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Pavnar (पवनार) is a village in Wardha district in the Maharashtra. Its ancient name was Pravarapura/Pravarpura founded by Pravarasena II.[1]



Wardha was included in the empire of the Mauryas, Sungas, Satavahanas and Vakatakas. Pravarapura, modern Pavnar was once the capital of the Vakataka dynasty. Vakatakas were contemporary of Imperial Guptas. Prabhavatigupta, the daughter of Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) was married with Vakataka ruler Rudrasena. The period of Vakatakas was 2nd to 5th century CE. The empire stretched from the Arabian sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east, and from the Narmada river in the north to the Krishna-Godavari delta in south.

Chammak Plates of the Maharaja Pravarasena II 18th year of reign

The Seal.
  • A charter of king Pravarasêna, the ornament of the Vâkâtakas, who has attained royal dignity by, inheritance, (is) a charter for (the observance of even his) enemies!
The Plates.
  • Sight has been attained! Hail! From the town of Pravarapura;
  • (Line 17.)-At the command of the most devout worshipper of (the god) Maheshvara, the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Pravarasêna (II.), who was begotten on Prabhavatigupta, the daughter of the Mahârâjadhirâja, the glorious Devagupta; who, through possessing the favour of (the god) Shambhu, is (as virtuous as) one belonging to the Krita age;-
  • (Line 13.) -(And) who is the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Rudrasêna (II.), who acquired an abundance of good fortune through the favour of the divine (god) Chakrapâni;
  • (L. 9.)-Who was the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Prithivishena, who was an excessively devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; who was endowed with an excess of truthfulness, straightforwardness, tenderness, heroism, prowess, political wisdom, modesty, and high-mindedness, and with devotion to worthy people and guests, and with the condition of being victorious through religion, and with purity of mind, and with other meritorious qualities; who belonged to an uninterrupted succession of sons and sons' sons, whose treasure and means of government had been accumulating for a hundred years; who behaved like Yudhishthira;-
  • (L. 4.)-Who was the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Rudrasêna (I.), who was an excessively devout devotee of (the god) Svâmi-Mahâbhairava; who was the daughter's son of the illustrious Bhavanaga, the Mahârâja of the Bhârashivas, whose royal line owed its origin to the great satisfaction of (the god) Shiva, (caused) by (their) carrying a linga of Shiva placed as a load upon (their) shoulders, (and) who were besprinkled on the forehead with the pure water of (the river) Bhzgirathi that had been obtained by (their) valour, (and) who performed ablutions after the celebration of ten ashvamêdha-sacrifices;-who was the son of Gautamiputra;-
  • (L. 1.)-(And) who was the son of the son of the Mahârâja of the sovereign Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Pravarasêna (I.), who celebrated the agnishtôma, aptôryâma, ukthya, shôdashin, âtirâtra, vâjapêya, brihaspatisava, and sâdyaskra sacrifices and four ashvamêdha-sacrifices, (and) was of the Vishnuvriddha gôtra;-
  • (L. 18.)-The village named Charmânika, on the bank of the river Madhunadi, in the Bhôjakata kingdom, (measured) by eight thousand bhûmis, (or in figures) 8000, according to the royal measure, is, at the request of Kondarâja the son of Satrughnarâja, given to one thousand Brâhmans of various gôtras and charanas.
  • (L. 21.)-Wherefore Our obedient and high-born officers, employed in the office of general superintendents, (and Our) regular soldiers and umbrella-bearers, should be (thus) directed with a command preceded by (the words) ‘O illustrious one’:- Be it known to you, that, in order to increase Our religion and life and strength and victory and dominion, (and) for the sake of (Our) welfare in this world and in the next, (and generally) for Our benefit, this (village) is granted, in (Our) victorious office of justice, as a grant not previously made, with libations of water.
