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Bikaner Fort
Map of Bikaner district

Bikaner (बिकानेर) is a famous historical place and headquarters of the district in Rajasthan.



James Todd[1] mentions that Bikaner was land of Nehra Jat. Rao Bika made it his capital in 1489. The Nehra Jat had put a condition that he would give land for the capital of Rathores only if his surname appears in the name of the town being founded. Hence the name, Bika + Naira= Bikaner.

Beeka founded his capital, Bikaner, on the 15th Baisakh, S. 1545 (A.D. 1489), thirty years after his departure from the parental roof at Mandor. [2]

Ancient History

V. S. Agrawala[3] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālva (शाल्व) (IV.2.135). It was confined to limited geographical horizon in the central and north eastern Punjab. Shalva may coincide with the territory extending from Alwar to north Bikaner. Salvas were ancient people who migrated from west through Baluchistan and Sindh where they left traces in the form of Śālvakāgiri, the present Hala mountain, and then advancing towards north Sauvira and along the Saraswati and finally settled in north Rajasthan.

Ram Sarup Joon[4] writes that ....Samudra Gupta conquered the whole of Punjab and a major part of India. The clans defeated by him included Yaudheya whose rule included Bikaner and Bahawalpur.

Antiquity of the tract

Antiquity of the tract: Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner [5] tells that the area now comprising the district of Bikaner formed a part of the erstwhile princely State of Bikaner, which was founded by Rao Bika, a Rathor prince, in the fifteenth century A.D. The antiquity of the tract is, however, much older and a reference about it is available in the Mahabharata. For sometime the area remained the cradle of the migrant Yaudheyas. When the Rathors appeared on the scene, the territory was inhabited by various Jat clans. For about half-a-millennium the descendants of Rao Bika ruled over this region with Bikaner town as the seat of their Government.

Pre-History: Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner[6] tell us.... The Great Indian Desert (also called Thar) of which Bikaner district forms a part, is believed to have been the bed of a sea, in the pre-historic periods termed by geologists as Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene. No date can be assigned as to when it was converted into a dry land. It is surmised that it happened probably sometime in the upper Tertiary. Many centuries after the marsh had completely dried up, some vegetation began to spring up resulting in clusters of shrubs and trees. Many more years rolled by before some habitation was possible in this region, but when and how it happened is not known. The spread of desert in this region is ascribed to comparatively a much later period of history, between 4000 to 1000 B.C. Local tradition regards the holy tank at Kolayat as old as the creation itself.

The early hymns of Rigveda make a frequent mention of three rivers of the Vedic age; namely, Sarasvati, Drishadvati and Shatadru. Of these Sarasvati was a river par-excellence (Naditama) , the banks of which reverberated with the chants of Vedic hymns sung during the performance of many a Yajms. The location of the river is mentioned in between1 Sutlej and Yamuna and it is identified with modern Ghaggar. It constituted, in the Vedic age, a large river-system, wherein flowed Drishadvati (now identified with , Chitang) and Shatadru (modern Sutlej) which rolled on into the ocean. This sacred river, along with its tributaries flowed into the northern part of the erstwhile Bikaner State, which during those days was a fertile valley. In course of time this river-system dried up and the dried up bed is clearly traceable in a westerly direction in Bikaner division till it reaches Hanumangarh which was known as Bhatner.

The valley of Sarasvati and the Drishadvati is very rich in archaeological finds, which are of great chronological and cultural value.

These finds show us glimpses of several millennia of Indian history right from the Harappa period (c. 2300 B.c. to 1750 B.c. as per radio- carbon dates) to comparatively recent times.

1. Banerjee N.R., The Iron Age in India, Delhi {1965), pp. 14,96,223,233,240.

[p.20]: Dr. L.P. Tessitory, who had explored the dried up bed of Hakra (recognised as ancient Sarasvati) in 1917-1919, found that the mounds, known locally ther or theri were bare of all vegetation and covered with pieces of broken pottery. He regarded them as Buddhist funeral places of the ancient Yaudheya tribe. Very interesting relics and even complete block of red-burnt clay were detached by Dr. Tessitory from house walls in the villages of Badopal and Rangmahal. He considered these terracotta sculptures as an off-shoot of the Buddhist art of Gandhara. But later explorations, done by Sir Aurel Stein in the year 1941, in the dried up bed of Hakra, have brought to light a number of pre-historic sites in the region of the erstwhile Bikaner State and particularly, the erstwhile Bahawalpur State1 now in Pakistan. Sir Stein is of the view that the area was the seat of a great civilisation now shrouded in mystery, due to its burial under the sand. Sir Stein and Ghosh had found numerous mounds strewn with pot-sherds, large and well-built bricks and actual remains of kilns.

Archaeologically these pottery remains, dug out in the region can be assigned to at least three stages2 of civilisation due to their variety and vividness. The first type of pottery is identical with, or similar to that found at Harappa and Mohanjodaro, and is often painted.

The second type is a grey-ware painted with black designs and belongs to a later period. The third type is painted black-on-red. All these types were not found at a single site, but lay scattered under different theris. As far as we are concerned all these cultures flourished out side the present limits of the district; but the fact 'that the remains of Harappa culture and later Vedic culture were found side by side in this valley suggests the possibility that the two cultures might have come in close contact in this region.

In 1946, Herman Goetz made further studies of the mounds in the region and opined, “it seems much more probable that they are the last remnants of crude mud-houses and forts such as are constructed in this part of India upto the present day. When abandoned or destroyed they slowly disintegrated into these mounds, a process which can be observed even now in the ruins of Hanumangarh (Bhatner)”.3

1. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. 1, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.. London (1957), p. 73.

2. Bulletin of the National Institute of Sciences of India, September 1952, p.47.

3. Goetz Herman, The An and Architecture of Bikaner State, Oxford (1950), p. 25.

[p.21]: Dr. Goetz holds that these remains cannot be ascribed to that of Mohanjodaro canon, but to a later type developed from it.

The weight of opinions, favouring ascribing these remains to post-Harappan period ranging between circa 1500 b.c. to 600 b.c, is greater. The painted grey ware occurring in this region, has helped the archeologists in ascertaining the chronology of similar remains found at other places of excavations like Hastinapur, Ujjain and Kosambi (Kosam village near Allahabad). From this similarity it is assumed that this type of ware is associated with the Aryans!, the black and red ware is thought to be of Dravidian origins. Dr. Banerjee1 is of the opinion that “the users of the de-luxe painted grey ware ceramic, who have been provisionally identified with the Aryans and who imbibed and adapted several other ceramic traditions then extant in the country, including a plain variety of the wide spread black and red ware, were responsible for the introduction of the Iron Age in India about 1000 b.c. in the northern plains, and may have transmitted it by degrees to south India as well as through the megalithic folks2 little later”.

These archaeological finds and the cultural history of the region leads us to assume that in the hoary past the people inhabiting this district were perhaps not dissimilar in their ways of life to their neighbours at the border.

Ancient History: In the Mahabharata there are frequent references to Kuru Jangalah and Madreya Jangalah. We may infer, from the old geographical references that Bikaner district formed part of Jangal territory. Unfortunately nothing much has been mentioned in the Mahabharata about the civilisation extant in this region. Nothing is known whether it came under the suzerainty of the various imperial powers that followed namely, the Mauryas, The Greeks, the Kushanas, the Guptas, or the Pratiharas. We give below brief account of some of the tribes that seem to have held sway over this territory in the remote past.

1. Banerjee N.R.. op. cit., p. 14.

2. Subba Rao B., Personality of India 1958, pp. 117-125.

3. Banerjee N.R., op. cit, p. 233.


The Yaudheyas : The untamable and warlike people known as the Yaudheyas are described in the Ashtadhyayi of Panini as ayudh-jivi-Kshatriyas or depending upon arms for their livelihood. The heart of the Yaudheya territory may have been the eastern Punjab, but they dominated over the adjoining tracts of the Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.1 If they can be identified with the Johiyas who inhabited the Johiyawar territory, then it is probable that the northern portion of the erstwhile Bikaner State remained under their rule.

The Gurjara-Pratiharas: It is held by several scholars that the Gurjaras first settled in the Punjab and then moved to northern portion of the Bikaner State and at last settled in Marwar. There they founded the Pratihara dynasty.2 It cannot be ascertained, in the absence of further researches, as to how long they lived or stayed in this region but it is certain that they acquired and consolidated a vast kingdom.

The Chahamanas and the Bhatis: The Pratiharas were followed by Chahamanas (Chauhans), who settled themselves in a more promising part of the territory, east of the Thar desert. They founded their kingdom around Shakambhari (Sambhar). In the meantime, behind the Chahamanas were advancing Bhatis, another tribe in the Thar desert, from the north-west of the territory of the erstwhile Bikaner State.3 They were defeated by the Pratihara King Siluka. They founded the kingdom of Derawar, the capital of which was shifted to Lodorva and ultimately, to Jaisalmer. This new kingdom was much larger than the erstwhile Jaisalmer State and extended4 from Bhatner (Hanumangarh in Ganganagar district now) and Bhatinda up to the vicinity of Gujarat.

Medieval Period: Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner[7] tells us....Until the second half of the 10th century Jangaldesha formed5 a neglected frontier province of the empire of Kannauj. The later Pratihara rulers were not strong enough to look after such a poor country. About 973 a.d. Vigraharaja Chauhan II threw off the

1. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. II, Bombay (1960), p. 166.

2. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. III, Bombay (1962), pp. 61-65.

3. Goetz Herman, op. c//., p. 28.

4. ibid., p. 29.

5. ibid , pp. 30-31.

[p.23]: suzerainty of the last Pratiharas. In the meantime the kingdom of Ghazni was founded and its rulers followed the aggressive policy of, the Umayyads and early Abbasids, of encroaching on the “infidel lands”. Thus the Thar desert became a theatre of war from time to time. May be that it remained a neutral zone through which trade between India and West passed, because several old trade routes lay in this area of the desert. Besides this, the armies or bands of tribes also passed through this way.

We know now that due to the important routes lying through this area, many types of people came, stayed and passed through this region. Some of them might have established themselves here. After the advent of the Pratihara dynasty, many new principalities emerged. Different Rajput clans came into prominence viz. Chalukyas (Solankis), Chahamanas (Chauhans), Parmars, Kachhawahas and others. But it cannot be ascertained as to who ruled in this part of the territory during those days. Towns and villages sprang up studded with temples, artificial lakes were constructed in the desert areas to convert it into an oasis. They fortified their hill ridges to safeguard their hearth and home.

Jat republics

Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner[8] tells us.... The different tribes who inhabited the territory occupied by the erstwhile Bikaner State during medieval ages were the Jats, Johiyas, Bhatis, Mohils, Sankhalas etc. They lived as semi-autonomous tribes especially the Jats, who formed the seven different clans amongst themselves (1) Punia, (2) Godara, (3) Saran, (4) Kaswa, (5) Beniwal, (6) Sihag, and (7) Sohua, but Tod enumerates only six Jat clans i.e , Punia, Godara, Saran, Asiagh, Beniwal and Johiya though this last clan is by some termed a ramification of the Yadu-Bhati Rajputs.

They formed cantons and each canton bore the name of the comrhunity or clan, and was further divided into districts. These people led pastoral life, their wealth being their cattle, and they used to quarrel among themselves.

The Chauhans probably had this area or a portion of it under their sway during their heyday which is evident from the stone-inscriptions engraved on several cenotaphs. Some coins of the Chauhans have also been found and G.H. Ojha1 records that he had discovered a copper coin of Ajayadeva Chauhan in the vicinity of Hanumangarh (then Bhatner, now in Ganganagar district) and on this basis, it can only be assumed that the Chauhans had some kind of influence in this area.

1. Ojha, G.H., The History of Rajjputana, Vol. V, Part I, Ajmer (1939). p. 70.

[p.24]: Mohils- Towards the south-east and east of the Bikaner district were settled in those days, the Rajputs known as Mohils and the area inhabited by them was called Mohilvati. These Mohils have been regarded as one of the branches of the Chauhans.1 Their leader was called a Rana. This has been recorded by Nensi in his Khyata. Later, these Ranas of Mohilvati had developed a feud with the Rathors of Jodhpur. Rao Jodha (the founder of Jodhpur) had attacked and killed Ajit Singh (Mohil). Many battles were fought and the Mohils were rendered weak due to these battles and other internecine feuds. Weak Mohils were attacked by the Jodhpur army and their territory within the Jodhpur boundary sacked and confiscated. But the Mohils did not sit idle. They approached Sultan Bahlol Lodi and with the aid and co-operation of the Muslim General, Saranga Khan, they regained their lost possessions from the Rathors of Jodhpur.2

Another important Rajput clan which was inhabiting this tract, was the Sankhla (Paraniara). They were occupying a portion around Janglu before the advent of Rao Bika (son of Rao Jodha and the founder of Bikaner). The area to the west and north-west of the erstwhile Bikaner State was under the possession of the Bhatis who had the strong principality of Pugal. with whom later on, Bika had to enter into a blood-relationship. Bika had to contend against all these tribes in order to establish himself on a permanent footing.

The dynastic history of the rulers of the erstwhile Bikaner State begins with the heroic exploits of Rao Bika, son of Rao Jodha, the ruler of Marwar. He was born3 in 1438 a.d. Rao Jodha had seventeen sons born of six Ranis. An interesting talc is told of how Rao Bika founded a kingdom and perpetuated his name for ever. It is said that Rao Bika one day entered the durbar late and took his seat beside his uncle, Rao Kandhal with whom he started talking in whispers. Seeing this, Rao Jodha jestingly asked, “what was this secret talk between the uncle and the nephew-were they considering conquering new territory ?” Kandhal took it as a challenge and replied that this would also be accomplished with his blessings. It so happened

1 . Ojha, G.H., The History of Rajputanp. Vol. V, Part I, Ajmer (1939), p. 70.

2. ibid.,p.71.

3. ibid., p. 90. From another account, the datc is 1440 a.d. while P.W. Powlett in his Gattetteer of the Bikaner State (1874) gives as 1439 A.D. For the subsequent rulers also, the dates of birth, death etc. given by different writers arc at variance with each other.

[p.25]: that at the durbar was present one Napo, a Sankhla Rajput who, intimated that some Sankhla Rajputs had abandoned a part of Janglu territory lying to the north of Jodhpur as they were hard pressed by Bloach incursions. He suggested its occupation. The suggestion was welcomed and Jodha urged his son to launch on this expedition. An expeditionary force was accordingly organised comprising 100 horse and 500 foot. Accompanying1 Bika were his uncles Kandhal, Rupa, Mandan, Mandala and Nathu, his brothers Joga and Bida, Napo the Sankhla, the master of the horse (Sahni) and a number of Mutsaddis (writers). According to Powlett, Bika was provided both with a civil and military staff

The tract which now forms the Bikaner city was perhaps abandoned and its occupation would present no problem but towards its north-west was located a powerful Bhati kingdom; towards its north-east, the Jats had their small settlements. Hisar was the headquarters of the Governor of the Delhi Sultan. On other sides were scattered small chieftainships weak in offensive, but well entrenched in their desert , fortresses to withstand aggression.

Bika marched via Mandauwar, to Deshnoke where there lived a famous Charan woman Karniji, believed to be endowed with supernatural powers. She exercised considerable influence over the neighbouring rajas especially Shekha, the Bhati Rao of Pogal. Bika paid his respects to her who gave her prophetic blessings in the following words “Your power and pelf will be higher than your father's and many a chief will touch your feet.” After this, Bika moved to Chandasar and then to Koramdesar where the idol of Bhairun was installed on the bank of a talao by him. There he declared himself as the raja.

Reaching the deserted tract of Janglu he took possession of 84 villages left by the Sankhlas and started strengthening his army and extending his domination. It is said that on the advice of Karniji, he allied himself with Shekha Bhati, the Rao of Pagal by marrying the latter’s daughter. This alliance gave a foothold to Bika in the Bhati territory. In 1478 A.D. Bika wanted to construct a fort at Koramdesar which was objected to by Rao Shekha. Rao Bika paid no heed to his protestations which led to an estrangement with the Bhatis. Under the leadership of Kalikaran Kehrot, the son of the Rawal Kehar of

1. Ojha, G.H., The History of Rijputana, Vol. V, Pt. I, Ajmer (1939), p. 91.

[p.26]: Jaisalmer, the dissatisfied Bhatis mustered a strong force and a fierce battle took place in which Bika won the day, but the Bhatis continued their harassing tactics with the result that the Rao gave up his plan to build the fort at Koramdesar and in consultation with Napo Sankh'a, who was believed to be great observer of omens, chose another site. Thus were layed in 1485 AD, the foundations of the fort around which, three years later, in V.S. 1545 (1488 a.d.) the construction of the city of Bikaner was undertaken.

With the establishment of a permanent capital by Bika, the neighbouring tribes began to feel that a new star had arisen in the political firmament of the area. Some of them especially the Godara Jats acknowledged his sovereignty. The allegiance of the Godaras brought Bikaji into conflict with the Sarans, another tribe of the same race who approached the powerful Chief of Sewani to help them. Fight soon ensued between the two Chiefs resulting in an all-out victory for Bika.

As has been stated earlier, the country of the Mohils had been conquered by Jodha and was put under the charge of Bida, brother of Bika. But soon troubles arose. The Mohil chief and Sarang Khan, the subedar of Hisar, combined against him. Bida had offended his father. Finding himself alone and helpless, he asked his brother to render necessary help. He took refuge with his brother who after raising strong army of 8000 men, marched against the enemy. Sarang Khan had to retire in haste to his headquarters after seeing an approaching defeat at the hands of Kandhal. The Mohil country was restored to Bida but he held it as a feudatory of his brother. Dissatisfied Sarang Khan, however, in order to wipe out the blot of the retreat collected a large force and attacked the Rathor chief Kandhal who had created a havoc in the Hisar territory. The latter fought gallantly but fell in action. On hearing this sad news of the demise of his dear uncle, who had been like a second father to him, Bika took an oath to eat bread only after he had avenged the death of Kandhal. He sought help from his father, Jodha, who sent timely help. The combined armies of the Rathors met the enemy at the village of Jhans or Jhansal. Sarang Khan was killed and his army was put to flight.

Bika was asked by his father not to claim succession to his estate but to remain content with what he had won, Bika, however.

