Daodpotra

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Daodpotra or Daodputra/Daudputra or Daudpota was state of Daod Khan.

Origin

The Bhatti territory bordering the Garah was taken by Daod Khan, an Afgan chieftain from Shikarpur, and it became the nucleus of a state called after himself Daodpotra. [1]

History

H. W. Bellew [2] writes that Dadikai, or those of the Dadi stock, by the Dadika (obsolete) or Dadi, found among the sections of several Afghan tribes about the Bolan, and by the Dadu-putra or Daudputra of Bahawalpur.

H. W. Bellew [3] writes that We have next to notice those found in the country of the Dadikai of Herodotus, the Hindi Dadiki, or "Dadi tribes," the existing Dadi.

The Dadi are not now found in Afghanistan as a separate territorial tribe by that name; but Dadi sections are found in


[Page-129]: many of the Pathan tribes along the Indus frontier, and on the other side of that river, beyond the area of our inquiry, the Daudputra of Bahawalpur represent the ancient Dadikai in a Musalman disguise. The ancient Dadikai country, of which the capital is now probably represented by the town of Dadar, near the entrance to the Bolan Pass from the side of India, may be defined as bounded on the north by the Khojak Amran and the Vihova ranges ; on the south by the Mula Pass to Khozdar ; on the east by the Indus ; on the west by the Kharan country, including Nushki and Shorawak. In the area thus marked off is included the district of Sibi, the ancient Siwisthan.

Daudputra, Bahawalpur State

James Tod[4] writes that This petty State, though beyond the pale of Hinduism, yet being but a recent formation


[p.1301]: out of the Bhatti State of Jaisalmer, is strictly within the limits of Marusthali. Little is known regarding the family who founded it, and we shall therefore confine ourselves to this point, which is not adverted to by Mr. Elphinstone, who may be consulted for the interesting description of its prince, and his capital, Bahawalpur, during the halt of the embassy to Kabul. Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, 2nd ed. (1842) i. 22 ff. For a full account of the Abbasi Daudputras of Bahawalpur see the State Gazetteer by Malik Muhammad Din (1908), i. 47 ff.)-]

Daud Khan, the founder of Daudputra, was a native of Shikarpur, west of the Indus, where he acquired too much power for a subject, and consequently drew upon himself the arms of his sovereign of Kandahar. Unable to cope with them, he abandoned his native place, passed his family and effects across the Indus, and followed them into the desert. The royal forces pursued, and coming up with him at Sutiala, Daud had no alternative but to surrender, or destroy the families who impeded his flight or defence. He acted the Rajput, and faced his foes ; who, appalled at this desperate act, deemed it unwise to attack him, and retreated. Daud Khan, with his adherents, then settled in the kachhi, or flats of Sind, and gradually extended his authority into the thal. He was succeeded by Mubarik Khan ; he, by his nephew Bahawal Khan, whose son is Sadik Muhammad Khan, the present lord of Bahawalpur or Daudputra, a name applied both to the country and to its possessors, " the children of David."

The succession runs: Bahawal Khan II. (a.d. 1772-1809); Sadik Muhammad Khan (1809-25) ; Muhammad Bahawal Khan III. (1825-52) ; Sadik Muhammad Khan II. (1853-58) ; Muhammad Bahawal Khan IV. (1858-66) ; Sadik Muhammad Khan III., a minor, installed in 1879.

It was Mubarik who deprived the Bhattis of the district called Khadal, so often mentioned in the Annals of Jaisalmer, and whose chief town is Derawar, founded by Rawal Deoraj in the eighth century ; and where the successor of Daud established his abode. Derawar was at that time inhabited by a branch of the Bhattis, broken off at a very early period, its chief holding the title of Rawal, and whose family since their expulsion have resided at Ghariala, belonging to Bikaner, on [325] an allowance of five rupees a day, granted by the conqueror. The capital of the " sons of David " was removed to the south bank of the Gara by Bahawal Khan (who gave it his name), to the site of an old


