Pravarasena II

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Pravarasena II(c.400 - 415) was a King of Vakataka dynasty.

The Vākāṭakas

The Vākāṭakas, like many coeval dynasties of the Deccan, claimed Buddhist origin. Little is known about Vindhyaśakti (c. 250–270 CE), the founder of the family. Territorial expansion began in the reign of his son Pravarasena I. It is generally believed that the Vākāṭaka dynasty was divided into four branches after Pravarsena I. Two branches are known and two are unknown. The known branches are the Pravarpura-Nandivardhana branch and the Vatsagulma branch. The Gupta emperor Chandragupta II married his daughter into Vakataka royal family and with their support annexed Gujarat from the Saka Satraps in fourth century CE. The Vakataka power was followed by that of the Chalukyas of Badami in Deccan'.

Pravarasena II (c.400 - 415) was the next ruler of whom very little is known except from the Cave XVI inscription of Ajanta, which says that he became exalted by his excellent, powerful and liberal rule. He died after a very short rule and succeeded by his minor son, who was only 8 years old when his father died. Name of this ruler is lost from the Cave XVI inscription.[1]

Pravarasena II composed the Setubandha in Maharashtri Prakrit. A few verses of the Gaha Sattasai are also attributed to him. He shifted the capital from Nandivardhana to Pravarapura, a new city of founded by him. He built a temple dedicated to Rama in his new capital.[2]

The highest number of so far discovered copperplate inscriptions of the Vakataka dynasty (in all 17) pertain to Pravarasena II. He is perhaps the most recorded ruler of ancient India after Ashoka the Great. See: Shreenand L. Bapat, A Second Jamb (Khandvi) Copperplate Grant of Vakataka Ruler Pravarasena II (Shravana Shuddha 13, Regnal Year 21), Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 91, pp. 1–31

Pravarsena II was succeeded by Narendrasena (440-460), under whom the Vakataka influence spread to some central Indian states. Prithvisena II, the last known king of the line, succeeded his father Narendrasena in c.460. After his death in 480, his kingdom was probably annexed by Harishena of the Vatsagulma branch.

