Brighton

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Brighton on the Map of England
The Royal Pavilion, Brighton

Brighton (ब्राईटन) is a town located in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England.

Location

It is close to the edge of the South Downs National Park. Located 75 km south of London. Brighton lies between the South Downs and the English Channel to the north and south, respectively.

Origin of name

Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone (or Brighthelmston) was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries.[1][2]

Brighton was originally an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660; it gradually supplanted the longer name, and was in general use from the late 18th century. Brighthelmstone was the town's official name until 1810, though.[3]

The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn — the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England.[4] The tūn element is common in Sussex, especially on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name.[5]

An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance.[6]

Geography and topography

Brighton lies between the South Downs and the English Channel to the north and south, respectively. The Sussex coast forms a wide, shallow bay between the headlands of Selsey Bill and Beachy Head; Brighton developed near the centre of this bay around a seasonal river, the Wellesbourne (or Whalesbone), which flowed from the South Downs above Patcham.[7] [8] This emptied into the English Channel at the beach near the East Cliff, forming "the natural drainage point for Brighton".[9]


Despite 16th-century writer Andrew Boorde's claim that "Bryght-Hempston [is] among the noble ports and havens of the realm",[10] Brighton never developed as a significant port: rather, it was considered as part of Shoreham. Nevertheless, the descriptions "Port of Brighthelmston" or "Port of Brighton" were sometimes used between the 14th and 19th centuries, as for example in 1766 when its notional limits were defined for customs purposes.[11]

The East Cliff runs for several miles from Pool Valley towards Rottingdean and Saltdean, reaching 24 metres above sea level. The soil beneath it, a mixture of alluvium and clay with some flint and chalk rubble, has experienced erosion for many years. The cliff itself, like the rest of Brighton's soil, is chalk.[12] Below this are thin layers of Upper and Lower Greensand separated by a thicker band of Gault clay.[13] The land slopes upwards gradually from south to north towards the top of the Downs.

History

Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is 75 km south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods. The ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book (1086).

The first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill which has been dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC.[14] It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex. Archaeologists have only partially explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds, tools and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance.[15]

There was also a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC,[16] and an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Camp on Hollingbury Hill. This Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 300 m. Cissbury Ring, roughly 16 km from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital".[17]

Later, there was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, and much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally.[18] From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area.[19]

After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons then invaded in the late 5th century AD, and the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.[20]

रॉयल पवेलियन ब्राईटन

ब्राईटन में रॉयल पवेलियन या ब्राईटन पवेलियन सन 1815 में जॉर्ज चतुर्थ के आवास के लिए इंडो-इस्लामिक स्टाईल में बनाया गया था. 1830 में गॉर्ज चतुर्थ की मृत्यु हो गई थी. उनके पश्चात वर्ती विलियम चतुर्थ भी यहाँ रहे परंतु बाद में रानी विक्टोरिया को यह आवास पसंद नहीं आया था. प्रथम विश्व युद्ध में यह पवेलियन मिलिटरी हॉस्पिटल में बदल दिया गया था. घायल भारतीय सैनिकों का यहा ईलाज किया जाने लगा. कोई 720 बेड बनाये गए और कोई 2300 घायल सैनिकों का इलाज किया गया. कहते हैं इनके खाने और रहने के लिए हिंदु, सिख और मुस्लिम धर्म के अनुसार व्यवस्था की गई थी. अगस्त 1915 को किंग जार्ज पंचम यहाँ पधारे थे और भारतीय सैनिकों का सम्मान किया गया था.जनवरी 1916 में भारतीय सैनिकों के लिए यह अस्पताल बंद कर दिया गया था.

प्रथम विश्व युद्ध में 8 लाख से अधिक भारतीय सैनिकों ने ब्रिटिश सेना की तरफ से युद्ध लड़ा था. रॉयल पवेलियन में उपचार किए गए अधिकांश सैनिक ठीक हो गए थे परंतु 53 हिंदु और सिख सैनिकों का दाह संस्कार भारतीय परंपरा के अनुकूल ब्राईटन के निर्जन इलाक़े साउथ डाउन की पहाड़ी पर किया गया. उनकी अस्थियाँ इंग्लिश चैनल में विसर्जित की गई. इन सैनिकों की यादगार में यहाँ भारतीय स्टाईल की एक छतरी बनी हुई है. इस छतरी का लोकार्पण 1.2.1921 को एडवर्ड प्रिंस वेल्स द्वारा किया गया था. 20.8.1971 को इस छतरी का इंग्लिश हेरिटेज ग्रेड-2 का दर्जा दिया गया. 2018 के जून माह में शताब्दी समारोह का आयोजन छतरी स्थल पर किया गया और भारतीय सैनिकों के योगदान को याद किया. देवेंद्र सिंह ढीलों ने महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका अदा की. छतरी की स्थिति इस प्रकार है:

Indian Soldiers Memorial Brighton

Indian Soldiers Memorial Brighton

The Chattri is a war memorial in the English city of Brighton and Hove. It is sited 500 feet above the city on the South Downs above the suburb of Patcham, and is accessible only by bridleway. It stands on the site where a number of Indian soldiers who fought for the British Empire were cremated during the First World War. The structure has Grade II listed status, reflecting its architectural and historic importance. In 2017, as part of the 100th anniversary of World War I, the site of the Chattri was dedicated as a Fields in Trust Centenary Field because of its local heritage and significance.

