Pandava

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Pandava (पाण्डव) Pandav (पण्डव)[1][2] is gotra of Jats.

Origin

This gotra originated from Pandu. Pandav Tittle is used also by Tomar Gotra .Tomar is kshatriya of Pandav-clan, descendant of Arjuna [3]

Distribution

Pandava gotra Jats are found in Gujranwala district in Punjab. [4]

The Pandava Family

According to James Todd[5]The origin of every family, whether of east or west, is involved in fable. That of the Pandu is entitled to as much credence as the birth of Romulus, or other founders of a race. Pandu not being blessed with progeny, his queen made use of a charm by which she enticed the deities from their spheres. To Dharma Raj (Minos) she bore Yudhishthira ; by Pavan (Aeolus) she had Bhima ; by Indra (Jupiter Coelus) she had Arjuna, who was taught by his sire the use of the bow, so fatal in the Great War ; and Nakula and Sahadeva owed their birth to Aswini Kumar (Aesculapius) the physician of the gods.

Such traditions were probably invented to cover some great disgrace in the Pandu family, and have relation to the story already related of Vyasa, and the debasement of this branch of the Harikulas. Accordingly, on the death of Pandu, Duryodhana, nephew of Pandu (son of Dhritarashtra, who from blindness could not inherit), asserted their illegitimacy before the assembled kin at Hastinapura. With the aid, however, of the priesthood, and the blind Dhritarashtra, his nephew, Yudhishthira, elder son of Pandu, was invested by him with the seal of royalty, in the capital, Hastinapura.

Duryodhana's plots against the Pandu and his partisans were


[p. 59]: so numerous that the five brothers determined to leave for a while their ancestral abodes on the Ganges. They sought shelter in foreign countries about the Indus, and were first protected by Drupada, king of Panchala, at whose capital, Kampilanagara, the surrounding princes had arrived as suitors for the hand of his daughter, Draupadi. Drupada was of the Aswa race, being descended from Bajaswa (or Hyaswa) of the line of Ajamidha. But the prize was destined for the exiled Pandu, and the skill of Arjuna in archery obtained him the fair, who " threw round his neck the (barmala) garland of marriage."

The disappointed princes indulged their resentment against the exile ; but by Arjuna's bow they suffered the fate of Penelope's suitors, and the Pandu brought home his bride, who became the wife in common of the five brothers : manners decisively Scythic. The manners of the Scythae described by Herodotus are found still to exist among their descendants : "a pair of slippers at the wife's door " is a signal well understood by all Eimauk husbands (Elphinstone's Caubul, vol. ii. p. 251).

The deeds of the brothers abroad were bruited in Hastinapura and the blind Dhritarashtra's influence effected their recall. To stop, however, their intestine feuds, he partitioned the Pandu sovereignty ; and while his son, Duryodhana, retained Hastinapura, Yudhishthira founded the new capital of Indraprastha ; but shortly after the Mahabharata he abdicated in favour of his grand- nephew, Parikshita, introducing a new era, called after himself, which existed for eleven hundred years, when it was overturned, and Indraprastha was conquered by Vikramaditya Tuar of Ujjain, of the same race, who established an era of his own.

On the division of the Pandu sovereignty, the new kingdom of Indraprastha eclipsed that of Hastinapura. The brothers reduced to obedience the surrounding nations, and compelled their princes to sign tributary engagements {paenama).

Yudhishthira, firmly seated on his throne, determined to


[p.60]: signalize his reign and paramount sovereignty, by the imposing and solemn rites of Asvamedha and Rajasuya.

The Asvamedha. — In these magnificent ceremonies, in which princes alone officiate, every duty, down to that of porter, is performed by royalty.

The ' Steed of Sacrifice ' was liberated under Arjuna's care, having wandered whither he listed for twelve months ; and none daring to accept this challenge of supremacy, he was reconducted to Indraprastha, where, in the meanwhile, the hall of sacrifice was prepared, and all the princes of the land were summoned to attend.