[1302]: Bhatti city, whose name I could not learn. About thirty years ago[5] an army from Kandahar invaded Daudputra, invested and took Derawar, and compelled Bahawal Khan to seek protection with the Bhattis at Bikampur. A negotiation for its restoration took place, and he once more pledged his submission to the Abdali king, and having sent his son Mubarik Khan as a hostage and guarantee for the liquidation of the imposition, the army withdrew. Mubarik continued three years at Kabul, and was at length restored to liberty and made Khan of Bahawalpur, on attempting which he was imprisoned by his father, and confined in the fortress of Khangarh, where he remained nearly until Bahawal Khan's death. A short time previous to this, the principal chiefs of Daudputra, namely, Badera Khairani, chief of Mozgarh, Khudabakhsh of Traihara, Ikhtiyar Khan of Garhi, and Haji Khan of Uchh, released Mubarik Khan from Khangarh and they had reached Murara, when tidings arrived of the death of Bahawal Khan. He continued his route to the capital ; but Nasir Khan, son of Alam Khan, Gurgecha (Baloch), having formerly injured him and dreading punishment, had him assassinated, and placed his brother, the present chief, Sadik Muhammad, on the masnad : who immediately shut up his nephews, the sons of Mubarik, together with his younger brothers, in the fortress of Derawar. They escaped, raised a force of Rajputs and Purbias, and seized upon Derawar ; but Sadik escaladed it, the Purbias made no defence , and both his brothers and one nephew were slain. The. other nephew got over the wall, but was seized by a neighbouring chief, surrendered, and slain ; and it is conjectured the whole was a plot of Sadik Khan to afford a pretext for their death. Nasir Khan, by whose instigation he obtained the masnad, was also put to death, being too powerful for a subject. But the Khairani lords have always been plotting against their liege ; an instance of which has been given in the Annals of Bikaner, when Traihara and Mozgarh were confiscated, and the chiefs sent to the castle of Khangarh, the State prison of Daudputra. Garhi still belongs to Abdulla, son of Haji Khan, but no territory is annexed to it. Sadik Muhammad has not the reputation of his father, whom Bijai Singh, of Marwar, used to style his brother. The Daudputras are much at variance amongst each other, and detested by the Bhattis, from whom they have hitherto


[p.1303]: exacted a tribute to abstain from plunder. The fear of Kandahar no longer exists at Bahawalpur, whose chief is on good terms with his neighbour of Upper Sind, though he is often alarmed by the threats of Ranjit Singh of Lahore, who asserts supremacy- over " the children of David."

Duddee Rulers of Rahim Yar Khan

Duddees Influence - In 1540, Duddees (Daudpota Family of Pakistan) a well-known tribe rose to considerable power in the eastern part of Bahawalpur. Amir Bahadur Khan Abbasi, the chief of Daudpota then came to power him and his descendants wielded small principalities of Bahawalpur State into a united kingdom. Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan I, Abbasi who came to power in 1702 was an able commander and leader. Throughout his reign he had to fight many battles against Kalhoras. He abdicated in 1723 A.D., in favor of his son Sadiq Mohammad Khan I. Sadiq Mohammad Khan I (1723-1746) was killed in a battle with Khuda Yar Khan Kalhora. Amir Mohammad Bahawal Khan I, (1 746-1 949) ascended the throne in 1746. During his short rule, he built the towns of Bahawalpur, Qaimpur, Hasilpur, Tranda Ali Murad Khan, Shahbazpur and Mohammadpur Laman.

On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan III. Sadiq Mohammad Khan III, (1852-1853) was crowned as Amir. On assuming ruler ship he confined prince Haji Khan and his brothers and treated them harshly. A large number of Bahawalpur army was demobilized. All the grants, rights and claims of Daudpotas and other usual expenses were diminished and abolished. These events made the Amir unpopular. On the 29th of Rabi-ul-Sani, 1269 A.H, Fateh Garh Fort was attacked at night. Prince Haji Khan, who was kept as prisoner, was freed and brought to Khanpur. Haji Khan entered Ahmedpur East without any resistance and Sadiq Muhammad Khan III was imprisoned. Prince Haji Khan who assumed the title of Fateh Khan ruled the state from 1853 to 1858 A.D. Prince Rahim Yar Khan succeeded his father, the late Amir Fateh Khan Abbasi, as Muhammad Bahawal Khan IV (1858-1866). He was poisoned and died on the 25th March. I866. On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan IV, Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV was crowned when he was four and half year old. He was installed in 1879 when he attained maturity In the interim period from 1866 to 1879. The state was supervised by British Officers. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, the next successor was about I6 years of age at the time of his father's death in 1907. Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan Abbasi V (I 907-1955), was proclaimed Amir of Bahawalpur on the death of his father in 1907. He was then a child of three years old. He ruled the state till 1955 when it was integrated in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Bhatti Chief Akhi Sing ruled forty years. During this reign, Bahwal Khan, son of Daod Khan, took Deorawul and all the tract of Khadal, the first Bhatti conquest, and added it to his new state of Bahawalpur, or Daodpotra. [6]

References

  1. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.239
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.63
  3. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.128-129
  4. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume III, Sketch of the Indian Desert,pp. 1300-1303
  5. 1 This memorandum was written, I think, in 1811 or 1812.
  6. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.240