India was part of the British Empire during the First World War, and more than 800,000 Indian soldiers fought for the Allied Powers.[21] During the four years of fighting, thousands of wounded combatants were brought to Britain to be treated in makeshift military hospitals. Three were established in Brighton; one was the town's famous royal palace, the Royal Pavilion.[22] King George V is said to have decreed that Indian soldiers were to be treated at the Pavilion, apparently believing that the flamboyant Indo-Saracenic building would provide familiar surroundings.[23] In December 1914, 345 injured soldiers were transported to Brighton by train and were transferred to the hospitals.[24] The King and Queen, Mayor of Brighton, Chief Constable of Brighton and other dignitaries visited frequently, and careful arrangements were made at the Royal Pavilion to provide for the different dietary and other cultural requirements of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims.[25]

Although the great majority of soldiers recovered from their injuries, some died. The 21 Muslim men who died were taken to the Shah Jahan Mosque in Woking, Surrey, and buried in accordance with Islamic tradition in a new cemetery.[26][27] The bodies of 53 Hindus and Sikhs were taken to a remote location high on the South Downs above Brighton, where a ghat (funeral pyre) was built so they could be cremated and their ashes scattered in the English Channel. This funeral rite was again carried out in line with religious custom.[28][29][30] In total, 18 men who were treated at the Royal Pavilion died, ten of whom were cremated on the ghat.[31] (The 56 other victims died at the Kitchener Hospital—now Brighton General Hospital—or a temporarily converted school at York Place.)[3][32]

Unique ‘Chattri’ in UK is site of homage to Indian WW1 soldiers - Prasun Sonwalkar, Hindustan Times, London [33] writes ... The Chattri,designed by Mumbai architect EC Henriques and built in the Indo-Saracenic style of architecture, is one of the most visible symbols of Indian participation in the war during 1914-18. Brighton, 85 km south of London, is where many of the injured Indians were brought for treatment at the Royal Pavilion, also built in the same style....The Chattri was built at the site where the Hindu and Sikh soldiers were cremated. Designed by Henriques, who was then studying in England, its construction was overseen by Samuel Swinton Jacob, known for his various buildings in India, such as the Albert Hall Museum in Jaipur....The Chattri bears the following inscription in Urdu, Hindi and English:

“To the memory of all Indian soldiers who gave their lives for their King-Emperor in the Great War, this monument, erected on the site of the funeral pyre where the Hindus and Sikhs who died in hospital at Brighton passed through the fire, is in grateful admiration and brotherly affection dedicated.”

The only access is from a path off a bridleway between the A27 Brighton Bypass at Patcham and the Clayton Windmills at the top of the Downs. The bridleway, which at that point runs along a ridge between Hogtrough Bottom and Deep Bottom, is part of the Sussex Border Path, and The Chattri is at the northern extremity of the City of Brighton and Hove, on the border with the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex.

List of the Martyrs

To be add

References

  1. Salzman, L.F., ed. (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 244–263.
  2. Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2. p.44
  3. Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2. p.44
  4. Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2. p.44
  5. Leslie, Kim; Short, Brian, eds. (1999). An Historical Atlas of Sussex. Chichester: Phillimore & Co. ISBN 1-86077-112-2. pp. 32–33
  6. Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2. p.44
  7. [https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/sussex/vol7/pp244-263 Salzman, L.F., ed. (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 244–263.
  8. [Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-861-47315-9. §. 15.]
  9. Collis 2010, p. 246.
  10. [Lower, Mark Antony (1864). "The Rivers of Sussex: Part II". Sussex Archaeological Collections. Lewes: George P. Bacon (for the Sussex Archaeological Society). 16. p. 247.]
  11. Carder 1990, §. 128.
  12. Salzman, L.F., ed. (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 244–263.
  13. Leslie, Kim; Short, Brian, eds. (1999). An Historical Atlas of Sussex. Chichester: Phillimore & Co. ISBN 1-86077-112-2. p. 3.
  14. Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-861-47315-9. §. 17
  15. "Whitehawk Camp". Brighton and Hove City Council.
  16. Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-861-47315-9. §. 17
  17. "Information derived from National Trust".
  18. Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-861-47315-9. §. 17
  19. Current Archaeology, 13 March 2014, "Archived copy".
  20. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Parker MS) (E-text)
  21. Bridgewater, Peter (2007). An Eccentric Tour of Sussex. Alfriston: Snake River Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-03-7.
  22. Bridgewater, Peter (2007). An Eccentric Tour of Sussex. Alfriston: Snake River Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-03-7.p. 76.
  23. Bridgewater, Peter (2007). An Eccentric Tour of Sussex. Alfriston: Snake River Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-03-7.p. 76.
  24. Bridgewater, Peter (2007). An Eccentric Tour of Sussex. Alfriston: Snake River Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-03-7. p. 76.
  25. Delorme, Mary (1987). Curious Sussex. London EC1: Robert Hale Ltd. ISBN 0-7090-2970-5. p.61
  26. Delorme, Mary (1987). Curious Sussex. London EC1: Robert Hale Ltd. ISBN 0-7090-2970-5. p.61
  27. "Brief History". The Chattri Official Website. Tom Donovan.
  28. Delorme, Mary (1987). Curious Sussex. London EC1: Robert Hale Ltd. ISBN 0-7090-2970-5. p.61
  29. "Brief History". The Chattri Official Website. Tom Donovan.
  30. Bridgewater, Peter (2007). An Eccentric Tour of Sussex. Alfriston: Snake River Press. ISBN 978-1-906022-03-7.p.77
  31. "A More In-Depth History: Part IV". The Chattri Official Website. Tom Donovan.
  32. "A More In-Depth History: Part IV". The Chattri Official Website. Tom Donovan.
  33. Unique ‘Chattri’ in UK is site of homage to Indian WW1 soldiers