunningham, History of Sikhs). This story reveals that Jats had great respect for their elders, and women had a high place in the society. These facts also indicate they (Jats) were the followers of democracy and believed in system of ganasangha.

According to Thakur Deshraj [35], The Chandravanshi Aryans of India had habitations in Iran which were known as Jatali. He has referred General Cunningham who has mentioned the presence of Yayati Vanshi Jats in Jatali. Yayati was son of Nahusha. This province got the name Jatali, being the habitation of Jats. The language of these Jats is Jadgali (alternate names, Jatgali, Jatki, Jat). [36]

According to Dr Natthan Singh [37], not only in Iran but around Caspian sea there were habitations of Dhe gotra Jats. Dhe is derived from Yaudheya. According to Thakur Deshraj, they were not treated well in India by local people nor they were treated by Jats returned from Ghazni. They were not given equal status but when they established Nabha and Patiala states with their own strength, they got due importance and recognition.

Illiot in his book “Memoirs of races of the north west provinces of India” has mentioned Jats by the name Avars. It must be their gotra. Probably, these people moved to Bharatpur area and settled village named Abahar. Afterwards looking to the dominance of Sinsinwars, they also bacame Sinsinwar.

There is definite evidence that the during the Sasanid Empire in Iran, the Jat tribes living in Seistan area of Iran were exiled to live in what is now the Baluchistan and Sindh area of Pakistan. The Cambridge History of Iran quotes evidence for this expulsion. The word used for these tribes is Jutt, as we still pronounce today. They were exiled for the alleged harassment of the mainland Iran through sporadic raids. The Jutts were in Sindh when Mohammed Bin Quasim invaded Sindh in the sixth century. The clan names mentioned are Samra, Toor, Bhangoo, Bhullar and Sekhon. [38]

Bhim Singh Dahiya [39] published a paper entitled “The Mauryas: Their identity” in Vishvesvranand Indological Journal, Vol 17 (1979) p 112-133 [40]; in this classical treatise he proved several points including:

  • The Mauryas, Muras, or Mors were Jats and hence Scythian or East Iranic in origin
  • The primordial Jat religion was that the original Iranic race

Jat clans with Iranian connection

Jats around Lake Urmia

Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea.

Lake Urmia has 102 islands. Their names are as follows: Arezu, Ashk (Asiagh), Espir, Kabudan (Kudan), Shahi (Eslami), Espiro, Espirak, Azin, Mehr (Mehria), Mehran (Mehria), Mehrdad (Mehria), Borzu (Burzia), Borz (Burzia), Siyavash (Siwach), Siyah-Tappeh (Shivi), Tanjeh (Tandi), Tanjak (Tandi), Bon-Ashk (Beniwal/Asiagh), Ashksar (Asiagh), Ashku (Asiagh), Chak-Tappeh, Day (Dahiya), Magh, Meydan (Manda), Cheshmeh-kenar (Sheshma), Miyaneh (Mann), Samani, Azar (Ajra), Sangan (Sangwan), Sangu (Sangwan), Tak (Taank), Jowzar (Jhojhar ), Jovin (Joon), Jodarreh (Jodia), Sepid (Sepat), Bastvar (Bast), Zirabeh, Bahram, Gorz, Ardeshir, Nahid (Nahar), Penhan, Shahin, Kenarak, Zartappeh (Jat), Khersak, Naviyan (Nain), Omid, Garivak (Garwa), Gordeh (Godhe), Giv, Kalsang (Kalasman ), Golgun (Golyan , Aram, Panah (Pannu), Kariveh (Karvir), Zagh (Jangoo), Meshkin, Sahran (Saharan), Pishva, Kam, Kameh, Sorush, Sorkh, Shabdiz, Nakhoda, Kuchek-Tappeh, Tus, Borzin, Arash, Atash, Siyah-sang, Karkas (Karkala), Shurtappeh, Navi, Nahoft, Shush-Tappeh, Iran-Nezhad, Shamshiran, Mahdis, Kakayi-e Bala, Kakayi-ye Miyaneh, Kakayi-e Pain, Takht, Takhtan Takhar), Markid, Kaveh, Mahvar, Nadid, Kaman, Zarkaman, Zarkanak, Nahan (Nain), Bard (Bardak), Bardin (Bardak), Bardak (Bardak), Tir, Tashbal, Sarijeh, Bon (Beniwal), Kafchehnok.