Chammak Plates of the Maharaja Pravarasena II 18th year of reign

The Seal.
  • A charter of king Pravarasêna, the ornament of the Vâkâtakas, who has attained royal dignity by, inheritance, (is) a charter for (the observance of even his) enemies!
The Plates.
  • Sight has been attained! Hail! From the town of Pravarapura;
  • (Line 17.)-At the command of the most devout worshipper of (the god) Maheshvara, the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Pravarasêna (II.), who was begotten on Prabhavatigupta, the daughter of the Mahârâjadhirâja, the glorious Devagupta; who, through possessing the favour of (the god) Shambhu, is (as virtuous as) one belonging to the Krita age;-
  • (Line 13.) -(And) who is the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Rudrasêna (II.), who acquired an abundance of good fortune through the favour of the divine (god) Chakrapâni;
  • (L. 9.)-Who was the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Prithivishena, who was an excessively devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; who was endowed with an excess of truthfulness, straightforwardness, tenderness, heroism, prowess, political wisdom, modesty, and high-mindedness, and with devotion to worthy people and guests, and with the condition of being victorious through religion, and with purity of mind, and with other meritorious qualities; who belonged to an uninterrupted succession of sons and sons' sons, whose treasure and means of government had been accumulating for a hundred years; who behaved like Yudhishthira;-
  • (L. 4.)-Who was the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Rudrasêna (I.), who was an excessively devout devotee of (the god) Svâmi-Mahâbhairava; who was the daughter's son of the illustrious Bhavanaga, the Mahârâja of the Bhârashivas, whose royal line owed its origin to the great satisfaction of (the god) Shiva, (caused) by (their) carrying a linga of Shiva placed as a load upon (their) shoulders, (and) who were besprinkled on the forehead with the pure water of (the river) Bhagirathi that had been obtained by (their) valour, (and) who performed ablutions after the celebration of ten ashvamêdha-sacrifices;-who was the son of Gautamiputra;-
  • (L. 1.)-(And) who was the son of the son of the Mahârâja of the sovereign Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Pravarasêna (I.), who celebrated the agnishtôma, aptôryâma, ukthya, shôdashin, âtirâtra, vâjapêya, brihaspatisava, and sâdyaskra sacrifices and four ashvamêdha-sacrifices, (and) was of the Vishnuvriddha gôtra;-
  • (L. 18.)-The village named Charmânika, on the bank of the river Madhunadi, in the Bhôjakata kingdom, (measured) by eight thousand bhûmis, (or in figures) 8000, according to the royal measure, is, at the request of Kondarâja the son of Satrughnarâja, given to one thousand Brâhmans of various gôtras and charanas.
  • (L. 21.)-Wherefore Our obedient and high-born officers, employed in the office of general superintendents, (and Our) regular soldiers and umbrella-bearers, should be (thus) directed with a command preceded by (the words) ‘O illustrious one’:- Be it known to you, that, in order to increase Our religion and life and strength and victory and dominion, (and) for the sake of (Our) welfare in this world and in the next, (and generally) for Our benefit, this (village) is granted, in (Our) victorious office of justice, as a grant not previously made, with libations of water.