The hearts of the Kurus burned with envy at the assumption of supremacy by the Pandus, for the Prince of Hastinapura's office was to serve out the sacred food. Duryodhana, as the elder branch, retained his title as head of the Kurus ; while the junior, Yudhishthira, on the separation of authority, adopted his father's name, Pandu, as the patronymic of his new dynasty. The site of the great conflict (or Mahabharata) between these rival clans, is called Kurukshetra, or ' Field of the Kurus.'

The rivalry between the races burst forth afresh ; but Duryodhana, who so often failed in his schemes against the safety of his antagonists, determined to make the virtue of Yudhishthira the instrument of his success. He availed himself of the national propensity for play, in which the Rajput continues to preserve his Scythic resemblance. Herodotus describes the ruinous passion for play amongst the Scythic hordes, and which may have been carried west by Odin into Scandinavia and Germany. Tacitus tells us that the Germans, like the Pandus, staked even personal liberty, and were sold as slaves by the winner [Germania, 24]. Yudhishthira fell into the snare prepared for him. He lost his kingdom, his wife, and even his personal liberty and that of his brothers, for twelve years, and became an exile from the plains of the Yamuna.

The traditional history of these wanderers during the term of probation, their many lurking places now sacred, the return to their ancestral abodes, and the grand battle (Mahabharata) which ensued, form highly interesting episodes in the legends of Hindu antiquity.

To decide this civil strife, every tribe and chief of fame, from the Caucasus to the ocean, assembled on Kurukshetra, the field


[p. 61]: on which the empire of India has since more than once been contested and lost. On it the last Hindu monarch, Prithwiraja, lost his kingdom, his liberty, and life.

This combat was fatal to the dominant influence of the " fifty-six tribes of Yadu." On each of its eighteen days' combat, myriads were slain ; for " the father knew not the son, nor the disciple his preceptor."

Victory brought no happiness to Yudhishthira. The slaughter of his friends disgusted him with the world, and he determined to withdraw from it ; previously performing, at Hastinapura, funeral rites for Duryodhana (slain by the hands of Bhima), whose ambition and bad faith had originated this exterminating war. " Having regained his kingdom, he proclaimed a new era, and placing on the throne of Indraprastha, Parikshita, grandson to Arjuna, retired to Dwarka with Krishna and Baldeva : and since the war to the period of writing, 4636 years have elapsed.(Rajatarangini. The period of writing was A.D. 1740).

Yudhishthira, Baldeva, and Krishna, having retired with the wreck of this ill-fated struggle to Dwarka, the two former had soon to lament the death of Krishna, slain by one of the aboriginal tribes of Bhils ; against whom, from their shattered condition, they were unable to contend. After this event, Yudhishthira, with [51] Baldeva and a few followers, entirely withdrew from India, and emigrating northwards, by Sind, to the Himalayan mountains, are there abandoned by Hindu traditional history, and are supposed to have perished in the snows.

Having ventured to surmise analogies between the Hercules of the east and west, I shall carry them a point further. Amidst the snows of Caucasus, Hindu legend abandons the Harikulas, under their leaders Yudhishthira and Baldeva : yet if Alexander established his altars in Panchala, amongst the sons of Puru and the Harikulas, what physical impossibility exists that a colony of them, under Yudhishthira and Baldeva, eight centuries anterior, should have penetrated to Greece ? Comparatively far advanced in science and arms, the conquest would have been easy. When Alexander attacked the ' free cities ' of Panchala, the Purus and Harikulas who opposed him evinced the recollections of their ancestor, in carrying the figure of Hercules as their standard. Comparison proves a common origin to Hindu and Grecian mythology ; and Plato says the Greeks had theirs from Egypt and the East. May not this colony of the Harikulas be the Herachdae, who penetrated into the Peloponnesus (according to Volney) 1078 years before Christ, sufficiently near our calculated period of the Great War ? The Herachdae claimed from Atreus : the Harikulas claim from Atri. Eurysthenes was</small>

The Genealogy of Pandavas

History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha is mentioned in Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 90:

Abstract of Genealogy: DakshaAditiVivaswatManuIlaPururavasAyusNahushaYayati → 1. Yadu, 2. Turvasu, 3. Druhyu, 4. Anu, 5. Puru

Puru (wife: Kausalya) → Janamejaya (w:Ananta) → Prachinwat (w:Asmaki) → Sanyati (w:Varangi d/o Drishadwata) → Ahampati (w:Bhanumati, d/o Kritavirya) → Sarvabhauma (w:Sunanda d/o Kekaya) → Jayatsena (w: Susrava) → Arachina (w:Maryada) → Arihan (w:Angi (?)) → Mahabhauma (w: Suyajna d/o Prasenajit) → Ayutanayi (w:KamaAkrodhana, (w:Karambha d/o Kalinga) → Devatithi (w: Maryada d/o Videha) → Richa (w:Sudeva d/o Anga) → Riksha (w:Jwala d/o Takshaka) → Matinara (w: Saraswati) → Tansu (w:Kalingi) → Ilina (w:Rathantari) → Dushmanta(w:Sakuntala) → BharataBharata (w: Sunanda d/o Sarvasena of KasiBhumanyu (w:Vijaya d/o Dasarha) → Suhotra (w:Suvarna d/o Ikshvaku) → Hasti (w:Yashodhara d/o Trigarta, who founded Hastinapura) → Vikunthana (w: Sudeva d/o Dasarha) → Ajamidha (w:Kaikeyi, Gandhari, Vimala and Riksha) → Samvarana (w:Tapati d/o Vivaswat) → Kuru (w: Subhangi d/o Dasarha) → Viduratha (w: Sanpriya d/o Madhavas) → Anaswan (w:Amrita (?) d/o Madhavas) → Parikshit (w: Suvasa d/o Vahudas) → Bhimasena (w:Sukumari d/o Kekaya) → ParyasravasPratipa (w:Sunanda d/o Sivi) → Santanu (w: Ganga) → Devavrata (=Bhishma) (w:Satyavati=Gandhakali) → SantanuChitrangada (slain) + Vichitravirya (w:Amvika and Amvalika) → Dhritarashtra, Pandu, and Vidura

Dhritarashtra (w:Gandhari) → 100 sons (Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Vikarna, Chitrasena...)

Pandu (w:Kunti=Pritha) → 1.Yudhishthira 2.Bhima 3. Arjuna

Pandu (w:Madri) → 4.Nakula and 5. Sahadeva

YudhishthiraPrativindhya + Yaudheya (from wife Devika d/o Govasana of the Saibya tribe)

BhimaSutasoma + Sarvaga from wife (Baladhara d/o the king of Kashi) + Ghatotkacha (w:Hidimba)

ArjunaSrutakriti + Abhimanyu (from Subhadra of Dwaravati)

NakulaSatanika + Niramitra (from wife Karenumati of Chedi)

SahadevaSrutakarman + Suhotra (from wife Vijaya d/o of Dyutimat of Madra)

Abhimanyu (w:Uttara d/o Virata) → Parikshit (MadravatiJanamejaya (w:Vapushtama) → Satanika (and Sankukarna) → Aswamedhadatta

Countries subjugated by Pandavas

Arjuna's Conquests - Arjuna was sent to North by Yudhisthira to subjugate kingdoms for the Rajasuya Yagya, after crowning as the Emperor of Indraprastha.Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 24 & Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 25 tell us countries Arjuna subjugated. The list includes:

Abhisari (town) (अभिसारी), Balhikas (बाह्लीक), Chitrayudha (चित्रायुध) Chola (चॊला), Daradas (दरद), Darvas (दार्व), Gandharvas (गन्धर्व), Guhyakas (गुह्यक), Harivarsha (हरिवर्ष), Hataka (हाटक), Hivavant (हिमवन्त), Kambojas (काम्बॊज), Kashmira (काश्मीर), Kirita (किरीटी), Kokonadas (कॊकनद), Kuluta (कुलूतान), Limpurushas (), Lohas (लॊह), Lohita (लॊहित), Manasa (मानस), Modapura (मॊदापुर), Nishkuta (निष्कुट), Northern Ulukas (?), Pragjyotisha (प्राग्ज्यॊतिष), Rishikas (ऋषिक), Sakraprastha (city) () Senabindu (सेनाबिन्दु), Shakyapura (शक्यपुर) Singhapura (town) (सिंहपुर), Sudaman (सुदामा), Suhma (सुह्म), Sumala (), Susankula (सुसंकुलम), Taraka (तारक), Trigartas (त्रिगर्त), Uraga (उरग), Utsava-Sanketa (उत्सव संकेत), Uttara (उत्तर), Vamadeva (वामदेव),


Bhima's Conquests - Bhima was sent out to the East, since Bhishma thought the easterners were skilled in fighting from the backs of elephants and in fighting with bare arms, he deemed Bhima to be the most ideal person to wage wars in that region. The Mahabharata mentions several kingdoms to the east of Indraprastha which were conquered by Bhima. According to Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 26 & Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 27 Bhimasena subjugated the countries including:

Panchalas (पाञ्चाल), Gandakis (गण्डकी), Videhas (विदेह), Dasharnas (दशार्ण), Rochamana (रॊचमान) (K.Aswamedha) (अशवमेध), Pulinda city (पुलिन्द), Chedi (चेदि), Shrenimat (श्रेणिमन्त) (K.Kumara) (कुमार) , Vrihadvala (बृहद्बल) (K.Kosala) (कॊसल), Dirghapragya (दीर्घप्रज्ञ) (K.Ayodhya) (अयॊध्या), Gopalakachchha (गॊपालकच्छ), Mallas (मल्ल), Bhallata (), Suktimanta (), Suvahu (Kasi) (), Kratha (), Suparshva (सुपार्श्व), Matsya (मत्स्य), Malayas (मलय), Pashubhumi (पशुभूमि), Madarvika (मदर्वीक), Madahara (), Mahidhara (महीधर), Somadheya (?), Vatsabhumi (वत्सभूमि), Bhargas (भर्गा), Nishada (निषाद), Bhumipala (भूमिपाल), Manimat (मणिमत), Dakshina Malla (दक्षिणमल्ल), Bhagavanta (भॊगवन्त), Sharmakas (शर्मक), Varmakas (वर्मक), Videhas (विदेह), Kiratas (किरात), Suhmas (सुह्म), Prachyasuhmas (पराच्य सुह्म), Magadha (मगध), Sakas (?), Danda (दण्ड), Dandadhara (दण्डधार), Girivraja (गिरिव्रज) son of Jarasandha (जारासंध), Kansa (), Modagiri (मॊदागिरि), Mahaujasa (महौजस)(K.Kausika-Kachchha) (कौशिकी कच्छ), Vanga (वङ्ग), Samudrasena (समुद्रसेनं), Chandrasena (चन्द्रसेन), Tamralipta (ताम्रलिप्त), Karvata (), Suhmas (सुह्म), Lohitya (लौहित्य), Vasu (वसु), Mlechchhas (मलेच्छ),


Sahadeva's Conquests: Sahadeva was sent to South by Yudhisthira to subjugate kingdoms for the Rajasuya sacrifice, after crowning as the Emperor of Indraprastha. Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 tells us that He was specifically chosen for the south because of his expertise with the sword, and because Bhishma opined that Southerners are skilled with sword-fighting in general. The Mahabharata mentions several kingdoms to the south of Indraprastha which were conquered by Sahadeva. Some of them are as under:

Surasenas (शूरसेन), Matsyas (मत्स्य), Nishadas (निषाद), Goshringa (गॊशृङ्गं), Shrenimat (श्रेणिमन्त), Navarashtra (नवराष्ट्र), Kuntibhoja (कुन्तिभॊज), Charmanwati (चर्मण्वती), countries that lay on the banks of the Narmada,Avanti (अवन्ति), Bhojakata (भॊज), Bhismaka (), Kosala (), Natakeyas (), Heramvaks (), Marudha (), Munjagrama (), Nachinas (), Arvukas (), Vatadhipa (), Pulindas (), Nakula then subjugated Pandrya (), Kishkindhya (), Vanaras (), Sahadeva fights with Nila (), Pauravas (), Saurashtra (), Bhojakata (भॊजकट), Shurparaka (शूर्पारक), Talakata (), Dandakas (दण्डक), Tripura (), Nishadas (), Karnapravarnas (), Kalamukhas (), Kollagiri (कॊल्लगिरि) (Cole mountains), Surabhipatna (), Tamrahavaya (ताम्राह्वय) Copper island, Ramaka (रामक), Timingila (तिमिङ्गिल), Kerakas (), Sanjayanti (संजयन्ती), [[Pichchhandas (पिच्छण्ड), Karahatakas (करहाटक), Pandyas (पाण्ड्य), Dravidas (दरविद), Udra (उद्र), Keralas (केरल), Andhras (अन्ध्र), Talavanas (तलवन), Kalingas (कलिङ्ग), Ushtrakarnikas (ओष्ट्रकर्णिक), Antakhi (अन्ताखी), Roma (रॊम), Yavanas (यवन)


[[Nakula's conquests: Nakula set out from Khandavaprastha for the west. Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 29 mentions that Ydhisthitra after crowning as the emperor of Indraprasha sent Nakula to west to subjugate kingdoms for the Rajasuya sacrifice. He, with a huge army set forth to the kingdom once dominated by Vasudeva. He first attacked the prosperous mountainous country of Rohitaka. It is said that Nakula needed ten-thousand camels to bring the entire wealth to Indraprastha. Nakula subjugated the following countries:

Rohitaka (रॊहीतक), Mattamyurakas (मत्तमयूरक), Sairishaka (शैरीषक), Mahetta (महेच्छ), Akrosa (?), Dasarnas (?), Shibis (शिबी), Trigartas (त्रिगर्त), Ambashtas (अम्बष्ठ), Malavas (मालव), Panchakarpata (पञ्च कर्पट) five tribes of the Karnatas ?, Madhyamakeyas (मध्यमिकाय), Vatadhanas (वाटधान), Utsava Sanketas (उत्सव संकेत), Gramaniya (गरामणेय), Shudras (शूद्रा), Abhiras (अभीर), Amara (?), Uttarajyotika (उत्तरज्यॊतिक), Divyakutta (city) (?), Vrindataka city (वृण्डाटक पुरम) Dwarapala (द्वारपाल), Ramathas (रमठ), Harahunas (हारहूण), Pratichya (प्रतीच्य) Sakala (Madra city) (शाकल), Mlechchas (मलेच्छ), Palhavas (पह्लवा), Barbara (बर्बर), Kiratas (), Yavanas (), Sakas ().

पांडवों का दिग्विजय

युधिष्ठिर का राजसूय यज्ञ प्रारंभ होने वाला था. राजसूय यज्ञ करने से पहले यह जरुरी था कि सारे राजा युधिष्ठिर का आधिपत्य स्वीकार कर ले. जरासंध पहले हीं भीम के हांथों मारा जा चुका था. दिग्विजय के लिए सहदेव, नकुल, अर्जुन और भीम चारो दिशाओं में निकले.

नकुल पश्चिम दिशा में गया तथा रोहितक, मत्त्मयुर, मरुभूमि, शैरिशक, महेत्त, आक्रोश, दशार्ण, शिवी, त्रिगर्त, अम्बष्ठ, मालव, पंच्कर्पट, माध्यमक, वाटधान, द्विज, पुष्कर, गंधर्व, सिन्धु, शूद्र, अभीर, पंचनद, अमर पर्वत, ज्योतिष, दिव्यकर, समाध, हार, हूण विजित करता हुआ द्वारका पहुंचा जहाँ श्रीकृष्ण ने स्नेह पूर्वक युधिष्ठिर का आधिपत्य स्वीकार किया. इसके बाद नकुल मद्रदेश पहुंचा जहाँ उसके मामा शल्य ने उसका स्वागत किया. उसके बाद वो पल्हव, बर्बर, किरात, यवन तथा शकराज पर अधिकार करता हुआ वापस इन्द्रप्रस्थ पहुंचा.