These names indicate the place of origin of various Jat clans near Lake Urmia. The equivalent Jat clans are given in brackets.

Jats in Shāhnāma

Jats have been mentioned in Shāhnāma ("The epic of kings"), the national epic of Persia (modern Iran), by Hakīm Abul-Qāsim Firdawsī Tūsī (Persian: حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی‎ ), more commonly transliterated as Firdowsi (935–1020), the most revered Persian poet. The Shāhnāma tells the mythical and historical past of Iran from the creation of the world up until the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century. The Shâhnameh recounts the history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law) to the Aryans, and ends with the Arab conquest of Persia. The scene that has been drawn by Firdowsi in his Shahnama is in the legend of Rostam and Sohrab. Sohrab was in search of Rostam, his father. Both, the father and son had heard the heroic deeds of each other, but none of them wanted to disclose his identification. Sohrab, while being in search of his father leads his army to the White Castle (Dazh-e-Safid) in Iran. Hujir, guardian of the castle, sees the army come and goes to meet them. Shohrab asked Hujir about the heroes and war champions of Iran as under: [41][42]

"I would ask all
About the king, the rebellions and the troops
All the renowned ones of that region
Such as Tus, Kaous and Gudarz
The knights and the valliants of the country of Iran
Like, Gostahm [43], and praiseworthy Giv [44]
About Bahram [45], and the renowned Rostam [46]
I ask you about every Jat, you count them for me"

Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery writes that Firdowsi has used word Jat for those war-like persons, a word that seems to be equivalent of Yaudheyas that has been often used in the history of Kushan period. [47] It should be pointed out here that the word Kushan has been used in Shahnama at several places. Tarikh-e-Bayhaqi, also called Tarikh-e-Masudi is history of Ghaznavid dynasty (366-582 AH/976-1186 AD). An extract from this book has been given in Loghat Nama-e-Dehkhoda, the encyclopedia of Persia, compiled by Ali Akbar Dehkhoda in Persia. Under the entry ‘Jat’ it says:

“Ahmad escaped with his nobles and other persons, who were three hundred riders and bigger convicts. But Telak remained with him. He wrote letters to Hindu rebellious Jats that they should not take the way of abjected ones.” [48]

Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery writes that under the same entry, the quotation of Adib Peshawar has also been given. Probably he has written about the Jats in Afghanistan: “They are a clan of Hindus, now most of them have been honoured to adopt the Islamic faith. In the verbal history I have been told that people of Panni clan in Afghanistan are Jats in their origin. There are some small pockets of Jats in towns like Roudsar. [49]

The Mandas in Iran - The First Historical Empire of Jats

The ancient Mandas are even now a clan of the Jats in India. It is they who gave the first Historical Empire of the Jats in the western Plateau of Iran. They are named in the Puranas also. The Visnu Purana mentions them as Mandakas. By removing the Suffix “ka” the name appears in its old and present form. A country called Mandavya is mentioned in the Agni Purana. [50] Sankhyana Aranyaka, too mentions these people and so does Varahamihira, who, in his Samhita, locates them in the north, as well as the northwest of India. Madaiya is their Persian name. [51]

In the last quarter of the eighth century BC, the area of Azerbaijan to the south of Lake Urmia was inhabited by various Jat clans. The two clans whose names had come down in history are called the Mannai and the Mandas. These two clans are nowadays called in India as the Manns and the Mandas. In 720 BC or so, the Assyrian King, Sargon II, attacked these people and the Assyrians captured their chief called Dayaukku. He was a Manda chief and perhaps nature took a hand in saving his life, because contrary to the Assyrian custom, his life was not only spared but he was sent, along with his family to Hamath. Thus, it seems that before the last decade of the eighth century BC, they were acknowledging the suzerainty of Assyria, and it is mentioned that 22 of their chiefs swore the oath of allegiance before Sargon II. The name of their chief if given as Deiokes, son of Phraortes by Herodotus and other Greek writers. As per History of Persia, he was the same as the chief named by the Assyrians as Dayaukku. His name may well be Devaka because the suffix ‘s’ or ‘us’ is generally added to personal names by the Greeks. It was Devaka, who established the first empire of the Manda Jats in about 700 BC. The later Achaemenian empire was an offshoot of Manda empire, because Cyrus the great, was an offshoot of Manda empire, as Cyrus the great, was son of Mandani, a daughter of the last Manda emperor. Cyrus the Great was an Achaemenid Persian, son of the local Persian king Cambyses I of Anshan and the Manda princess Mandane of Manda clan, who was the daughter of Astyages, the last Manda emperor. [52] Before he united the Persians and Mandas under a single empire, he was the ruler of Anshān, then a vassal kingdom of the Median Empire, in what is now part of Fars Province in southern Iran. The name of the queen was Aryenis (skt. Aryani). [53]