  • (L. 25.)- "Now We grant the fixed usage, such as befits this (village), (and) such as has been approved of by former kings, of a village which belongs to a community of Chaturvêdins; namely, it is not to pay taxes; it is not to be entered by the regular troops or by the umbrella-bearers; it does not carry with it (the right to) cows and bulls in succession of production, or to the abundance of flowers and milk, or to the pasturage, hides, and charcoal, or to the mines for the purchase of salt in a moist state; it is entirely free from (all obligation of) forced labour; it carries with it the hidden treasures and deposits, and the klripta and upaklripta; it is (to be enjoyed) for the same time with the moon and the sun; (and) it is to follow (the succession of) sons and sons' sons. No hindrance should be caused by any one to those who enjoy it. It should be protected and increased by all (possible) means. And whosoever, disregarding this charter, shall give, or cause to be given, even slight vexation, We will inflict on him punishment, together with a fine, when he is denounced by the Brâhmans."
  • (L. 34.)-And in this document, which has at least (the merit of) religion,-in order to avoid boasting of (other) meritorious actions performed (by Us),--We do not recite (Our) care and protection of grants made by various kings who are dead and gone.
  • (L. 36.)-And two verses, sung by Vyâsa, are to be cited as an authority on this point: -Whosoever confiscates land that has been given, whether by himself, or by another, he incurs the guilt of the slayer of a hundred thousand cows! The giver of land enjoys happiness in heaven for sixty thousand years; (but) the confiscator (of a grant), and he who assents (to an act of confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell!
  • (L. 39.)-And this condition of the charter should be maintained by the Brâhmans and by (future) lords; namely (the enjoyment of this grant is to belong to the Brâhmans) for the same time with the moon and the sun, provided that they commit no treason against the kingdom, consisting of seven constituent parts, of (successive) kings; that they are not slayers of Brâhmans, and are not thieves, adulterers, poisoners of kings, &c.; that they do not wage war; (and) that they do no wrong to other villages. But, if they act otherwise, or assent (to such acts), the king will commit no theft in taking the land away.
  • (L. 44.)-And the recipients, appointed for the occasion in this matter, (are):
Ganârya, of the Shâtyâyana (gôtra).
Dêvârya, of the Vâtsya (gôtra).
Kumârasharmârya, of the Bhâradvâja (gôtra). :Guhasharman, of the Pârâsharya (gôtra).
Dêvârya, of the Kashyapa (gôtra);
Mahêshvarârya, (and) Mâtrârya. Rudrârya, of the Kaundinya (gôtra); (and)
Sômârya, (and) Harisharmârya. Kumârasharmârya, of the Bharadvaja (gôtra).
Mâtrisharman, of the Kaundinya (gôtra); (and) :Varasharman, Gôndasharman, (and) Nâgasharman. :Shântisharman, of the Bharadvâja (gôtra); (and) :Rudrasharman, Bhôjakadêvârya, of the Vatsya (gôtra); (and) :Maghasharman, (and) Dêvasharman.
Môkshasharman, of the Bhâradvaja (gôtra); (and)
Nâgasharman, Rêvatisharman, (and) Dharmârya, Sharmârya, of the Bharadvaja (gôtra); (and)
Nandanârya, Mûlasharman, Îshvarasharman, (and) Varasharman.
Skandârya, of the Vatsya (gôtra).
Bappârya, of the Bharadvaja (gôtra); (and) Dharmârya.
Skandârya, of the Âtrêya (gôtra),
Sômasharmârya, of the Gautama (gôtra); (and)
Bhartrisharman, Rudrasharmârya, Maghârya, Mâtrisharmârya, (and) Îshvarasharmârya.
Mâtrisharmârya, of the Gautama (gôtra).
Dêvasharmârya, of the Kaundinya (gôtra); (and)
Varasharmârya, (and) Rôhârya.
Svâmidêvârya, of the Gautama (gôtra); (and)
Rêvatisharmârya, (and) Jyêshthasharmârya.
Kumârasharmârya, of the Shandilya (gôtra); (and) :Svâtisharmârya. (And) Kândârya, of the Shâtyâyana (gôtra); and so forth.
  • (L. 59.)-(This) charter has been written, while Chitravarman is the Sênâpati, in the eighteenth year, (or in figures) 10 (and) 8, on the thirteenth lunar day of the bright fortnight of the month Jyêshtha.
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 240-243.

