|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Tippera (टिपारा) was a princely state in India during the period of the British Raj and for some two years after the departure of the British.The princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Tripura.
- Tipara (टिपारा) (बंगाल) दे. तारातंत्र (AS, p.379)
- Tripura त्रिपुरा = Tipara टिपारा (AS,p.416)
Its rulers belonged to the Manikya dynasty and until August 1947 the state was in a subsidiary alliance, from which it was released by the Indian Independence Act 1947. The state acceded to the newly-independent Indian Union on 13 August 1947, and subsequently merged into the Indian Union in October 1949.
The predecessor state of Tripura was founded about 100 AD. According to legend the Manikya dynasty derived its name from a jewel ('Mani' in Sanskrit) that had been obtained from a frog. The first king who ruled the state under the royal title of Manikya was Maharaja Maha Manikya who ascended the throne in 1400. The Rajmala, a chronicle of the Kings of Tripura, was written in Bengali verse in the 15th century under Dharma Manikya I. The kingdom of Tripura reached its maximum expansion in the 16th century.
In 1764, when the British East India Company took control of Bengal, the parts of Bengal that had been under the Mughal Empire were taken over by the British administration. In 1809 Tripura became a British protectorate and in 1838 the Rajas of Tripura were recognised by the British as sovereigns. Between 1826 and 1862 the eastern part was subject to the ravages caused by Kuki invaders that plundered and destroyed villages and massacred their inhabitants.
There were troubles in every succession among the Tripura royal family members when the aspiring princes often resorted to use the services of the Kukis to cause disturbances. Thus in 1904 the British enacted a sanad that regulated permanently the succession of the royal family. Thenceforward the succession would have to be recognised by the Viceroy of India representing the British Crown.
Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the foundation of the Agartala Municipal Corporation. In 1905 Tripura became part of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam and was designated as 'Hill Tippera'. In addition to the Hill Tippera area, which corresponds to Tripura State, the kings retained a fertile estate known as Chakla Roshnabad with an area of 1476 km², located in the flatland of Noakhali, Sylhet and Tipperah districts; the latter is now mostly included in the Comilla District of Bangladesh.
King Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma died in May 1947, shortly before the Indian Independence. His son Kirit Bikram Kishore was a minor at that time, and, so, the Maharani Kanchan Prava Devi presided over the Council of Regency formed to govern the state. On 13 August 1947, the Maharani signed the Instrument of Accession, joining the Indian Union. There was turmoil in the state in the succeeding months and several changes in the administrative structure took place in quick succession. Finally, on 9 September 1949, the Maharani signed the Merger Agreement with Indian Union, which became effective on 15 October, and Tripura became a Centrally administered Part C State (Chief Commissioner's Province) of India.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...टिपारा (AS, p.379) बंगाल के ऐतिहासिक स्थानों में से एक है। इसका प्राचीन नाम 'त्रिपुरा' था। प्राचीन काल में इसकी स्थिति कामरूप में मानी जाती थी। (दे. तारातंत्र)
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...कोमला (AS, p.138) वायु पुराण 2,37,369 में वर्णित नगर संभवत वर्तमान कोमिल्ला (बांगलादेश) छठी सदी ई. में यहां टिपारा प्रदेश की राजधानी थी. यह युवानच्वांग का कियामोलोंगकिया है. इसका एक अन्य नाम कमलांक भी है.
Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's march towards south: kings and tribes defeated. Tripura (त्रिपुर) Kingdom is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.38). ....And having brought king Nila under his sway thus, the victorious son of Madri (Sahadeva) then went further towards the south. The long-armed hero then brought the king of Tripura (त्रिपुर) of immeasurable energy (Amitauja) (अमितौजस) under his sway.
Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 83 describes the array of the Kauravas army against the Pandavas. Tripura (त्रिपुर) King is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.83.9). .... Next to Drona was the valiant Bhagadatta. Behind Bhagadatta was Vrihadvala the king of the Kosalas accompanied by the Mekalas, the Tripuras, and the Chichhilas.
- Hill Tippera – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 13, p. 118.
- Tripura – Brief History
- Nag, Sajal (2007), Making of the Indian Union: Merger of princely states and excluded areas, Akansha Pub. House, p. 321, ISBN 978-81-8370-110-5
- Das, J. K. (2001), Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples, APH Publishing, pp. 224–225, ISBN 978-81-7648-243-1
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.379
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.236
- परतिगृह्य च तां पूजां करे च विनिवेश्य तम, माथ्री सुतस ततः प्रायाद विजयी दक्षिणां दिशम (II.28.37) त्रैपुरं स वशे कृत्वा राजानम अमितौजसम, निजग्राह महाबाहुस तरसा पॊतनेश्वरम (II.28.38)
- पराग्ज्यॊतिषाथ अनु नृपः कौसल्यॊ ऽद बृहथ्बलः, मेकलैस त्रैपुरैश चैव चिच्छिलैश च समन्वितः (VI.83.9)