The Manda Empire

Up to the nineteenth century, this brilliant empire was called the "Empire of the Medes”. It was so called by the Greek writers as well as in the Old Testament. The country of the Medes, called Media was the northwestern neighbour of the Mandas - the actual name of the empire builders. Even Media was eventually annexed to the empire of Manda. This was perhaps the reason of the serious mistake of history where the Mandas and the Medes were confused with each other. The Medes were traders of Greek stock, and were living in small principalities. They never had any empire. Confounding the brave Mandas with the effete Medes was the most unfortunate event in history. The mistake became so prevalent that even a proverb was invented in English equal to the effect that a certain thing is as unchangeable as the laws of Medes and Persians. The mistake was detected when the monuments of Nabonodus and Cyrus were unearthed. It was then discovered that the whole history was based upon a philological mistake. It was found that the name of the empire and its people, was not Medes but Manda. [54]

The founder of the empire, Deiokes, hereinafter mentioned as Devaka, immediately formed a powerful army. When the country was secure, he decided to build his capital for which the mighty granite range of mount Alvanda was selected and at a height of 6,000 ft. above sea level, the capital of Ecbatana was built. Its present site is the eastern part of modern Hamadan. [55]

After these preparations, Devaka started expansion of his empire. The Assyrians could never have dreamt that this mountain shepherd at no distant date, would sack the great Nineveh and cause the name of Assyria to disappear from amongst the nations of the world. The adjoining areas were annexed to the Manda Empire and after consolidating it for 50 years, Devaka was succeeded by his son Fravarti, the Phraortes of the Greeks in 655 BC. The Persians were the first to be conquered. Gaining more than self-confidence from their successes, the Mandas attacked the Assyrian empire but were defeated and Fravarti himself was killed.

Assurbanipal died in 626 BC, and his successors were disputing the throne. Such an opportunity was not to be lost and second attack of Nineveh began. The Assyrian Emperor burnt himself in his palace and perished with his family. Thus in 606 BC, Nineveh fell and so utter was its ruin that the Assyrian name was forgotten and the history of their empire soon melted into fable. [56]

Armenia and Cappadocia were including in the Manda Empire. Lydia was emerging as a powerful nation in the west and it was inevitable that the two powers should collide. The war began but in 585 BC, when there was a total eclipse of the sun; and it was stopped after six years of fighting, under a peace treaty. A daughter of the Lydian emperor was married to the heir apparent of Manda, and the kingdom Urartu was annexed to Manda empire. Next year, i.e. 584 BC, this great emperor died. Thus, from a beaten nation he raised the Mandas into the most powerful and virile empire of that time. It is aptly stated that the east was Semitic when he began to rule but it was Aryan when he stopped. This leader in one of the great moments in history was succeeded by Ishtuvegu, Astyages of the Greeks. He was an unworthy son of a worthy father, and he deviated from the basic policy of the Mandas, i.e. to keep fit and ready for war. He had no son and his daughter named Mandani (after the clan name) was married to a small vassal prince of Elam. [57]