Siwani Copper Plate Inscription of the Maharaja Pravarasena II in 18th year of reign

The Seal.

A charter of king Pravarasêna, the ornament of the Vâkâtakas, who has attained royal dignity by inheritance, (is) a charter for (the observance of even his) enemies.

The Plates.
  • Sight has been attained! Perfection has been attained!-(Line 17.)-At the command of the Mahârâja, the illustrious Pravarasêna (II.), who follows the path of imitating the behaviour of previous kings; who has extirpated all enemies by (his) excellent policy and strength and prowess; who was begotten on Prabhâvatiguptâ, the daughter of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Dêvagupta; who, through possessing the favour of (the god) Shambhu, is (as virtuous as) one belonging to the Krita age; who is the ornament of the lineage of the Vâkâtakas;-
  • (Line 12.)-(And) who is the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Rudrasêna (II.), who acquired an abundance of good fortune through the favour of the divine (god) Chakrapâni;-
  • (L. 8.)-Who was the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Prithivishêna, who was an excessively devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; who was possessed of an excess of truthfulness, straightforwardness, tenderness, heroism, prowess, political wisdom, modesty, and high-mindedness, and with devotion to worthy people and guests, and with the condition of being victorious through religion, and with purity of mind, and with other meritorious qualities; who belonged to an uninterrupted succession of sons and sons’ sons, whose treasure and means of government had been accumulation for a hundred years; who behaved like Yudhisthira;-
  • (L.3.)-Who was the son of the Mahârâja of the Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Rudrasêna (I.), who was an excessively devout devotee of (the god) Svâmi-Mahâbhairava, who was the daughter’s son of the illustrious Bhavanâga, the Mahârâja of the Bhârashivas, whose royal line owed its origin to the great satisfaction of (the god) Shiva, (caused) by (their) carrying a linga of Shiva placed as a load upon (their) shoulders, (and who were besprinkled on the forehead with the pure water of (the river) Bhâgîrathî that had been obtained by (their) valour, (and) who performed ablutions after the celebration of ten ashvamêdha-sacrifices;-who was the son of Gautamiputra;-
  • (L. 1.)-(And) who was the son of the son of the Mahârâja of the sovereign Vâkâtakas, the illustrious Pravarasêna (I.), who celebrated the agnishtôma, aptôryâma, ukthya, shôdashin, âtirâtra, vâjapêya, brihaspatisava, and sâdeyaskra sacrifices, and four ashvamêdha-sacrifices, (and) was of the Vishnuvriddha gotra;-
  • (L. 17.)-In the Bennâkârpara bhâga,-in the eighteenth year of the augmenting reign; on the twelfth lunar day of the bright fortnight of (the month) Phâlguna,-the village named Brahmapûraka,-(which), according to the specification of its boundaries (is) on the bank of the (river) Karañjaviraka, on the north of (the village of) Vatapûraka, on the west of (the village of) Kinihikhêtaka, on the south of (the village of ) Pavarajjavâtaka, (and) on the east of (the village of) Kollapûraka,-is given, with libations of water, together with the korata and the fifty (hamlets?), to the Adhvaryu, the Âchârya Dêvasharman, of the Maudgalya gôtra, (and) of the Taittirîya (shâkhâ).
  • (L. 23.)-In this matter, Our obedient and high-born officers, employed in the office of general superintendents, and (Our) regular soldiers and umbrella-bearers, should be (thus) directed with a command preceded by (the words) ‘O illustrious one:’ - "Be it known to you, that, in order to increase Our own religion and life and strength and victory and dominion, (and) for the sake of (Our) welfare in this world and in the next, (and generally) for Our benefit, this (village) [is granted] in (Our) victorious office of justice.
  • (L.27.)-"It is not to be entered by the regular troops or by the umbrella-bearers; it does not carry with it (the right to) cows and bulls in succession (of production), or to the abundance of flowers and milk, or to the pasturage, hides, and charcoal, or to the mines for the purchase of salt in a moist state; it is entirely free from all (obligation of) forced labour; it carries with it the hidden treasures and deposits, and the klripta and upaklripta; it is (to be enjoyed) for the same time with the moon and the sun; (and) it is to follow (the succession of) sons and sons’ sons. The enjoyment of it should not be obstructed by any one. It should be protected and increased by all ( possible) means. And whosoever, disregarding Our charter, shall give, or cause to be given, even slight vexation, We will inflict on him, or will cause to be inflicted, punishment, together with a fine, when he is denounced by the Brâhmans."
  • (L. 35.)-(This charter) has been written by the Âchârya, while Bâppadêva is the Sênâpati.
  • (L. 35.)-And in this subject-matter of religion,-in order to avoid boasting of (other) meritorious actions performed (by Us),-We do not recite the religious merit acquired by (Our) care and protection of grants made by various kings who are dead and gone. (But), out of respect for those who shall be pre-eminent in times to come, We make a request ( for protection of the grant) to future (kings).
  • (L. 38.)-And two verses, sung by Vyâsa, are to be taken as an authority on this point: -The giver of land enjoys happiness in heaven for sixty thousand years; (but) the confiscator (of a grant), and he who assents (to an act of confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell! Whosoever confiscates land that has been given, whether by himself, or by another, he incurs the guilt of the slayer of a hundred thousand cows!
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 247-249.

Dudia Copper Plate Inscription of the Maharaja Pravarasena II

To add

Tirodi Copper Plate Inscription of the Maharaja Pravarasena II 23rd year of reign