[p.27]: wanted to possess the heirlooms and the insignia of royalty brought from Kannauj, in lieu of his foregoing the claim for his father’s patrimony. It is said that Jodha agreed that these would be sent to Bikaner. But after Jodha’s death when Bika demanded them from his successor Rao Suja, the latter showed his reluctance; Bika had to take recourse to arms and invaded Jodhpur which was taken and given up to plunder. Suja took refuge in the fort which was besieged. His mother, then, intervened and came to see Bika, who agreed to raise the siege only if the heirlooms and the royal insignia were handed over to him. The famous siege of Jodhpur was thus raised and Bika brought the coveted articles in triumph.

Bika’s younger brother. Bar Singh, the administrator of Merta, used to plunder the adjoining areas of Ajmer and Sambhar. The Subedar of Ajmer, Mallu Khan, captured him for plundering his villages.

The combined forces of Duda, Suja and Bika advanced and the Subedar released Bar Singh without putting any fight against the approaching army.

Bika in order to prevent further inroads on his territory by the thakur of Khandela, Rirmal, had to measure swords with him. The thakur could not withstand the attack, and fled, leaving the town at the mercy of Bika’s troops who ransacked it getting much spoil. The last expedition led by Rao Bika was against Rewari in which he successfully occupied a considerable portion of the territory which belonged to the Sultan of Delhi. Rirmal the thakur of Khandela, approached the Sultan for help to push back Bika’s forces from Rewari. The Sultan of Delhi sent 4,000 Imperial troops under Nawab Hindal to oust him from the Imperial territory. This joint army attacked Bika who fought with rare courage and valour and inflicted a crushing defeat on the enemy killing both the commanders-Hindal and Rirmal. This was the last of Bika’s military exploits after which he ruled peacefully till his death and without any molestation from neighbouring chiefs. At the time of his death which took place in 1504 a.d, his rule is said to have extended over 3,000 villages.

Foundation of Bikaner State

Col. G. B. Malleson[9] writes....[p.111]: The state of Bikaner was founded by Bika Singh, sixth son of Raja Joda of Jodhpur. Followed by three hundred of his clansmen, Bika quitted the paternal roof to found a new city in the wilderness. He of course went sword in hand, with a determination to slay or to be slain. The Sanklas of Janglu fell before him. This brought him in contact with the Bhatis of Pugal, the daughter of whose chief he married. Settling down at Koramdesar, he built there a castle ; then, gradually, by establishing his influence over the race of the Jats or Getes, settled in the land, and of others who immigrated from more remote regions, he came at last to be elected lord of a community of nine cantons, containing 2,670 villages. The people led a pastoral life, their wealth consisting in their cattle, the produce and wool of which they exchanged with their neighbours.

Conditions to bestow the supremacy: [p.112] The conditions on which they offered to bestow the supremacy over their community upon Bika Singh were these :

1. That he should make common cause with them against the cantons with which they were at variance.
2. That he would guard the western frontier against the irruption of the Bhatis.
3. That the rights and privileges of the community should be held inviolable.

On the fulfillment of these conditions, they relinquished to Bika and his descendants supreme power, assigning to him in perpetuity, the power to levy dhua, or a hearth tax, of one rupee on each house in the canton, and a land tax of two rupees on each hundred bighas 1 of cultivated land within their limits. As a security for the performance of their part of the contract by Bika and his successors, Bika bound himself and them to receive the mark of inauguration from the hands of the descendants of the elders, and that the throne should be deemed vacant until such rite had been administered.

Bika then made war with the rival tribe of his new nation, the Johyas, and conquered them ; then advancing against the Bhatis, won Bhagor from them. In this district he founded his capital, Bikaner (1489), just thirty years after his departure from Mundor.

Bika died in 1495, leaving two sons by his first wife, Nunkarn, who succeeded him, and Garsi, who founded Garsisin and Arsisar.

Nunkarn conquered several districts from the Bhatis. He left four sons, the eldest of whom renounced his birthright to have a separate establishment in his father's lifetime. The second brother, Jaetsi, then succeeded Nunkarn. He, too, enlarged his borders. Kalian Singh, his eldest son, followed him, and then succeeded his eldest born, Rai Singh.

Marriage alliance with Akbar: Rai Singh came to the throne in 1573. In his reign

1. A bigha is five-eighths of an equivalent to six shillings and five acre. The charge, therefore, was pence per hundred acres.

[p.113]: Bikaner rose to importance amongst the principalities of the Mogul empire, and Rai Singh became a satrap of his brother-in-law, the Emperor Akbar.1 High honours were bestowed upon him by the emperor. He was made a leader of four thousand horse, received the title of Raja, and the government of Hissar. Moreover, when Maldeo Singh, King of Jodhpur, incurred the displeasure of Akbar, that sovereign transferred to Rai Singh the district of Nagore and afterwards his entire kingdom. Such transfers, however, were in effect nominal. But, armed with the emperor's favour, Rai Singh returned to Bikaner, conquered Bhutnair, and rooted out the Johyas. Previous to his reign the Rajputs had gradually been ousting the Jats as proprietors of the soil, and the Jats had been sinking to the position of labourers or serfs. This silent revolution was completed under Rai Singh. It was made absolute by the conquest of the territories of the Punias,. the last race of Jats who had preserved their liberty.

Raja Rai Singh led a band of his warriors in all the wars of Akbar. He distinguished himself in the assault of Ahmedabad, slaying the Governor in single combat. He married his daughter to Prince Selim, afterwards Emperor, as Jehangir. Her son Purvez was one of those who unsuccessfully strove for the empire with Shah Jahan.

Rai Singh died in 1632, and was succeeded by his only son Karan. Karan supported the claims of Dara Sheko against Aurangzib, and escaped the plot laid by the general of his antagonist to destroy him. He died in 1674, and was followed by his son, Anop Singh. This prince held the governments of Bijapur and Aurangabad, was nominated a leader of 5,000 horse, accompanied Raja Jeswant Singh to Kabul with the imperial forces, returned, and died at Bikaner in 1709. His son, Sarup Singh, succeeded. Sarup Singh was killed m endeavouring to recover the castle and lands of Adom, bestowed by

1. They had married two sisters, princesses of Jaisalmir.

[p.114]: Aurangzib on his father, and taken back on his quitting the imperial army. The two next Rajas, Sujaim Singh and Zorawar Singh, were men of little note.

Raja Guj Singh followed, them. Throughout a long reign of forty-one years, this prince was engaged in border contests with the Bhatis and Bhawalpur. He succeeded in rounding his borders by acquisitions from both. But he is chiefly famous for the number of his offspring. He had sixty-one children ; 'though,' remarks the annalist, ‘all but six were " sons of love." He was succeeded in 1787 by his son, Raj Singh.

Surat Singh: Raj Singh enjoyed his dignity only thirteen days, being removed by a dose of poison, administered by the mother of Surat Singh, fifth son of the late Raja. He left, however, two sons, Pertap Singh and Jai Singh. But Raj Singh had not been poisoned without an object. Surat Singh at once assumed the office of regent, his two elder brothers, Surtan Singh and Ajit Singh, fleeing the paternal roof to escape the fate of their brother. During the following eighteen months Surat Singh conducted himself with great circumspection, and by condescension and gifts impressed the chiefs in his favour. Then he disclosed to some of them his determination to rule. His plans were, however, discovered, and the majority of the nobles determined to resist him, unfortunately only passively. Surat Singh, an active and determined man, levied troops, attacked, and subdued them ; then returned to Bikaner, resolved to remove every obstacle between himself and the throne. One of his nephews had died ; the other remained under the care of the sister of Surat Singh, a virtuous woman. Unable to deceive her vigilance, Surat Singh forced her into a marriage which she abhorred, and then, having rid himself of her, strangled, it is said with his own hands, his nephew and sovereign. He then proclaimed himself Raja, a position in which his defeat of his elder brothers, who had levied a force to dispossess him, confirmed him.

[p.115]: It was in the year 1801 that Surat Singh became undisturbed ruler of Bikaner. He was a warrior, and made many acquisitions to his country, especially from the Bhatis ; but in the Jodhpur civil war he unfortunately took the wrong side, supporting the cause of the pretender, Dhokal Singh, and expending nearly five years' revenue in fruitless efforts on his behalf. This failure caused him to become oppressive to his people, and bigotry in his old age, the natural child of riotous and unscrupulous youth, making him more and more superstitious, he withdrew gradually from affairs, leaving his government in the hands of those who had been his associates, and who were not haunted by the same terrors. Before his death in 1828, his country was embraced in the general scheme of subsidiary alliances, formed by the British Government at the time of the Pindari war. The Raja was bound to subordinate co-operation, and the British Government engaged to protect his territories and to reduce his rebellious subjects to obedience. No tribute was exacted, none having been paid to the Marhatas. Surat Singh left his country in a terrible state of anarchy and disorder: the chiefs were in open rebellion, the country swept by robbers, the very cultivators of the fields forced to arm in their own defence. He was succeeded by his son, Ratan Singh.

Ratan Singh: One of the first acts of the new Raja was to proceed to invade the territory of Jaisalmer in revenge for former injuries, or supposed injuries, sustained by his subjects through subjects or servants of the former. The Raja carried his operations, in direct breach of his treaty with the British Government, to the very gates of his enemy's capital. The ruler of Jaisalmer prepared an army to resent the injury, and the armies of Jodhpur and Jaipur assembled on their respective frontiers. The peace of Rajputana was in imminent danger, when the British Government interfered, and through the arbitration of

[p.116]: the Rana of Udaipur the dispute was settled, both parties making reparation for the injuries done.

