Tus

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Tus (Hindi: तूस, Persian: طوس‎‎ Tus or Tuws) is an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran near Mashhad. To the ancient Greeks, it was known as Susia (Ancient Greek: Σούσια). It was captured by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE. It was also known as Tusa.[1] The most revered Persian poet Ferdowsi was born into a family of Iranian landowners (dehqans) in 940 in the village of Paj, near the city of Tus, in the Khorasan region of the Samanid Empire, which is located in the present-day Razavi Khorasan Province of northeastern Iran.[2]

Variants on name

Jat clan

History

Tus was taken by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik and remained under Umayyad control until 747, when a subordinate of Abu Muslim Khorasani defeated the Umayyad governor during the Abbasid Revolution.[3]

In 809, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid fell ill and died in Tus, on his way to solve the unrest in Khorasan.[4] His grave is located in the region.[4]

Tus was almost entirely destroyed by the Mongol conquests between 1220 and 1259.

Jat people in Shāhnāma

According to Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery, Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma ("The epic of kings") [5], the national epic of Persia (modern Iran), by Hakīm Abul-Qāsim Firdawsī Tūsī (Persian: حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی‎ ), more commonly transliterated as Firdowsi (935–1020), the most revered Persian poet. The Shāhnāma tells the mythical and historical past of Iran from the creation of the world up until the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century. The Shâhnameh recounts the history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law) to the Aryans and ends with the Arab conquest of Persia. The scene that has been drawn by Firdowsi in his Shahnama is in the legend of Rostam and Sohrab. Sohrab was in search of Rostam, his father. Both, the father and son had heard the heroic deeds of each other, but none of them wanted to disclose his identification. Sohrab while being in search of his father leads his army to the White Castle (Dazh-e-Safid) in Iran. Hujir, guardian of the castle, sees the army come and goes to meet them. Sohrab asked Hujir about the heroes and war champions of Iran as under:[6], [7], [8]

English version

"I would ask all
About the king, the rebellions and the troops
All the renowned ones of that region
Such as Tus, Kaous and Gudarz
The knights and the valliants of the country of Iran
Like, Gostahm[9] and praiseworthy Giv[10]
About Bahram,[11] and the renowned Rostam[12]
I ask you about every Jat, you count them for me" [13]

Notable persons

  • al-Ghazali: The most famous person who has emerged from that area was the theologian, jurist, philosopher and mystic al-Ghazali.
  • Ferdowsi: Another is the poet Ferdowsi, author of the Persian epic Shahnameh, whose mausoleum, built in 1934 in time for the millennium of his birth, dominates the town.
  • Jābir ibn Hayyān - Other notable residents of Tus, the early polymath

See also

References

  1. Keall, E., M. Roaf, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 952108 (Tusa/Sousia)". Pleiades. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  2. Davis, Dick (2006). Introduction. Shahnameh: the Persian book of kings. By Ferdowsi, Abolqasem. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03485-1. p. xviii
  3. Tus, V. Minorsky, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. X, ed. P.J. Bearman, T. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs, (Brill, 2000), 741.
  4. The Court of the Caliphs by Hugh N Kennedy (ISBN 0 297 83000 7)
  5. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052
  6. Farhang-e-Namha-ye-Shah Nama, compiled by Dr Mansur Rastgar Fasayi, Published by Moassea-e-Motaleat o Thqiqat-e-Farhangi, Tehran 1370 AH/1991 AD, pages 1090-1094
  7. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. Page 36-37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052.
  8. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery of Delhi university under the title "The Jat in Shah Nama of Firdowsi" is based on the Persian text of Shah Nama by Abdul Qasim bin Ishaq bin Sharaf Shah Firdowsi Tusi, published by Mohammad Ramazani, Mossisa-e-khavar, Tehran 1310 A.H./1931 AD. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery has given English Version as well as Persian versions in his article.
  9. Gostahm :One of the Commanders of Iranian army, and belonged to the royal family
  10. Another war champion of Iranian army
  11. Another war champion of Iranian army
  12. Rostam:The main character of Shahnama of Firdowsi
  13. Dr S.M. Yunus Jaffery:"The Jat in Shah Nama of Firdowsi", The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol. I, 2004. P. 37, Ed. by Dr Vir Singh, Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052, ISBN 81-88629-17-0.

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