Maurya

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Maurya (मौर्य)[1] [2] Mori (मोरी)[3] [4] Mahori (महोरी)[5] Mauri (मौरी) is gotra of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh[6] and in Rajasthan[7].Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [8] They were supporters of Saroya Confederacy. [9]

Origin

Dhundiraja, the 18th century A D commentator on the Text of Puranas takes Chandragupta Maurya to be the son of Mura who was one of the wives of king Nanda [Chandraguptam Nandasyaiva patanyasya Mura-samjanasya putram Mauryanam prathamam].

Prof. Radha Kumud Mukerji, the author of Chandragupta Maurya and His times, comments on this statement as follows:

“Heavens save us from commentators who supplement texts by facts of their own creation! The commentator here makes the astounding statement that Chandragupta was a son of the Nanda king against the silence of all the Puranas on the subject. Such a fact completely militates against the context of the references which the Puranas make to Chandragupta…. It may be noted that if there is any sort of connexion between a preceeding and succeeding dynasty, the Puranas as a rule do not omit to mention it.” He goes on to add that it “is nothing but a pure and simple invention of the commentator to explain grammatically the formation Maurya from Mura. But he is as innocent of grammar as of any concern for truth. It is impossible to derive by any grammar Maurya as a direct formation from Mura. The derivative from Mura is Maureya. The term Maurya can be derived only from the masculine Mura which is mentioned as the name of a gotra in a Ganapatha to Panini’s Sutra [IV.1,151]. It is strange that the derivation of the term has not been traced by this track.”[10]


Another view about their origin is that they originated from Raja Maan Maurya (मान मौर्य).

In Puranas

As per Vayu Purana the Mauryan dynasty founded by Chandragupta at Patliputra in Ancient India consisted of the following rulers:

"Upon the cessation of the race of Nanda, the Mauryas will possess the earth, the Kautilya will place Chandragupta pm the throne: his sone will be Vindusarara, his son will be Asokavarddhana, his son will be Suyaas, his son will be Dasratha; his son will be Sangata' his son will be Salisuka; his son will be Somasarmman; his son will be Sasadharman; and his successor will be Vrihadratha. These are the ten Mauryas; who will reign over the earth for a hundred thirty-seven years...The dynasty of the Sungas will next become possessed of the sovereignty; for Pushpamitra, the general of the last Maurya Prince, will put his master to death." [11]

History

Ram Sarup Joon[12] writes quoting Todd that Chittor, then known as Jattor was the capital of Mori branch of Takshaks. Gehlot Jats later occupied it.

Mori or Maurya is one of Thirty-Five branches of the Pramaras. [13]


Jahajpur and Kumbhalgarh areas in Mewar region in Rajasthan were ruled by Mauryas. Samprati Maurya, grandson of Ashoka, was ruler of Rajasthan . Samprati constructed many forts in Rajasthan. Famous fort is that of Kumbhalgarh. On ruins of this fort Maharana Kumbha constructed present historical fort. Samprati constructed a fort in Jahajpur also. Samprati Maurya was a follower of Jainism. There are ruins of ancient Jaina temples in Jahajpur. [14][15]

Many branches of Mauryas ruled in Rajasthan. Mauryas defeated Yaudheyas in Shekhawati region who moved to northern parts of Bikaner such as Sindharani, Maroth etc, where they lived for a long period. The Maurya samantas of Prithviraj were Bhima Maurya, Saran Maurya, Madalrai Maurya and Mukundrai Maurya. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.137)

A mountain named Maura near Jhunjhunu town in Rajasthan is in their memory. [16]

Col. Tod considered that Maurya is a corruption of Mori tribe. The Tika on Mahvamsa builds a fancied resemblance of the word to Mayura, S Mori, Pr. 'a Peacock'. There being abundance of pea fowl in the place whee the Sakya tribe built a town, they called it Mori, and these princes were thence called Mauryas. [17]

A fragmentary inscription from Mathura c.7th/8th century related with Yasovarman of Kanauj introduces three Maurya rulers viz Candergupta, Aryaraja and Karka Dindiraja. Karka Dindiraja Maurya is also said to have lead a successful expedition against Kanauj. [18]

Mori clan is a branch of Yaudheyas.

The ancient inscriptions in the Pali Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan of the race of Taxak or Tak, relating to the tribe Mori and Parmara are their descendants. Taxak Mori was the lord of Chittor from very early period. [19][20]

The Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD), destroyed by Yashodharman, was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. The Taxak Mori as being lords of Chittor from very early period and few generations after the Guhilots supplanted the Moris, this palladium of Hindu liberty was assailed by the arms of Islam. (725-35) we find amongst the numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event as its chieftain was one of the most conspicuous leaders in the array of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir." [21]

James Tod[22] writes that The warriors assembled under Visaladeva Chauhan against the Islam invader included the ruler of Mori. The Mori and Bargujar also joined with the Catchwahas of Anterved.