But there was but little improvement in the internal condition of the state. The Raja continued on bad terms with many of his nobles, and he did not feel himself strong enough to coerce them. Under these circumstances, he applied for aid to the British Resident at Delhi (1830). The aid was promised under a misapprehension. But the British Government interfered, and informed the Resident that military aid should never be given to native states for the suppression of internal disturbances, except under the specific authority of Government. The Government also expressed an opinion that the case was not one in which they were called upon to interfere.

Meanwhile the squabbles between the Rajas of Bikaner and Jaisalmer continued. They had reached such a point in 1835 that a British officer was deputed to effect a reconciliation. His mission was happily attended with success. Both Rajas renounced their previous ill-will to each other, and entered into a pact of friendship. A disposition to border encroachments was, however, manifested by the Raja in other quarters, especially in the direction of Hissar ; and it was not until strong means had been used that he desisted from his attempts.

Raja Ratan Singh died in 1852. He was succeeded by Sirdar Singh, the present chief. Sirdar Singh did good service in the mutinies, both by sheltering European fugitives and by co-operating against the rebels in the districts of Hansi and Hissar. As a reward for these services he received a grant of forty-one villages, which, some years before, had been declared to belong to the Sirsa district. He received, likewise, the right of adoption.

Still the frontier outrages continued, and they proceeded to such a length in the Jodhpur territory, that in 1861 the British Government was constrained to remind

[p.117]: the Raja of his treaty obligations. In the same year, too, his misgovernment of the forty-one Sirsa villages ceded to him for his services in the Mutiny, called for the intervention of the British Government. An inquiry before the Commissioner of Hissar showed that, whereas the total revenue demand against the villages between 1861 and 1867 had been 90,000 rupees, the Raja's officials had exacted 2,00,000 rupees in excess of that sum. The Viceroy, upon this, addressed a letter to the Raja, calling upon his Highness to maintain all concerned in the rights and privileges conferred upon them by the British Government, and to place an official of upright character in charge of the villages.

I am not aware of anything that has occurred subsequently in Bikaner calling for notice.

The Raja of Bikaner is entitled to a salute of seventeen guns. His territory lies in the Rajputana Desert, east of Bhawalpur.

Jat domination

In 1901 census, the most numerous caste in Bikaner State was that of the Jats, who numbered 133,000, or more than 22 per cent of the total. As noticed above, they held a considerable portion of the territory prior to the Rathor conquest, and the headman of the Godara clan still has the privilege of placing the tika or mark of inauguration on the forehead of each new chief of Bikaner.

बीकानेर रियासत का इतिहास

बीकानेर (AS, p.634) नगर को जोधपुर-राज्यवंश के एक उत्तराधिकारी राव बीका ने बसाया था। [10]

वर्तमान बीकानेर संभाग के अंतर्गरत वर्तमान बीकानेर, चुरू, हनुमानगढ़ और गंगानगर जिले आते हैं। राजस्थान के प्राचीन जाट गण राज्य गोत्र के रूप में संगठित थे। इन्हीं की प्रतिरूप हरयाणा और पश्चिम उत्तरप्रदेश में खाप व्यवस्था थी। बीकानेर संभाग का अधिकांश भाग यहाँ राठोड़ों के आगमन से पूर्व प्राचीन बागड़ अथवा जांगलप्रदेश का हिस्सा था। बीकानेर संभाग का कुछ भाग प्राचीन हरयाणा के अंतर्गत होने का भी उल्लेख इतिहासकारों द्वारा किया गया है। उल्लेखनीय है कि भगवान हर (शिव) के मैदानी क्षेत्रों में आगमन के समय प्राचीन हरयाणा का गठन हुआ था। तत्समय राजस्थान का उत्तर-पूर्वी भाग (गंगानगर, हनुमानगढ़, झुंझनुं एवं चूरू) प्राचीन हरयाणा में सम्मिलित था। ये जिले प्राचीन बागड़ देश का भाग थे। बीकानेर संभाग के प्राचीन भूभागों पर यौधेय जाट गणों का लंबे समय तक गणतांत्रिक पद्धती का शासन रहा है।

इतिहासकार रतन लाल मिश्र[11] मानते हैं कि राजस्थान में राजपूतकुलों के शासन के पूर्व इस क्षेत्र में जाट जाति उपस्थित थी जिसका शासन गणराज्य की पंचायत पद्धति पर चलता था। ठाकुर देशराज और दलीप सिंह अहलावत ने जाट इतिहास में अनेक जाट गणराज्यों का वर्णन किया है। डॉ. पेमा राम ने 'राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास' पुस्तक में राजस्थान के जाटों के गणराज्य एवं उनका पतन तथा जाट जनपदों की प्रशासनिक व्यवस्था पर विस्तार से प्रकाश डाला है। बाद में जब राजपूतों ने इस राज्य के विविध भागों पर अपना आधिपत्य जमा लिया तो उन भागों का नामकरण अपने-अपने वंश अथवा स्थान के अनुरुप कर दिया। ये राज्य उदयपुर, डूंगरपुर, बांसवाड़, प्रतापगढ़, जोधपुर, बीकानेर, किशनगढ़, सिरोही, कोटा, बूंदी, जयपुर, अलवर, करौली और झालावाड़ थे। भरतपुर एवं धोलपुर में जाटों का राज्य रहा तथा टोंक में मुस्लिम राज्य था।

बीकानेर रियासत की स्थापना से पूर्व यह इलाका सात जाट जनपदों के अधीन था। प्राचीनकाल व पूर्व मध्यकाल तक जाट जाति उन्नत अवस्था में थी और राजस्थान के विभिन्न भागों में उनका गणतंत्रात्मक शासन था। जाटों के गणतंत्रात्मक शासन व्यवस्था पर बागड़ प्रदेश में लोकोक्ति प्रचलित थी। "सात पट्टी, सताईस मांजरा और सब आदर-खादरा" अर्थात इस जाङ्गल प्रदेश में सात बड़े जनपद, सताईस मझले प्रदेश तथा शेष असंख्य जाट जनपद थे। बालू के टीलों से भरी-पूरी वृक्ष विहीन बंजर भूमि, नदी नाले से विहीन, कम वर्षा व विषम भौगोलिक परिस्थितियों वाले इस मरुप्रदेश में जाटों ने दूर-दूर तक अपनी बस्तियां बसाई तथा अन्य जातियों को अपने साथ बसाया। पीने के पानी के नितांत अभाव वाले इस क्षेत्र में कुए बनाए, वर्षा जल संग्रहण हेतु तालाब बनाये। धरती पुत्र अन्नदाता जाटों ने इस प्रदेश को कृषि योग्य बनाया तथा कृषि और पशुपालन से सबका भरण-पोषण किया। इस जांगल प्रदेश में मानव जीवन की रेखा खींचकर इसे आबाद किया। बीकानेर स्टेट की स्थापना से पूर्व भाडंग, सिद्धमुख, लुदी, धानसिया, रायसलाना, पल्लू आदि प्राचीन व्यापारिक केंद्र थे। [12]

भूरूपाल के जोहिया जाट

जोधा जी के पुत्र बीका जी राठौर ने जब नया राज्य बीकानेर स्थापित करने का प्रयत्न प्रारम्भ किया तो जोहिया जाटों, जो यौधेय जाटों के ही वंशज थे, का वहां 600 गांवों पर अधिकार था। शेरसिंह जोहिया नामक वीर योद्धा उनका राजा था जिसकी राजधानी भूरूपाल में थी। इस शूरवीर शेरसिंह ने राठौरों को नाकों चने चबवा दिये। बीका जी ने कुछ समय अपनी व्यवस्था ठीक करने और शक्तिसंचय करने में लगाया। वहां के निकट क्षेत्र पर गोदारा जाटों की बड़ी शक्ति थी। जोहिया व गोदारा जाटों की आपसी शत्रुता होने के कारण से गोदारों का नेता ‘पाण्डु गोदारा’ ने बीका जी से कुछ शर्तों पर संधि कर ली। अब बीका जी ने अपनी और गोदारों की सेना लेकर जोहिया जाटों पर आक्रमण कर दिया। वीर शेरसिंह ने अपनी सेना लेकर दोनों बड़ी शक्तियों का साहस से मुकाबला किया। [13] [14]

“देशी राज्यों के इतिहास” में सुखसम्पत्तिराय भण्डारी ने लिखा है – “शेरसिंह ने अपनी समस्त सेना के साथ बीका जी के खिलाफ युद्ध करने की तैयारी कर रखी थी। बीका जी जो कई युद्धों के विजेता थे, इस युद्ध में सरलता से विजय प्राप्त न कर सके। शत्रुगण अद्भुत पराक्रम दिखाक्र साहस छोड़ गया। अन्त में विजय की कोई सूरत न देख, बीका जी ने षडयन्त्र द्वारा शेरसिंह को मरवा दिया।” [15][16]

‘वाकए-राजपूताना’ में भी यही बात लिखी है। यह युद्ध रामरत्न चारण के लेखानुसार सीधमुख के पास ढाका गांव में हुआ था। शेरसिंह के मारे जाने के बाद भी जोहिया जाट विद्रोही बने रहे। उन्होंने सहज ही में अधीनता स्वीकार नहीं की। उनका प्रत्येक युवक प्राणों की बाजी लगाकर स्वाधीनता की रक्षा करना चाहता था। शेरसिंह के बाद उन्हें कोई योग्य नेता नहीं मिला। [17]