The first issued of princess Mandani was Cyrus who became the emperor, after putting in prison his maternal grandfather, Ishtuvegu. Three battles were fought, as per traditions preserved by the classical writers, before Ecbatana itself fell in 550 BC. Cyrus was emperor of persia and had inherited the empire of the Mandas, which was further extended by him. But this does not mean that efforts were not made to recover the lost empire. We hear that Cyrus himself fought wars against the Jats in Balakh and the Caspian sea. At both the places he was unsuccessful. Balakh remained under the Kangs, and the small kingdom of the Massagate ruled over by the Dahias, remained free and independent. The king of the Massagate kingdom was Armogha and his queen was simply called Tomyris which is a Scythian word, Tomuri, meaning queen. The king had died and the queen had taken the administration in her hands when Cyrus the Great asked her to marry him. [58]

The queen gathered her force and the battle which followed was most ferocious. On both sides there were Jats, and they fought to the finish. Herodotus says that of all the wars of antiquity, this was the most bloody. The Jats gained complete and final victory. Cyrus himself was killed. His body was searched and recovered from the battlefield. [59]

Thus, we see that many Jat kingdoms in the north and east were free of the Persian empire which was an offshoot of the earlier Manda Jat empire. The defeat of Cyrus the Great and his death was a signal for the Jats under Persian Empire to take up the throne of Ecbatana. This was done by the Jats under their leader Gaumata. In the meantime Darius came and this second empire lasted for only six months because conspirators in the pay of Darius killed Gaumata in the Sokhyavati palace of Ecbatana. Darius wrote in his inscriptions, “Ahurmazda made myself emperor. Our dynasty had lost the empire, but I restored it to its original position. I re-established sacred places destroyed by Magas." These Magas were the Magian priests of the Jat emperors who came to India along with them, as a result of war. They were called in India, the Magas. The Taga Brahmans on the Yamuna river are their descendants. They are the Tagazgez of Masoudi. [60][61]

But the efforts did not cease there. In 519 BC Phravarti, another Manda follower of the Sun God of the Magi priests, fought for the lost empire. The Virks revolted in Hyrcania. But Darius, aptly called great, suppressed them and except lands on the frontiers of the empire. The Kangs remained free in north of Oxus river; and the Scythian Jats on the Danube were free. Infact, Darius, too attacked these invincible people with very large army and huge preparations of every short. At last, Darius ordered on immediate withdrawal and returned to Persia. [62]

Mandas and other Jats came to India

It was a result of these wars that the first migration of the Jats took place, and from the Manda Empire and from other parts of Central Asia they came to India. That is why Panini mentioned many cities of theirs in the heart of Punjab in the fifth century BC. But memories die hard. Even today, we have our villages named after the cities lost in Iran. The names like Elam, Batana, Susana, Baga, Kharkhoda (Manda Kurukada), etc. are still the names of Jat village. It is these Jats whom Buddha Prakash Calls, “exotic and outlandish people” who came to Indian at the time of successors of Cyrus [63], and whom Jean Przyluski calls the Bahlikas from Iran and Central Aisa. [64][65]

Mandas in Sixth century

Mandas in the later period are found settled in Punjab and Sindh in sixth/seventh centuries AD. Ibn Haukal says that “the infidels who inhabited Sindh, are called Budha and Mand.” “The Mands dwell on the banks of Mihran (Sindhu) river. From the boundary of Multan to the sea… They form a large population. [66][67]

Sir H. M. Elliot[68] writes that The city of Fámhal is on the borders of Hind, towards Saimúr, and the country between those two places belongs to Hind. The countries between Fámhal and Makrán, and Budha, and beyond it as far as the borders of Multán, are all dependencies of Sind. The infidels who inhabit Sind are called Budha and Mand. They reside in the tract between Túrán, Multán, and Mansúra, to the west of the Mihrán. They breed camels, which are sought after in Khurásán and elsewhere, for the purpose of having crosses from those of Bactria.

Tht city where the Budhites carry on their trade is Kandábíl, and they resemble men of the desert. They live in houses made of reeds and grass. The Mands dwell on the banks of the Mihrán, from the boundary of Multán to the sea, and in the desert between Makrán and Fámhal. They have many cattle sheds and pasturages, and form a large population.