सहदेव दक्षिण में मथुरा, मतास्यदेश, अधिराज, सुकुमार, सुमित्र, मत्स्य, पटचचार, निशादभूमि, गोसृंग पर्वत, श्रेनिमान, नार्राष्ट्र, कुन्तिभोज, उज्जैन, नाटकीय, हेराम्बक, मरुध, भुज्ग्राम, अबुर्द, वात, पुलिंद, पंड्या, कृष्किन्धा, महिष्मति, त्रिपुर, पौरेश्वर, सुराष्ट्र, भोजकट (रुक्मी), भीष्मक, शुर्पारक, तालाकट, दंडक, निषाद, पुरुषाद, कर्नप्रवार्ण, कालमुख, कोल्लाचल, सुरभिपत्तम, तम्र्द्वीप, रामपर्वत, तिमी, केरल, जयंती, पंषद, कर्हतक, पंड्या, द्रविड़, उन्द, आन्ध्र, तालवन, कलिंग, उष्ट्कर्निक, आर्विपुरी, यवन तथा लंका को जीतता हुआ इन्द्रप्रस्थ पहुंचा.

अर्जुन उत्तर दिशा की ओर गया और उसने अनार्त, कालकूट, कुलिंद, सुमंडल, शकाल्द्वीप, प्रतिविन्द्य पर्वत को जीत लिया. उसके बाद वो प्रागज्योतिषपुर पहुंचा जहाँ महाराज भगदत्त के साथ उसका भीषण युद्घ हुआ. अंत में अर्जुन की वीरता से प्रसन्न होकर भगदत्त सहमत हो गए. फिर वो उलूक, ब्रिहंत, सेनाविंदु, मोदापुर, वामदेव, सुदामा, सुसंकुल, पंचगन, पुख, म्लेच्छ, कश्मीर, लोहित, त्रिगर्त, दारू, कोकनद, अभिसारी, उराभ, बाह्लीक, दरद, कम्बोज, ऋषिक, चित्रकूट, धवलगिरी, किम्प्रुवार्ष, हाटक, मानसरोवर और हरिवर्ष पर अधिकार कर हस्तिनापुर लौटा.

भीमसेन पूर्व दिशा की ओर निकला तथा उन्होंने दशार्न्देश, अश्वमेघ, पुलिन्द्नगर, प्राच्य को सहज ही जीत लिया. आगे बढ़कर उन्होंने चेदिदेश पर आक्रमण किया जहाँ उनका शिशुपाल से घोर युद्घ हुआ. अंत में शिशुपाल हो परस्त कर वो आगे बढा और कुमार्देश, कोसल, मल्लदेश, जलोद्देश, कशी, सुपर्ष, राजेश्वर, क्रथ, मतस्य, मलदेश, वसुभूमि, मदधर, सोम्धेय, वत्स्देश, भार्ग्देश, निषाद, मनिमान, दक्शिन्मल्ल, भोग्वान पर्वत, शर्मक, वाकर्मक, मिथिला, किरात, सुहाय, प्रसुह्य, दंड, दण्डधर, गिरिव्रज, मोदचल, पौन्द्रक, कौशिक, वंगदेश, चंद्रसेन, कर्वाता, ताम्र्लिप्त, म्लेच्छ, और लौहित्य पर अधिकार कर वापस इन्द्रप्रस्थ लौटा.

Reference

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. प-11
  2. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.48, s.n. 1503
  3. Mahendra Singh Arya & others: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 262
  4. किशोरी लाल फौजदार: "महाभारत कालीन जाट वंश", जाट समाज, आगरा, जुलाई 1995, पृ 7
  5. James Todd Annals/Chapter 5 The dynasties which succeeded Rama and Krishna,pp.58-61

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