“भारत के देशी राज्यों के इतिहास” का लेख - “यद्यपि बीका जी ने जोहिया जाटों को परास्त करके अपने अधीन कर लिया था तथापि वे बड़े स्वाधीनताप्रिय थे और अपनी हरण की हुई स्वाधीनता को फिर से प्राप्त करने का प्रयत्न कर रहे थे। अतः बीका जी के वंशज रायसिंह ने अपने भाई भीमसिंह जी के संचालन में एक प्रबल राठौर-सेना उनके दमन करने के लिए भेजी। इस सेना ने वहां पहुंचकर भयंकर काण्ड उपस्थित कर दिया। प्रबल समराग्नि प्रज्वलित हो गई। हजारों जोहिया जाटगण स्वाधीनता के लिए प्राण विसर्जन करने लगे। वीर राठौर भी अपने ध्येय से न हटे। उन्होंने इस देश को यथार्थ मरुभूमि के समान कर दिया।” [18]

इस तरह से 15वीं सदी में जांगल प्रदेश पर से जोहिया जाटों का राज्य समाप्त हो गया। इन यौधेयों की कालान्तर में कई शाखायें भी हो गईं यथा कुलरिया, कुहाड़, महिला (महला), माहिल, खीचड़ आदि। राजस्थान, हरयाणा, पंजाब और उत्तर प्रदेश में ये शाखाएँ फैल गई। जोहिया जाट जोधपुर, बीकानेर तथा जालन्धर जिले में जड़िया, जोड़ा, बिनौला, थाबलक, जड़ियाला, जोहल आदि 12 गांवों में बसे हुए हैं। जोहिया जाट सतलुज नदी के किनारे उस स्थान पर रहते थे जहां बहावलपुर राज्य था। आजकल वह पाकिस्तान में है। उस स्थान पर इस वंश के जाटों के नाम पर जोहियावार प्रदेश (क्षेत्र) विद्यमान है। [19]

जय यौधेय लेखक राहुल सांकृत्यायन, पृ० 5 पर लिखते हैं कि - भावलपुर रियासत से मुलतान तक फैला एक इलाका जोहियावार कहा जाता है और बहुसंख्यक निवासी जोहिया (यौधेय) कहे जाते हैं। कराची के कोहिस्तान में जोहियार रहते हैं, बल्कि उनके सरदार को ‘जोहिया-जोजन्म’ कहा जाता है। अलवर और गुड़गांव के मेव अब भी यौधेय भूमि में ही बसते हैं और उनकी वीरगाथायें सुनकर आज भी रोमांच हो उठते हैं। [20]

बीकानेर में जाट जनपद

राजस्थान के अनेक क्षेत्रों पर जाटों ने भिन्न-भिन्न समय पर राज किया था परन्तु उनकी मुख्य सत्ता राजस्थान के उत्तरी - पूर्वी इलाके पर थी, जहाँ इनके सात बड़े राज्य थे । ये थे - 1. लाघडियाशेखसर के गोदारा, 2. भाड़ंग के सारण, 3. धाणसिया के सोहुआ, 4. सीधमुख के कसवां, 5. लूद्दी (लून्दी) के पूनियां, 6. सूई के सिहाग, 7. रायसलाणा के बेणीवाल। इनके अतिरिक्त भादू, भूकर, जाखड, कल्हेर, नैन आदि अन्य छोटे ठिकाने भी थे। इन सब जाट राज्यों के सम्बन्ध में एक कहावत प्रसिद्द थी- सात पट्टी सातवां मांझरे अर्थात सात बड़े और सतावन छोटे राज्य थे । [21]

वर्तमान बीकानेर तथा जोधपुर संभाग का उत्तरी भाग प्राचीन काल से जांगल देश कहलाता था । इसके अंतर्गरत वर्तमान बीकानेर, चुरू, हनुमानगढ़ और गंगानगर जिले आते हैं। भूतपूर्व बीकानेर राज्य की स्थापना से पहले इस भूभाग में जाटों के सात बड़े गणराज्य थे। दयालदास के अनुसार विक्रम की 16 वीं शताब्दी पूर्वार्ध में इन जनपदों (राज्य) की स्थिति निम्न प्रकार थी। दयालदास के अनुसार उस समय जाटों के अधीन गाँवों की संख्या 2040 थी। [22]

जबकि कर्नल टाड ने जोहियों को भी जाट मानते हुए जाट राज्यों के गाँवों की संख्या 2200 बताई है जिनका विवरण नीचे दिया गया है। प्रत्येक शाखा के नाम से उनके अधिकृत क्षेत्र प्रसिद्ध हुये। [23]

अनुक्रमांक नाम जनपद नाममुखिया गाँवों की संख्या राजधानी अधिकार में प्रमुख कस्बे
1. पूनिया कान्हा 300 बड़ी लून्दी (लूद्दी) भादरा , अजीतपुरा, सीधमुख , राजगढ़ , ददरेवा , सांखू
2. बेणीवाल रायसल 150 रायसलाणा भूकरका, सोनरी, मनहरपुरा, कूई , बाय
3. जोहिया शेरसिंह 600 भुरूपाल जैतपुर , कुमाना, महाजन , पीपासर, उदासर
4. सिहाग चोखा 150 सूई/पल्लू रावतसर , बिरमसर , दांदूसर, गण्डेली, देवासर ,मोटेर
5. सारण पूला 360 भाड़ंग खेजड़ा, फोग , बुचावास , सूई , बन्धनाऊ, सिरसला
6. गोदारा पाण्डू 700 शेखसर/लाघड़िया शेखसर, पुण्डरासर , गुसांईसर बड़ा , घड़सीसर , गरीबदेसर , रुन्गायसर, कलू

गाँवों की कुल संख्या 2200

कर्नल जेम्स टोड ने लेख किया है कि इनके अलावा तीन और विभाग थे - बागौर, खारी पट्टी और मोहिल। इन पर भी राठौड़ों का प्रभुत्व कायम हो गया था। राजपूत शाखाओं से छिने गए ये तीन विभाग राज्य के दक्षिण और पश्चिम में थे जिनका विवरण नीचे दिया गया है। [24]

अनुक्रमांक नाम जनपद नाम मुखिया गाँवों की संख्या राजधानी अधिकार में प्रमुख कस्बे
7. बागौर 300 बीकानेर, नाल, किला, राजासर, सतासर, छतरगढ़, रणधीसर, बीठनोक, भवानीपुर, जयमलसर इत्यादि।
8. मोहिल 140 छापर छापर, सांडण, हीरासर, गोपालपुर, चारवास, बीदासर, लाडनूँ, मलसीसर, खरबूजा कोट आदि
9. खारी पट्टी 30 नमक का जिला

इनसे अलग ठाकुर देशराज ने जाटों के अधीन गाँवों की कुल संख्या 2660 बताई है. डॉ. कर्णी सिंह (1974) लिखते हैं कि बीका राठोड से पहले राजस्थान के इस प्रदेश पर जाटों के सात गोत्रों के शक्तिशाली गणराज्य थे। इनका विवरण निम्नानुसार है [25][26]

अनुक्रमांक नाम जनपद नाममुखिया गाँवों की संख्या राजधानी अधिकार में प्रमुख कस्बे
1. पूनिया कान्हा 300 बड़ी लून्दी (लूद्दी) भादरा , अजीतपुरा, सीधमुख , राजगढ़ , ददरेवा , सांखू
2. बेणीवाल रायसल 150 रायसलाणा भूकरका, सोनरी, मनहरपुरा, कूई , बाय
3. जोहिया शेरसिंह 600 भुरूपाल जैतपुर , कुमाना, महाजन , पीपासर, उदासर
4. सिहाग चोखा 150 सूई/पल्लू रावतसर , बिरमसर , दांदूसर, गण्डेली, देवासर ,मोटेर
5. सारण पूला 360 भाड़ंग खेजड़ा, फोग , बुचावास , सूई , बन्धनाऊ, सिरसला
6. गोदारा पाण्डू 700 शेखसर/लाघड़िया शेखसर, पुण्डरासर , गुसांईसर बड़ा , घड़सीसर , गरीबदेसर , रुन्गायसर, कलू
7. कसवां कंवरपाल 400 सीधमुख चुरू, खासोली, खारिया, सरसला, पीथीसार, आसलखेड़ी, रिड़खला, बूंटिया, रामसरा, थालोड़ी, ढाढर, भामासी, बीनासर, बालरासर, भैंरुसर, ढाढरिया, धान्धू, आसलू, लाखाऊ, दूधवा, जसरासर, लाघड़िया, चलकोई

गाँवों की कुल संख्या 2660

जाटों की इन शाखाओं के अलावा ठाकुर देशराज ने जाटों की कुछ अन्य शाखाओं और उनके राज्यों का उल्लेख किया है जिसमें सुहाग, भादू, भूकर, चाहर, जाखड़ और नैण मुख्य हैं। इस तरह इतिहासकारों द्वारा दी गयी संख्या में पर्याप्त अन्तर है। ऐसा लगता है कि इन प्रमुख जाट पट्टियों में जाटों की दूसरी शाखाओं व अन्य जातियों के गाँव भी मिले हुए थे। कभी-कभी एक शाखा के गाँव एक स्थान पर न होकर अलग-अलग भी होते थे। जैसे सीधमुख तहसील राजगढ़ में कसवां जाटों का आधिपत्य था और चुरू तथा चुरू तहसील के अनेक गाँवों पर भी उनका अधिकार था, किंतु इन दोनों स्थानों के बीच लूद्दी में पूनिया जाटों का तथा ददरेवा में चौहानों के ठिकाने थे। इस तरह एक गाँव के विभिन्न भागों को विभिन्न जाट शाखाओं में जोड़ने से व अलग-अलग गिनने से जाट राज्यों के अधीन इन गाँवों की संख्या आई होगी। [27] [28]