  1. परोपकारी, अप्रेल प्रथम 2019, s.n. 1, p.6
  2. Persia entry in Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. Provinces of Iran, Statoids website,Gwillim Law
  4. Provinces of Iran, Statoids website,Gwillim Law
  5. Iran breaks up largest province, Al-Jazeera Satellite Network, Online edition
  6. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The identification of the Jats, pp.307-308
  7. Pococke, E; India in Greece, Indian Reprint, 1972, p. 32, 47, 134.
  8. Ibid., pp.38, 51ff, 63, 70, 124, 148, 159, 178, 195, 205, 229, 242, 251, 255,300.
  9. For further study please cf. C. Wordsworth, D.O., 'Greece, Pictorial and Descriptive; Grote, His. of Greece; Niebuh" His. of Rome; Troyer, Ramayana; Tod, Ann; Is and Antiquities of Rajasthan; Ency. Metropolitania; Smith, Muth. Lex., vol.I Homer, Odessey, Iliad; Asiatic Researches; Mure, His. of Greek Literatura, . Vol.I; Strabo's Geographia; Wilson, skt. Les.; Kruse, Hellas; Smith, Dic. of Astiq.; Hamilton E, Ind. Gaz., Vol.I; Thoronton, Geog. of Ph.; Thirliwall, His. of Greece; Thueydide, Genesis and App. No. XX in Pococke's Ind. in Greece
  10. Ibid., Chs VI-XV
  11. Ibid., p. 300. Dr. Buddha Prakash describes the Epic war as the 'Saga of the Sakas'.
  12. Ibid., p.43
  13. Ibid., p. 205.
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.886
  15. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV ,p.411
  16. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 335)
  17. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.549-551
  18. Jat Itihas By Dr Ranjit Singh/1.Jaton Ka Vistar,p.4
  19. देशराज, जाट इतिहास, पृष्ठ 169-71
  20. Jat Itihas By Dr Ranjit Singh/1.Jaton Ka Vistar, p.3
  21. शिवदास गुप्ता, स्वार्थ पत्रिका अंक 4-5, 1976
  22. Jat Itihas By Dr Ranjit Singh/1.Jaton Ka Vistar, pp.4-5
  23. एंटीक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृष्ठ 9-7 ?
  24. एंटीक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृष्ठ 53-66
  25. Jat Itihas By Dr Ranjit Singh/1.Jaton Ka Vistar,p.5
  26. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Navam Parichhed,p.151-153
  27. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Navam Parichhed,p.153-156
  29. Ibn Khurdazbeh , op.cit , p. 43
  30. Al-Istakhari, op, cit. , p. 94
  31. Zafarul Islam: Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri’s Studies on Jats, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006. p. 27
  32. Kishori Lal Faujdar:Jat aur Iran Desh, Jat Samaj Magazine Agra, October 1997
  33. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  34. Jat History Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992.
  35. Jat History Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992.
  37. Dr Natthan Singh: Jat - Itihas (Hindi), Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior, 2004
  39. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana
  41. Farhang-e-Namha-ye-Shah Nama, compiled by Dr Mansur RastgarFasayi, Published by Moassea-e-Motaleat o Thqiqat-e-Farhangi, Tehran 1370 AH/1991 AD, pages 1090-1094
  42. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh , Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052.
  43. Gostahm :One of the Commanders of Iranian army, and belonged to the royal family
  44. Another war champion of Iranian army
  45. Another war champion of Iranian army
  46. Rostam:The main character of Shahnama of Firdowsi
  47. Central Asia in the Kushan period, Vol II, page 62. Published by the committee on the study of civilizations of central Asia on the commission of the USSR for Unesco under contract with Unesco, 1975
  48. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Page 37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh , Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052.
  49. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Page 38, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh , Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052.
  50. Indian History Quarterly, IX, P. 476
  51. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 127
  52. Suren-Pahlav, Sh., Cyrus The Great; The Liberator, ; Retrieved January 12, 2007
  53. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 128
  54. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 128
  55. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 129
  56. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 130
  57. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 131
  58. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 131
  59. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 133
  60. Journal of Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society, 1914, p. 563
  61. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 133
  62. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 134
  63. Buddha Prakash, Studies in Indian History and Civilisations, P. 35
  64. Journal Asiatique, 1926 , pp.11-13
  65. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 135
  66. Elliot and Dowson, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 38
  67. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 136
  68. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/V. Ibn Haukal (Ashkálu-l Bilád),p.38

Further reading

  • Illiot: “Memoirs of races of the north west provinces of India”

External links

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