Hukum Singh on Mauryas

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) states:[23] We do not possess any sorting criteria of the Mauryas either and are, thus consequently handicapped in determining their race. It is surprising that even Chanakya, the Justus Judex of Chandra Gupta, did not throw any light on this aspect of the Mauryas except calling Chandragupta Vrishala, (bull among kings or bull among men) at times out of affection126". Scholars, by and large, hold that Vrihala denotes "a low man or a Sudra", Although Lexicographers have given this meaning in the native lexicons, yet it has not been me, with in any published text127. The Mura anecdotes with which the Mauryas are connected by vested interests seem to be invented in 18th century, A.D. after Dhundi Raja stated that Mura was the daughter of a Sudra128. Monier-Williams129, informs that it was also the name of Chandragupta (Maurya). In the Mudrakshasa Vrishala was used in the sense of bull or ox or horse among kings, the best of kings or men13O. Without being led astray by the poetic imagination of the dramatist, we can safely conclude that Chandragupta Maurya, as his epithet indicates, must be a tall hefty and healthy man, strong as an ox or a horse.

Certain phrases pertaining to Chandragupta Maurya in the said Drama, tempt us to form some idea of the physique and form of the Maurya Emperor. He is described as Moon-like Maurya, "Moon faced Maurya131 "with limbs tenaciously resilient132, "strong shoulders to bear the Yoke"133 (of royalty, "borne by his elders)"134 "mettle-some like a young bull" 135 "with lotus like feet, (rendered pink by the radiant rubies in the diadems of rulers, tremulously bending in obeisance136 "(to Vrishala, Chandragupta Maurya). All these references to the personality of the Maurya king that he was undoubtedly a handsome Kshatriya of fair complexion and not a Shudra as described by the interested element. Moreover, to all intents and purposes it sounds quite inconceivable that Chanakya might have ever thought of replacing a Shudra by another Shudra as the empire builder137. All this leads us


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of p.138


to the surmise that Chandragupta was, in reality, a high class Kshatriyas of the Morya clan of Pippalivana i.e. of More town in the Patna district of Bihar138. In the eyes of the Brahmans the Mauryas were Vrisala, (i.e. heretics) which in the Course of time changed its significance to Shudra139.

Recently, new light has been thrown on the origin of Chandragupta Maurya. Dr. H.R. Gupta informs that Chandragupta Maurya originally belonged to Koh-e-Mor, 250 km. north of Peshawar commanding the Swat valley beyond the Malkand pass, wherefrom after freeing Panjab from the Greeks, he shifted his parents to Panjab hills, designated his father Sarmor i.e. head of the More tribe and the hill state was later on known as Sarmour after this designationl40. Buddhist literature tells us that, after the demise of Lord Buddha, Virudhaka, the king of Kosala, attacked the Buddhists and massacred them, and that many of them fled to the north-western hills to escape his wrath141. However, there is every, possibility that the Mauryas, as they were connected with the Sakyas of Kapilvastu142, who were from Solar race of Aryans143, had followed them to the west144. It is significant that we find Moryas in Bihar and Mores in Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan even today. Grammatically Moriya/Maurya can be easily derived from Mor/More but never from Mura.

Since Chandragupta (More) became famous as the founder Emperor of Maurya/Moriya dynasty at Patliputra, their descendents were called Moriya in Bihar etc., whereas they retained the original gotra as More in the west. Bappa Rawal, the traditional founder of Rajput clans, displaced the Mauryas in Rajasthan to set up his own rule. Petty Mauryan chiefs were known as far south as Goa down to 10th century A.D. and they survived in Mores in Marathas down to 17th century, (Chadrarav More) and Kiran More now confirm it145.

It is extremely interesting to note that Mores are also found in the Jats and like the Dharan Jats they also traditionally assert with an air of pride that their forefathers had been the first emperors of India in the historica1 past.