जाट इतिहास लिखते समय उन जाट गोत्रों को छोड़ दिया गया जो नवगठित राजपूत क्षत्रीय वर्ग के किसी शासक संघ में सम्मिलित हो गए। ददरेवा के चौहान भी वास्तविक रूप में जाट ही थे जैसा कि बुरड़क इतिहास की खोज से सपष्ट होता है। राजपूत शाखाओं से छिने गए तीन विभाग बागौर, मोहिल एवं खारी पट्टी के अधीश्वर भी पूर्व में जाट ही थे। मोहिल चन्द्रवंशी जाटवंश हैं और उनका वर्णन दलीप सिंह अहलावत ने जाट इतिहास में किया है। खारी पट्टी संभवतया खारी कर्मसोता था जिसके राजा लोयल जाट थे और यह नागौर जिले में पड़ता है। ये पूर्व में जाट गोत्र थे जो चौहान संघ में शामिल हो गए थे। बागौर का उल्लेख भी जाट गोत्रों की सूची में है। बागौर के स्वामी जयपरतनामी तूर संघ के थे। इनके वंशज घंघस जाट गोत्र के थे जो हरयाणा की तरफ प्रस्थान कर गए और वहाँ अनेक गाँव बसाये। (पंडित अमीचन्द्र शर्मा, जाट वर्ण मीमांसा, पृ.10)

बीकानेर परिचय

बीकानेर शहर, उत्तर-मध्य राजस्थान राज्य, पश्चिमोत्तर भारत में स्थित है। बीकानेर दिल्ली से 386 किमी पश्चिम में पड़ता है। बीकानेर राजस्थान का एक नगर तथा पुरानी रियासत था। बीकानेर शहर भूतपूर्व बीकानेर रियासत की राजधानी था।

इतिहास: लगभग सन् 1465 ई. में राठौर राजपूत सरदार बीका ने अन्य जातियों का भूभाग जीतना प्रारंभ किया। सन् 1488 ई. में उन्होंने बीकानेर शहर का निर्माण प्रारंभ किया। सन् 1504 ई. में बीका की मृत्यु के बाद उनके उत्तराधिकारियों ने उनके राज्य क्षेत्र का क्रमिक विस्तार किया।

यह राज्य मुग़ल बादशाहों, जिन्होंने सन् 1526 ई. से 1857 ई. तक दिल्ली पर शासन किया, और उसके प्रति निष्ठावान बना रहा। राय सिंह, जिन्होंने सन् 1571 ई. में बीकानेर की सरदारी पाई, बादशाह अकबर के सबसे प्रतिष्ठित सेनापतियों में से एक बन गए और बीकानेर के पहले राजा नियुक्त हुए। 18वीं शताब्दी में मुग़लों के पतन के साथ ही बीकानेर और जोधपुर की रियासतों में बार-बार लड़ाइयाँ होती रहीं। सन् 1818 ई. में एक संधि हुई, जिसने ब्रिटिश वर्चस्व की स्थापना की और रियासत में ब्रिटिश सेना पुनर्व्यवस्था ले आई। सन् 1833 ई. में इसे राजपूताना एजेंसी में शामिल किए जाने से पहले तक स्थानीय ठाकुरों या ज़मींदारों के विद्रोही तेवर जारी रहे।

राज्य की सैन्य सेवा में बीकानेरी ऊँट सवार सेना शामिल है, जिसने बक्सर विद्रोह (1900) के दौरान चीन और प्रथम विश्व युद्ध के दौरान मध्य-पूर्व में ख्याति अर्जित की थी। बीकानेर को, जिसका क्षेत्रफल तब 60,000 वर्ग किमी से अधिक हो गया था, सन् 1949 ई. में राजस्थान का अंग बनाकर तीन ज़िलों में बाँट दिया गया। महाराज बीकानेर नरेन्द्र-मंडल (चेम्बर ऑफ़ प्रिन्सेज) के आरम्भ से ही एक महत्त्वपूर्ण सदस्य रहे। स्वाधीनता के उपरान्त बीकानेर रियासत भारत में विलीन हो गयी। पुराना बीकानेर थोड़े उठे हुए मैदान पर स्थित है और पाँच द्वारों के साथ-साथ सात किलोमीटर लंबी पंक्तिबद्ध दीवार से घिरा हुआ है।

यातायात और परिवहन: यह जोधपुर, जयपुर, दिल्ली, नागौर और गंगानगर से रेलमार्ग और सड़क मार्ग द्वारा जुड़ा हुआ है। ज़िले की सीमा जहाँ चूरू, नागौर, गंगानगर, हनुमानगढ़, जोधपुरजैसलमेर की सीमा को छूती है, वहीं अन्तरराष्ट्रीय सीमा पाकिस्तान से मिलती है।

ज़िले के दो प्राकृतिक भागों को उतरी व पश्चिमी रेगिस्तान व दक्षिणी व पूर्व अर्द्ध मरूस्थल में विभाजित किया सकता है।

कृषि और खनिज: यहाँ कोई नदी न होने के कारण मुख्यत: गहरे नलकूपों से ही सिंचाई की जाती है। बाजरा, ज्वार और दलहन यहाँ की प्रमुख फ़सलें हैं।

उद्योग और व्यापार: प्राचीन काफ़िलों के मार्ग पर बीकानेर की अनुकूल स्थिति के कारण, जो पश्चिमी मध्य एशिया से आते थे, प्राचीन काल में यह मुख्य व्यापार का केन्द्र बन गया था। बीकानेर अब ऊन, चमड़ा, इमारती पत्थर, नमक और खाद्यान्न का व्यापारिक केंद्र है। बीकानेरी ऊनी शाल, कालीन और मिश्री प्रसिद्ध है, साथ ही यहाँ हाथीदांत और लाख की हस्तनिर्मित वस्तुऐं मिलती हैं। बीकानेर में विद्युत और अभियांत्रिकी कार्यशालाऐं, रेलवे कार्यशालाऐं और काँच, मिट्टी के बर्तन, नमदा, रसायन, जूते और सिगरेट बनाने की औद्योगिक इकाइयाँ हैं। बीकानेर लहरदार बालू के टीलों वाले बंजर क्षेत्र में स्थित है, जहाँ ऊँटों, घोड़ों की नस्लें तैयार करना प्रमुख व्यवसाय है।

शिक्षण संस्थान: बीकानेर के महाविद्यालय (मेडिकल स्कूल और शिक्षण प्रशिक्षण संस्थान सहित) राजस्थान विश्वविद्यालय से संबद्ध हैं। यहाँ का 'संगीत भारती' नामक शिक्षण संस्थान मुख्य रूप से उल्लेखनीय है। जिसके द्वारा प्रतिवर्ष हज़ारों विद्यार्थियों को संगीत की शिक्षा दी जाती है।

चित्रकला: मारवाड़ शैली से सम्बन्धित बीकानेर शैली का सर्वाधिक विकास अनूप सिंह के शासन काल में हुआ। रामलाल, अली रजा, हसन रजा, रूकनुद्दीन आदि इस शैली के उल्लेखनीय कलाकार थे। इस शैली पर पंजाबी शैली का भी प्रभाव दृष्टिगोचर होता है क्योंकि बीकानेर क्षेत्र उत्तर में पंजाब के समीप ही स्थित है। यहाँ के शासको की नियुक्ति दक्षिण में होने के कारण इस शैली पर दक्खिनी शैली का भी प्रभाव पड़ा है। इस शैली की सबसे प्रमुख विशेषता है मुस्लिम कलाकारों द्वारा हिन्दू धर्म से सम्बन्धित एवं पौराणिक विषयों पर चित्रांकन करना।

ऊँटों का उत्सव

ऊँट मेला (जनवरी): ऊँटों का उत्सव, ऊँटों की दौड़, ऊँटों की कलाबाज़ी, नृत्य व दूध देने की प्रतिस्पर्धा का एक दर्शनीय त्योहार है, जो इस समारोह का एक हिस्सा होता है।

कोलायत मेला (नवंबर): कार्तिक के महीने में पूर्णमासी के दिन पुष्कर मेले के साथ पड़ने वाले इस मेले में भक्त कोलायात झील में डुबकी लगाते हैं।

ईसर (शिव)-गणगौर (पार्वती)

गणगौर त्योहार (अप्रैल): गणगौर का यह त्योहार चैत्र शुक्ल तृतीया को मनाया जाता है। होली के दूसरे दिन (चैत्र कृष्ण प्रतिपदा) से जो नवविवाहिताएँ प्रतिदिन गणगौर पूजती हैं, वे चैत्र शुक्ल द्वितीया के दिन किसी नदी, तालाब या सरोवर पर जाकर अपनी पूजी हुई गणगौरों को पानी पिलाती हैं और दूसरे दिन सायंकाल के समय उनका विसर्जन कर देती हैं। यह व्रत विवाहिता लड़कियों के लिए पति का अनुराग उत्पन्न कराने वाला और कुमारियों को उत्तम पति देने वाला है। इससे सुहागिनों का सुहाग अखंड रहता है। इस अवसर पर ईशर और गणगौर की मूर्तियाँ रखकर पूजा की जाती है। ईसर शिव के रूप में और गणगौर पार्वती के रूप में पूजे जाते हैं।