  • (L. 25.)- "Now We grant the fixed usage, such as befits this (village), (and) such as has been approved of by former kings, of a village which belongs to a community of Chaturvêdins; namely, it is not to pay taxes; it is not to be entered by the regular troops or by the umbrella-bearers; it does not carry with it (the right to) cows and bulls in succession of production, or to the abundance of flowers and milk, or to the pasturage, hides, and charcoal, or to the mines for the purchase of salt in a moist state; it is entirely free from (all obligation of) forced labour; it carries with it the hidden treasures and deposits, and the klripta and upaklripta; it is (to be enjoyed) for the same time with the moon and the sun; (and) it is to follow (the succession of) sons and sons' sons. No hindrance should be caused by any one to those who enjoy it. It should be protected and increased by all (possible) means. And whosoever, disregarding this charter, shall give, or cause to be given, even slight vexation, We will inflict on him punishment, together with a fine, when he is denounced by the Brâhmans."
  • (L. 34.)-And in this document, which has at least (the merit of) religion,-in order to avoid boasting of (other) meritorious actions performed (by Us),--We do not recite (Our) care and protection of grants made by various kings who are dead and gone.
  • (L. 36.)-And two verses, sung by Vyâsa, are to be cited as an authority on this point: -Whosoever confiscates land that has been given, whether by himself, or by another, he incurs the guilt of the slayer of a hundred thousand cows! The giver of land enjoys happiness in heaven for sixty thousand years; (but) the confiscator (of a grant), and he who assents (to an act of confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell!
  • (L. 39.)-And this condition of the charter should be maintained by the Brâhmans and by (future) lords; namely (the enjoyment of this grant is to belong to the Brâhmans) for the same time with the moon and the sun, provided that they commit no treason against the kingdom, consisting of seven constituent parts, of (successive) kings; that they are not slayers of Brâhmans, and are not thieves, adulterers, poisoners of kings, &c.; that they do not wage war; (and) that they do no wrong to other villages. But, if they act otherwise, or assent (to such acts), the king will commit no theft in taking the land away.
  • (L. 44.)-And the recipients, appointed for the occasion in this matter, (are):
Ganârya, of the Shâtyâyana (gôtra).
Dêvârya, of the Vâtsya (gôtra).
Kumârasharmârya, of the Bhâradvâja (gôtra). :Guhasharman, of the Pârâsharya (gôtra).
Dêvârya, of the Kashyapa (gôtra);
Mahêshvarârya, (and) Mâtrârya. Rudrârya, of the Kaundinya (gôtra); (and)
Sômârya, (and) Harisharmârya. Kumârasharmârya, of the Bharadvaja (gôtra).
Mâtrisharman, of the Kaundinya (gôtra); (and) :Varasharman, Gôndasharman, (and) Nâgasharman. :Shântisharman, of the Bharadvâja (gôtra); (and) :Rudrasharman, Bhôjakadêvârya, of the Vatsya (gôtra); (and) :Maghasharman, (and) Dêvasharman.
Môkshasharman, of the Bhâradvaja (gôtra); (and)
Nâgasharman, Rêvatisharman, (and) Dharmârya, Sharmârya, of the Bharadvaja (gôtra); (and)
Nandanârya, Mûlasharman, Îshvarasharman, (and) Varasharman.
Skandârya, of the Vatsya (gôtra).
Bappârya, of the Bharadvaja (gôtra); (and) Dharmârya.
Skandârya, of the Âtrêya (gôtra),
Sômasharmârya, of the Gautama (gôtra); (and)
Bhartrisharman, Rudrasharmârya, Maghârya, Mâtrisharmârya, (and) Îshvarasharmârya.
Mâtrisharmârya, of the Gautama (gôtra).
Dêvasharmârya, of the Kaundinya (gôtra); (and)
Varasharmârya, (and) Rôhârya.
Svâmidêvârya, of the Gautama (gôtra); (and)
Rêvatisharmârya, (and) Jyêshthasharmârya.
Kumârasharmârya, of the Shandilya (gôtra); (and) :Svâtisharmârya. (And) Kândârya, of the Shâtyâyana (gôtra); and so forth.
  • (L. 59.)-(This) charter has been written, while Chitravarman is the Sênâpati, in the eighteenth year, (or in figures) 10 (and) 8, on the thirteenth lunar day of the bright fortnight of the month Jyêshtha.
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 240-243.

Notable persons

External links


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