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of p.139

Ram Sarup Joon on Mauryas

Ram Sarup Joon[24] writes that .... There are numerous legends about the Maurya dynasty, as Ashoka of this dynasty was an ardent follower of Buddhism, Brahmin writers have, in the Puranas, called it a Shudra dynasty. It has, however, been established that Maurya was an old dynasty ruling in the Northern Hills. King Padmananda of the Nanda Dynasty failed in his efforts to conquer this State. Ultimately, his wily minister Shaktar succeeded where Padmananda had failed. As a result of a clever conspiracy the whole ruling family was killed except one pregnant queen who escaped and started living in Magadha as a beggar. One night she delivered a boy and put him in a garbage heap in front of a potter's house. When the potter's wife heard the child's cry, she came out and saw that the boy was handsome as a moon. She took him in her care and named him Gupta Chandra i.e. hidden moon. His mother resolved to reign the Mauryan kingdom one day. She got a job as a maid in the palace so that she could remain in touch with the affairs of the State, She, also kept an eye on her son who displayed signs of greatness.

The Sheshnaga rulers who earlier had their capital at Rajgiri, shifted to Patliputra on the confluence of Rivers Ganga and Sone. The ambitions Nanda killed their last ruler and annexed the State. Nanda also conquered the Kaushal kingdom.

At this stage Nanda grew suspicious of his minister Shaktar, son of Viktar. After accusing him of some fictitious offense he got him imprisoned in a dry well.

One day King Nanda happened to laugh. The maid who was attending on him also laughed. The king, considering her action impertinent, sentenced her to death. He however agreed to pardon her if she


History of the Jats, End of Page-52


could tell why he had laughed. At night she went to the dry well and gave food and water to the starving Shaktar. He was grateful and on hearing of her problem, gave her the correct answer. She repeated it to the king the next morning. The king was surprised and asked her how she found the right answer. She told the truth. The king was impressed and ordered Shaktar to be released and reinstated. Shaktar, however, never forgave him and started plotting his destruction.

Vishnu Gupta, well known as Chanakya or Kautilya was educated at the University of Taxila. He was learned but ugly. One day a shoot of spear grass pricked his foot. He said aloud that he would destroy the grass. Shaktar who happened to be passing by told him not to worry, as he would get it destroyed. By royal servants. The two became friends after that.

Once Chanakya had gone to a feast given to Brahmins by Nanda on his father's death anniversary. Nanda could not stand Chanakya's ugliness and got him thrown out. Thus Chanakya was harboring a grudge against Nanda. He started looking for some one whom he could train to be capable of destroying Nanda. One day he spotted Chandra Gupta holding a mock-up court of a group of shepherds. He asked him some questions and was impressed by his intelligent answers. Chanakya took Chandra Gupta in his care and trained him so well that with the connivance of Shaktar he became Nanda's C-in-C. He became very popular. Unfortunately the conspiracy leaked out and Chandra Gupta and Chanakya were banished from the country. They migrated to Punjab. At the time of Alexander's invasion they managed to get a number of small states to get together and marshaled a sizable army under the command of Chandra Gupta. He defeated Alexander's General Seleucus who gave him his daughter Helen in marriage and retired to Greece. Chandra Gupta became the ruler of most of the Punjab with Chanakya as his Prime Minister. Chandra Gupta conquered Magadha thus fulfilling Chanakya's long cherished aim of destroying Nanda. Chandra Gupta's son Bindusara was killed in 272 BC. He is not well known in history.

Mor, Maurya, Maurana are Jat gotras of very old standing. Hence the rule of this dynasty has been given a high place in history of Jats.

इतिहास

मौर्य-मौर जाटों का राज्य खोतनतुर्किस्तान के क्षेत्रों पर था तथा यूनान, यूरोपइंग्लैंड में भी इनका निवास था।[25]

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Mori Khap has five villages in Agra district in Uttar Pradesh.[26]

See also

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-44
  2. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.56,s.n. 2098
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-42
  4. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.56,s.n. 2098
  5. Jat Varna Mimansa (1910) by Pandit Amichandra Sharma,p. 57
  6. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ-586
  7. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,p.695
  8. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihas
  9. Jat Varna Mimansa (1910) by Pandit Amichandra Sharma,p. 57
  10. Radha Kumud Mukerji, Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, pp.9-10
  11. H H Wilson, Tr. Vishnu Purana, pp. 375-376
  12. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 31
  13. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.111
  14. Rajputana Gazetteer 1880, p.52
  15. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p. 361
  16. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p.274
  17. quoted by H H Wilson, op.cit., p. 375 f.n.21
  18. E I, Vol. XXXII, pp. 207-212
  19. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p.126
  20. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.171
  21. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.148
  22. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II,Annals of Haravati,p.414-416
  23. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/An Historico-Somatometrical study bearing on the origin of the Jats, pp.138-139
  24. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 52-53
  25. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p. 341
  26. Jat Bandhu, Agra, April 1991

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