होली (मार्च): होली से कई दिन पूर्व शुरू होने वाला रंगों का यह त्योहार विशेष रूप से दर्शनीय है। बीकानेर में होली का त्योहार नौ दिन तक मनाया जाता है। फाल्गुन माह में खेलनी सप्तमी से शुरू हुआ यह त्योहार धुलंडी के दिन तक अनवरत जारी रहता है। बीकानेर के शाकद्विपीय ब्राह्मणों के द्वारा खेलनी सप्तमी के दिन मरुनायक चौक में 'थम्ब पूजन' के साथ ही होली के त्योहार की शुरुआत हो जाती है। चूँकि शाकद्विपीय समाज के लोग बीकानेर के मंदिरों के पुजारी हैं अत: शहर के प्राचीन नागणेची मंदिर में धूमधाम से पूजा की जाती है और माँ को गुलाल अबीर से होली खिलाई जाती है। इस फागोत्सव के बाद पुरुष शंख बजाते हुए व फाग के गीत गाते हुए शहर में प्रवेश करते हैं तथा होली के प्रारम्भ की सूचना देते हैं। अगले ही दिन अष्टमी को शहर के किकाणी व्यासों के चौक में, लालाणी व्यासों के चौंक में, सुनारों की गुवाड़ में व अन्य जगहों पर भी थम्ब पूजन कर दिया जाता है और इसी के साथ ही होलकाष्टक प्रारम्भ हो जाते हैं। होलाकाष्टक का पूरा समय मस्ती, उल्लास, अल्हड़ता के साथ बिताया जाता है। इन दिनों में विवाह आदि शुभ कार्य वर्जित माने गए हैं।

बीकानेर अभिलेखागार: बीकानेर स्थित राजस्थान राज्य अभिलेख़ागार देश के सबसे अच्‍छे और विश्‍व के चर्चित अभिलेख़ागारों में से एक है। इस अभिलेख़ागार की स्‍थापना सन् 1955 ई. में हुई और यह अपनी अपार व अमूल्‍य अभिलेख़ निधि के लिए प्रतिष्ठित है. यहाँ संरक्षित दुर्लभ दस्‍तावे्ज़ों की सुव्‍यवस्थित व्‍यवस्‍था काबिलेतारीफ़ है। अपने समृद्ध इतिहास स्रोतों और उनके बेहतर प्रबंधन, रखरखाव के चलते ही शायद इसे देश का सबसे अच्‍छा अभिलेख़ागार माना जाता है। इस अभिलेख़ागार की तीन विशेषताऐं हैं- 1. एक तो यहाँ उपलब्‍ध सामग्री इस लिहाज़ से निसंदेह रूप से यह देश के सबसे समृद्ध अभिलेख़ागारों में से एक है। 2. दूसरा उपलब्‍ध सामग्री को संरक्षित सुरक्षित रखने के तौर तरीक़े और 3. तीसरा इसका प्रबंधन।

संदर्भ: भारतकोश-बीकानेर

Jat Gotras in Bikaner District

See complete list of Jat Gotras in Bikaner District here

Tahsils in Bikaner district

Villages in Bikaner tahsil

Akadeeyawala, Ambasar, Anandpura, Asera, Bachhasar, Bambloo, Bandha, Barsingsar, Basi, Basi Sahajbardaran, Basti Chawadan, Beechhwal (Rural), Belasar, Bhairupawa, Bherookheera, Bhinasar (Rural), Bhojera, Bhojoosar, Bikaner (M CI), Chak Garbi (Rural), Daiya, Dandoosar, Daudsar, Deshnok (Rural), Deshnoke (M), Dewasar, Dheereran, Garhwala, Geegasar, Gersar, Gol Pratapsingh, Gusaisar, Hemera, Himtasar, Husangsar, Jagdewala, Jagnnathsar , Jalalsar, Jamsar, Jorbeer (Rural), Kalyansar Agoona, Kalyansar Bara, Kalyansar Utrada, Kanasar, Karmisar, Karnisar Beekan, Katariyasar, Kesar Desar Boran, Kesar Desar Gangaguran, Kesar Desar Jatan, Khara, Kharda, Kheechiya, Kilchoo Deodan, Kilchoo Sahlotan, Kolasar, Ladera, Lalamdesar, Lalsar, Lalsinghpura, Malasar, Meghasar, Molaniya, Moondsar, Nagasar Pawaran, Nagasar Sugni, Nainon Ka Bas, Nal Chhoti, Nalbari, Napasar, Norang Desar, Palana, Panpalsar, Pemasar, Raisar, Rajera, Ramsar, Ranisar, Rawatsar Kumharan, Ridmalsar Purohitan, Ridmalsar Sipahiyan, Roopera, Runiya Barawas, Saroopdesar, Seethal, Serera, Sharah Acharjan, Sharah Kajani, Sharah Koojiya, Shivbari (Rural), Shobhasar, Sujasar, Suratsinghpura, Surdhana Chauhanan, Surdhana Padiharan, Tejrasar, Udai Ramsar, Udasar,