Text
Seal:
1. vākāṭaka-lalāmasya
2. kkra(kra)ma-prāpta-nri(nṛ)paśriyam(yaḥ) [|*]
3. rājña[ḥ*]-pravarasenasya|
4. śāsanaṃ ripuśāsanam [||*]
First plate:
1. dri(dṛ)ṣṭam [|*] Narataṅga-vāristhānā[t*]=agniṣṭom-āptoryyām-okthya-ṣoḍaśy-a[ti]rātra-vājapeya-bṛhaspatisa-
2. va-sādyaskra-caturaśvamedha-yājñaḥ Viṣṇuvṛddha-sagotrasya samrāṭ(jo) Vākāṭakānām-mahārāja-śrī-
3. Pravarasenasya sūnoḥ sūnor-atyanta-svāmi-mahābhairava-bhaktasya | aṃsa-bhāra-sanniveśi-
4. ta-śivaliṅg-odvahana-Śiva-suparituṣṭa-samutpādita-rājavaṃśānāṃ parākram-ādhigata-Bhāgī-
5. ratthyā(tthya)-mala-jala-mūrddhn-ā(tddh-ā)bhiṣiktānā-mmahārāja-śrī-Bhavanāga-dauhitrasya Gautamī-
6. putrasya putrasya Vākāṭakānām-mahārāja-śri(śrī)-Rudrasenasya su(sū)noḥ
Second plate, first side:
7. atyanta-māheśvarasya satyā[rjja]va-kārunya(ṇya) śauryya-vikkrama-naya-vinaya-māhātmya-dhi(dhī)matva(ttva)
8. gata-bhantikva-dharmmavijayitva-manonai-mma(nair-mma)ly-a(ly-ā)di-guṇai[ḥ*] samuditasya varṣa-śatam-abhivarddhamā-
9. na-kośa-daṇḍa-sādhana-santāna-putra-pautriṇaḥ Yudhiṣṭhira-vṛtter-Vvākāṭakānām-mahā-
10. rāja-śrī-Pṛthivisenasya sūno[ḥ*] bhagavataś-cakrapāṇeX prasād-opārjjita-śrī-samudayasya
11. Vākāṭakānām-mahārāja-śrī-Rudrasenasya sūnoḥ mahārāj-ādhirāja-śrī-Devagupta-
12. sutāyāṃ(yā)m-Prabhāvatiguptāyām-utpannasya | Vākāṭakānām-mahā-
Second plate, second side:
13. rāja-śri(śrī)-Pravarasenasya vacanā[t*]| Bennākaṭasya aparapaṭṭe || asmat-santakā-ssarvvāddhyakṣa-niyoga
14. niyuktā ājñā-saṃcāri-kulaputr-ādhikṛtāḥ bhaṭā-cchātrāś-ca vyuṣata-pūrvvamay-ājñāyā jñāpayitavyāḥ [| *]
15. viditamastu vaḥ yath-eh-āsmābhir-ātmano dharmm-āyur-bbalam-aiśvaryya-vivṛdhaye ih-āmutra-hi-
16. tārtthaṃ mātuX=[pu]ṇy-opacay-ārthaṃ Jamalya aparaparśve Varddhamānakasya uttarapārśve
17. Mṛgasimasya pūrvvapārśve Mallaka-pedhakasya dakṣiṇapārśve Kośambakhaṇḍaṅ nāma grāmaḥ
18. Cāddha(Cāṃdra)pura-vastavy-aathervvāṇa Harkkari-sagotra-Varuṇāryyāya trivedāya dattaḥ
Third plate, first side
19. apūvvadatyā udakapūrvvam-atisṛṣṭaḥ [|*] ucitāṃś-c-āsya pūrvvarāj-ānumatā-cā(tāṃ-cā)turvvaidya-grāma-ma-
20. ryyādā-parihārān-vitarāmaḥ stadyathā akaradāyi(yī) abhaṭa-ccha(cchā)tra-prāveśyaḥ apāraṃ-para-go-
21. balī-vardda[ḥ*] apuṣpa-kṣi(kṣī)ra-sandohaḥ acārā-sanacarmm-āṅgāraḥ alavana(ṇa)-kliṇṇa(nna)-kre-
22. ṇi-khanakaḥ sarvva-viṣṭi-parihāra-parihṛtaḥ sanidhiḥ sopanidhi[ḥ*] sakli(klṛ)pt-o-
23. pakli(klṛ)pta ācandr-āditya-kālīyaḥ putra-pautr-ānugāmī bhuñjato na kenacid-vyāghāta
Third Plate, second side.
24. kartavyaḥ sarvvakṛ(kri)y-ābhissaṃrakṣitavyaX-parivarddhayitavyaś-ca || yaś-c-āsmac-chāsanam-agana(ṇa)ya-
25. mānas-svalpām-api paribādhāt-kuryyāt-kārayita vā tasya brāhmaṇair-veditasya sadaṇḍaṃ nigra-
26. haṃ kuryyāma || asmi(smiṃ)ś-ca dharmm-āddhi(dhi)karaṇe atīt-ānekarāja-dattāṃ sañcīntana-pari-
27. pālana(naṃ) kṛta-puṇy-ānukīrttana-parihār-ārthan-na ka(kī)rttayāmaḥ saṃkalpābhid-yo(yo)gaparā-
28. kram-opajitāvva(n-va)rttama(mā)nān-ājñāpayāmaḥ eṣya-tat-kāla-prabhaviṣṇu-gauravā-
Fourth plate:
29. vbha(d-bha)viṣyān-vijñāpayāmaḥ [|*] Vyāsagītaś c-ātra-śloka pramāṇī-karttavyaḥ [|*] svadattām=para-
30. dattāvvā(ttāṃ vā) yo hareta vasundharāḥ(rām)[|] gavān-śata-sahasrasya | hantur=harati duṣkritaṃ |
31. sāvvatsare trayovītśe | māgha-bahula-pakṣe dvādaśyā[m*]| ājñā-
32. syayaṃ[svayam] [|*] rājyādhikṛtana(tena) Navamidāsena likhitam-iti |
Tirodi Copper Plate Inscription of the Maharaja Pravarasena II[3]