Purani Ginnani,

PIN Codes of Villages in Bikaner district

Bajju 334305 • Bhinasar 334403 • Bikaner 334002 • Bikaner City 334001 • Bikaner Dungar College 334001 • Bikaner H O 334001 • Bikaner Kutchery 334001 • Chhatargarh 334021 • D S Office Bikaner 334001 • Deshnok 334801 • Diatra 334303 • Gajner Palace 334301 • Gangashahar 334401 • Goga Gate Bikaner 334001 • Goswami Chowk Bikaner 334001 • Himatsar 334802 • Industrial Area Bikaner 334001 • Jail Road Bikaner 334001 • Jamsar 334601 • Jassusar Gate Bikaner 334001 • Jhajhu 334304 • Kalu 334602 • Khajuwala 334023 • Kote Gate Bikaner 334001 • Lalgarh Palace Bikaner 334001 • Lalgarh Road Bikaner 334001 • Lalkar Bikaner 334001 • Lunkaransar 334603 • Mahajan 334604 • Mahatma Gandhi Road Bikan 334001 • Mohta Chowk Bikaner 334001 • Nai Line Gangashahar 334401 • Napasar 334201 • Nokha 334803 • Pabu Bari Bikaner 334001 • Palana 334404 • Panchu 334804 • Railway Workshop Bikaner 334001 • Rani Bazar Bikaner 334001 • Rath Khana Bikaner 334001 • Sadul Colony Bikaner 334001 • Sinthal 334202 • Sitla Gate Bikaner 334001 • Sri Kolayatji 334302 • Station Road Bikaner 334001 • Subashpura Bikaner 334001 • Tehsil Road Nokha 334803 • Udairmsar 334402 • Udasar 334022 • 17 K.y.d. 334023 • 2 K.l.d. 334023 • 61 Head 334023 • Aadsar 331801 • Akasar 334001 • Ambasar 334402 • Ankhisar 334802 • Arjansar 334604 • Bachasar 334001 • Badela 331803 • Badhnu 334202 • Bagadsar 334306 • Bainisar 331811 • Baladesar 334604 • Bamanwali 334601 • Bambloo 334022 • Bana 331803 • Bandhra 334803 • Bangalanagar 334004 • Bapeu 331803 • Barjangsar 331803 • Barsalpur 334305 • Barsingsar 334402 • Beejhansar 331803 • Beekasar 334803 • Belasar 334202 • Berasar 334802 • Bhalda 334803 • Bhaluri 334305 • Bhamatsar 334801 • Bhanekagaon 334303 • Bheloo 334302 • Bhikhnera 334603 • Bholasar Budhan 334001 • Bichhwal Ind.area 334006 • Biggabas Ramsara 331803 • Bijeri 334305 • Bikampur 334305 • Bikaner Ho 334001 • Bithnok 334302 • Chak 8 Kyd 334023 • Chani 334302 • Charkra 334803 • Chhatararh 334021 • Chitana 334803 • 334001 • Dandi 334021 • Dantaur 334023 • Dasori 334302 • Dawa 334803 • Delitalai 334023 • Delwan 331803 • Derajsar 331811 • Desalsar 334803 • Deshnoke 334801 • Dhaneru 331803 • Dharnok 334804 • Dheerdesar Chotiyan 331803 • Dheerera R.s. 334601 • Dheerera Village 334601 • Dhingsari 334804 • Dhoopaliya 334802 • Diyatra 334303 • Dulchasar 331811 • Dulmera 334603 • Dungar College 334001 • Dusarna 331811 • Gadhwala 334001 • Gajroopdesar 334201 • Gajsukhdesar 334802 • Garabdesar 334602 • Gariyala 334303 • Gersar 334022 • Ghatoo 334801 • Girajsar 334303 • Godoo 334305 • Gogariyawala 334305 • Gondusar 334802 • Grandhi 334303 • Gura 334302 • Gusainsar 331803 • Hadan 334302 • Hadlan Bhatiyan 334302 • Hansasar 334803 • Hansera 334603 • Hiyadesar 334803 • Indpalsar 331803 • Jaimalsar 334001 • Jaisalsar 331803 • Jaisingdesar 334803 • Jaitpur 334604 • Jakhasar 331803 • Jalabsar 331801 • Jalwali 334001 • Jangloo 334803 • Jasrasar 334802 • Jesalsar 334802 • Jetasar 331803 • Jhadeli 334802 • Jodhasar 331811 • Kakoo 334803 • Kakra 334802 • Kalasar 334001 • Kalubas 331803 • Kalyansar 331803 • Kankarwala 334603 • Kapoorisar 334603 • Karamwala 334023 • Karnisar Bhatiyan 334023 • Kawani 334001 • Keetasar 331803 • Kelan 334001 • Kesardesarjatan 334201 • Keu 331803 • Khara 334601 • Kharbara 334021 • Kharda 334602 • Khari Charnan 334001 • Khindasar 334302 • Khinyera 334603 • Khokhrana 334603 • Kisnasar 334804 • Kolasar 334001 • Koo Dsoo 334804 • Kotegate 334001 • Kotri 334302 • Kuchor Aguni 334202 • Kuchor Athuni 334202 • Kumbhasariya 334804 • Kunpalsar 331803 • Kuntasar 331803 • Lakhasar 331811 • Lakhusar 334001 • Lalamdesar Bara 334802 • Lalgarh Road 334001 • Lalkar 334001 • Lalmdesar 334402 • Likhmadesar 331803 • Likhmisar 331811 • Loonkhan 334021 • M.g.road 334001 • Madh 334302 • Mahadevwali 334021 • Mainsar 334802 • Malasar 334001 • Malkisar 334604 • Manakarasar 331811 • Mankasar 334305 • Mansoori 334802 • Migsariya 331803 • Mithdiya 334604 • Mithriya 334305 • Mohta Chowk 334001 • Moondar 334802 • Moondsar 334202 • Morkhana Athuna 334801 • Motigarh 334021 • Nagrasar 334303 • Nal Bari 334001 • Nathwana 334603 • Nokha Villege 334803 • Nokhara 334303 • Norangdesar 334001 • Pabubari 334001 • Panchoo 334804 • Parwa 334801 • Pawanpuri 334003 • Phulasar Khurd 334305 • Poogal 334023 • Pundalsar 331803 • Punrasar 331811 • Raisar 334803 • Raj.krishi Vishwavidhyalaya 334006 • Rajasar Bhatiyan 334001 • Rajasar Karnisar 334603 • Rajedoo 331803 • Rambag 334604 • Raner 334021 • Rani Bazar 334001 • Ranjeetpura 334305 • Rasisar 334801 • Rawansar 334602 • Rcp Colony 334004 • Rojan 334603 • Rora 334803 • Runiya Bara Bas 334022 • Sadhasar 334802 • Sadhoona 334803 • Sadul Colony 334001 • Sahjrasar 334602 • Saisar 334804 • Saloondiya 334803 • Saroopdesar 334402 • Sarunda 334803 • Satasar 334021 • Seeniwala 334802 • Serera 334022 • Shekhsar 334603 • Sherpura 334604 • Sheruna 331811 • Shiv Bari 334001 • Shri Dungargarh 331803 • Sinjguru 334801 • Sitla Gate 334001 • Siyana Bhatiyana 334803 • Siyasar Panchkosa 334023 • Siyasarchogan 334023 • Sodhwali 334001 • Somalsar 334803 • Soniyasar 331803 • Sowa 334201 • Sri Kolayat Ji 334302 • Sui 334603 • Surdhana Chauhanan 334001 • Surjansar 331801 • Surjara 334001 • Surnana 334603 • Surpura 334801 • Takhatpura 334021 • Tejrasar 334202 • Thakariyasar 331803 • Thawariya 334802 • Toliyasar 331803 • Udairamsar 334402 • Udrasar 331801 • Udsar 334802 • Upni 331803 • Utmamdesar 334802

Notable persons

  • Anuprerna Kuntal - RAS Dy. Director (HCM RIPA), Date of Birth : 9-December-1964, Home District : Bikaner, Resident Phone Number : 0141-2701511, Mobile Number : 9829051150, Email Address :
  • Bhagwana Ram Maharia - Rtd.I.T.S.[Indian Telecom Service]from BSNL, Home District : Churu, Resident Phone Number : 0151-2233500, Address : A-162,Khaturia Colony,Bikaner-334001
  • Subhash Maharia - R.A.S., Presently Posted as Deputy Commissioner,JDA,Jaipur,Home District : Bikaner, Resident Phone Number : 0151-2233500, Address : A-162,Khaturia Colony,Bikaner-334001
  • Devendra Singh Kaswa - CRPF, Present Address : 4E/413 , J. N. VYAS COLONY, BIKANER, Raj. Resident Phone Number : 0151-2234585, Mobile Number : 9437555786, Email
  • M. R. CHOUDHARY (Tard) - X.En. RHB, Date of Birth : 25-December-1950,Permanent Address : OUTSIDE JASUSAR GATE, Bikaner, Present Address : 66/168, MANSAROVAR, JAIPUR, Resident Phone Number : 0141-2780855, Mobile Number : 9828109484
  • RAM NARAYAN CHOUDHARY (Tarad) - X.En. PWD, Date of Birth :1958, Permanent Address : C-29, SARDHUL GUNJ MEDICAL COLLAGE ROAD Bikaner, Resident Phone Number : 0151-2529147, Mobile Number : 9829069147
  • Sita Ram (Gorchhiya) - Junior Engineer RSEB, Present Address : Sarvodaya Basti, Near Laxmi Woollen Mill, Bikaner, Mobile Number : 9252780761, Email Address :
  • Vinod Choudhary (Baliyan) - Date of Birth : 28-May-1964, A.En. I.G.M.P. B-6 KARARI NAGAR BEHIND LALGARH PALACE Bikaner, Present Address : S-12/B, SHYAM NAGAR ,JAIPUR,RAJ.Mobile: 9
  • Virendra Singh (Deshwar) - ACADEMIC HEAD NIFA,BIKANER , Date of Birth :19-November-1978, Present Address : 5-D-40, JNV Colony, Bikaner-334003 Rajasthan, Phone: 0151-2233560, Mobile:9414657801, Email Address :
  • चौ महेन्द्र प्रताप ज्याणी (ट्रस्टी), सेक्टर 5 , मकान न: 188 जय नारायण व्यास कॉलोनी , बीकानेर, 9829143875, Trustee for 2013-2017 Session Gramotthan Vidyapeeth Sangaria


  • Raj Kumar Kaswan - RAS (2012), from Bikaner [29]
  • Ashok Kumar Kookna: IRS (C&CE ) 2014 Batch, from Bikaner, Presently under training: 7042310999
  • Krishan Jyani: Danics 2012 batch, CEO, Daman Municipal Council, DS , DIC,Industry, Daman, From Bikaner, Earlier BDO, Rajasthan, IRTS 2013, M: 8285216185
  • Mahendra Godara: IRS (C&CE ) 2016, From Bikaner, M - 9929295036
  • Mohan Ram Legha: IFS 2012 batch, Gujarat Cadre, Posted at Narmada Forest Division, Rajpipla-Narmada, Gujarat, From Bikaner, M: 9712852449


Jat Institutions

Kisan Chhatrawas Bikaner

External links


  1. James Todd Annals, Vol I ,p.141
  2. James Todd Annals, Vol I ,p.142
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.55
  4. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 58
  5. K. K. Sehgal, Rajasthan-Distict-Gazetteers-Bikaner_djvu.txt Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner, p.ii
  6. K. K. Sehgal, Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner, p.19-22
  7. K. K. Sehgal, Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner, p.22-23
  8. K. K. Sehgal, Rajasthan Distict Gazetteers Bikaner, p.23-27
  9. An historical sketch of the native states of India/Bikaner,pp.111-117
  10. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.634
  11. रतन लाल मिश्र, शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, 1998, पृ.43
  12. दौलतराम सारण डालमाण, 'धरती पुत्र', 30.12.2012, पृ. 8-10
  13. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.198
  14. Jat History Thakur Deshraj, p.624)
  15. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.199
  16. Jat History Thakur Deshraj, p.624)
  17. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.199
  18. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.199
  19. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.199
  20. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.199
  21. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का उत्थान, 2015,p.28
  22. दयालदास की ख्यात, भाग-2, पृ.8
  23. जेम्स टोड कृत राजस्थान का इतिहास, अनुवाद कालूराम शर्मा, पृ.402-403
  24. जेम्स टोड कृत राजस्थान का इतिहास, अनुवाद कालूराम शर्मा, पृ.403
  25. Dr Karni Singh (1974): The Relations of House of Bikaner with Central Power, Munsi Ram Manohar Lal Pub. Pvt, 54 Rani Jhansi Road, New Delhi.
  26. Dr Brahmaram Chaudhary, The Jats, Vol. 2, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Originals, Delhi, 2006, ISBN 81-88629-52-9, p. 250
  27. गोविन्द अग्रवाल, चुरू मंडल का शोधपूर्ण इतिहास, पृ. 109-110
  28. डॉ पेमा राम, राजस्थान के जाटों का उत्थान, 2015, पृ.29-30
  29. Jat Gatha, September-2015,p. 15

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