Tirodi copper plates

The Tiroḍī copper plates are an epigraphic record of the Vākāṭaka dynasty, documenting a land donation to a brāhmaṇa in the reign king Pravarasena II in the fifth century CE. They were acquired by T. A. Wellsted at Tirodi in District Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Publication: The Tiroḍī copper-plate charter was read and published by V. V. Mirashi in 1963.[4]

The original plates are the Central Museum, Nagpur. An inked impression on paper is in the British Museum.[5]

Description and Contents

The Tiroḍī copper-plate charter consists of a series of copper plates with a seal. The text of the inscription is Sanskrit throughout. The object of the inscription is to record the grant, by Pravarasena II, of the village Kosambakhaṇḍa to a person named Varuṇārya of the Harkari gotra. He belonged to the Atharvaveda and was master of the three Vedas. The grant is dated on the twelfth day of the dark half of the month of Māgha during the 23rd year of donor's reign. The charter was written by Navamidāsa who is styled rajyādhikṛta or state officer.

Translation

Seal. A charter of king Pravarasêna, the ornament of the Vâkâtakas, who has attained royal dignity by, inheritance, (is) a charter for (the observance of even his) enemies!

To be added

Devagupta identified with Chandragupta II

The importance of the present grant lies in this that it placed for the first time the Vàkâtaka genealogy (viz. the Chammak, Siwani and Dudia plates of Pravarasena II) Prabhavatigupta was described as the daughter of Mahàrâjàdhiràja Devagupta. Fleet identified this Devagupta with the homonymous king of the Later Gupta dynasty, mentioned in the Deo-Barnark pillar inscription and thus relegated the Vâkâtakas to the eighth century A D. His opinion was accepted by Kielhorn and Sukhtankar. The present inscription, which states clearly that Prabhâvati was the daughter of the Early Gupta king Chandragupta II, proved unmistakably, for the first time, that she lived in the last quarter of the fourth century A D. It has since been shown that Dêvagupta was a favourite name of Chandragupta II and so it finds a mention in Vâkâtaka grants.

External links

References


Back to Inscriptions

  1. Nashik district e-gazetteer - History, ancient period
  2. Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007) Ancient India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, p.589
  3. V. V. Mirashi, Inscriptions of the Vākāṭakas, CII 5 (Ootacamund, 1963)
  4. V. V. Mirashi, Inscriptions of the Vākāṭakas, CII 5 (Ootacamund, 1963), available online at http://www.archive.org/details/corpusinscriptio014677mbp. Further comments on the charter were published by Ajay Mitra Shastri, Vākāṭakas: Sources and History, pp. 27-8.
  5. British Museum Database