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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Map of Moldova
Location of Moldova

Moldova (मोल्दोवा) is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău. The unrecognised breakaway region of Transnistria lies across the Dniester on the country's eastern border with Ukraine.

Origin of the name

The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River; the valley of this river was a political center when the Principality of Moldavia was founded in 1359.[1] The origin of the name of the river is not clear. There is an account (a legend) of prince Dragoș naming the river after hunting an aurochs: after the chase, his exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river. According to Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, the dog's name was given to the river and extended to the Principality.


Prehistory: The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece.

In 2010, N.K. Anisjutkin discovered Oldowan flint tools at Bayraki that are 800,000–1.2 million years old.[2] During the Neolithic Age, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practised agriculture, raised livestock, hunted, and made intricately designed pottery.[3]

In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, then Byzantine Empires. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgarians, Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars.

The Principality of Moldavia, established in 1359, was bounded by the Carpathian Mountains in the west, Dniester river in the east, and Danube and Black Sea in the south. Its territory comprised the present-day territory of the Republic of Moldova, the eastern eight of the 41 counties of Romania, and the Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak region of Ukraine. Like the present-day republic and Romania's north-eastern region, it was known to the locals as Moldova. Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, since the 15th century, by the Turks. In 1538, the principality became a tributary to the Ottoman Empire, but it retained internal and partial external autonomy.[4]

Etymology of Dacians

The Dacians were known as Geta (plural Getae) in Ancient Greek writings, and as Dacus (plural Daci) or Getae in Roman documents,[5]but also as Dagae and Gaete as depicted on the late Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana. It was Herodotus who first used the ethnonym Getae in his Histories.[6]In Greek and Latin, in the writings of Julius Caesar, Strabo, and Pliny the Elder, the people became known as 'the Dacians'.[7] Getae and Dacians were interchangeable terms, or used with some confusion by the Greeks.[8][9] Latin poets often used the name Getae.[10] Vergil called them Getae four times, and Daci once, Lucian Getae three times and Daci twice, Horace named them Getae twice and Daci five times, while Juvenal one time Getae and two times Daci.[11] In AD 113, Hadrian used the poetic term Getae for the Dacians.[[12] Modern historians prefer to use the name Geto-Dacians.[13] Strabo describes the Getae and Dacians as distinct but cognate tribes. This distinction refers to the regions they occupied.[14] Strabo and Pliny the Elder also state that Getae and Dacians spoke the same language.[15][16]

Jat History

Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia mentions[17] a tribe called the Tyragetae, apparently a Daco-Thracian tribe who dwelt by the river Tyras (the Dniester). Their tribal name appears to be a combination of Tyras and Getae (=Jat).

Getae of Greek language is used for Jats.[18]


मोल्दोवा, आधिकारिक तौर पर मोल्दोवा गणराज्य, पूर्वी यूरोप में स्थित एक स्थलरुद्ध देश है, जिसके पश्चिम में रोमानिया और उत्तर, पूर्व और दक्षिण में यूक्रेन स्थित है। देश की राजधानी चिसीनाउ है।

पुराने समय में आज का मोल्दोवा दासिया का हिस्सा हुआ करता था, जिसके बाद यह रोमन साम्राज्य के अधीन आ गया। मध्य युग में आज के मोल्दोवा का अधिकांश हिस्सा मोल्दोवा राज्य का हिस्सा हुआ करता था। 1812 में इस राज्य के पूर्वी हिस्से पर रूसी साम्राज्य ने कब्जा कर लिया और नाम रखा गया बेस्साराबिया. 1856 से लेकर 1878 के बीच दक्षिण के दो प्रांत (काउंटी) मोल्दोवा में फिर से मिल गए, जो 1859 में वेलाशिया के साथ मिलकर आधुनिक रोमानिया बनाए थे।

1917 में रूसी साम्राज्य के विघटन के बाद पहले स्वायत्त और बाद में स्वतंत्र मोल्दोवियाई लोकतांत्रिक गणराज्य का गठन किया गया, जो 1918 में वृहदतर रोमानिया के साथ मिल गया। 1940 में बेस्साराबिया पर सोवियत संघ ने कब्जा कर यूक्रेनियाई एसएसआर और नवनिर्मित मोल्दोवियाई एसएसआर में विभक्त कर दिया। द्वितीय विश्वयुद्ध के दौरान सत्ता परिवर्तन के दौर से लेकर 27 अगस्त 1991 को स्वतंत्र होने तक, यह देश सोवियत संघ का हिस्सा बना रहा। मार्च 1992 में मोल्दोवा संयुक्त राष्ट्र में शामिल किया गया।

सितंबर 1990 में मोल्दोवा के नीस्टर नदी के पूर्वी तट से लगी संकरे क्षेत्र ट्रांसट्रिया में अलग सरकार का गठन किया गया। 1992 में एक छोटे युद्ध के बाद यह स्वतंत्र राष्ट्र बन गया, हालांकि किसी भी संयुक्त राष्ट्र के सदस्य देश इसे मान्यता नहीं दी है।

External links


  1. Official Website of Moldova
  3. Constantinescu, Bogdan; Bugoi, Roxana; Pantos, Emmanuel; Popovici, Dragomir (2007). "Phase and chemical composition analysis of pigments used in Cucuteni Neolithic painted ceramics". Documenta Praehistorica. Ljubljana: Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. XXXIV: 281–288. doi:10.4312/dp.34.21. ISSN 1408-967X. OCLC 41553667.
  4. "Moldova Library of Congress Country Studies".
  5. Appian & 165 AD, Praef. 4/14-15,
  6. Herodotus. Histories (in Ancient Greek). 4.93–4.97.
  7. Fol, Alexander (1996). "Thracians, Celts, Illyrians and Dacians". In de Laet, Sigfried J. (ed.). History of Humanity. History of Humanity. Vol. 3: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. UNESCO. ISBN 978-9-231-02812-0.p.223
  8. Nandris 1976, p. 730: Strabo and Trogus Pompeius "Daci quoque suboles Getarum sunt"
  9. Crossland, R.A.; Boardman, John (1982). Linguistic problems of the Balkan area in the late prehistoric and early Classical period. The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. 3. CUP. ISBN 978-0-521-22496-3.p.837
  10. Roesler, Robert E. (1864). Das vorromische Dacien. Academy, Wien, XLV.
  11. Roesler 1864, p. 89.
  12. Everitt, Anthony (2010). Hadrian and the Triumph of Rome. Random House Trade. ISBN 978-0-812-97814-8.p.151
  13. Fol 1996, p. 223.
  14. Bunbury, Edward Herbert (1979). A history of ancient geography among the Greeks and Romans: from the earliest ages till the fall of the Roman empire. London: Humanities Press International. ISBN 978-9-070-26511-3.p.150
  15. Bunbury, Edward Herbert (1979). A history of ancient geography among the Greeks and Romans: from the earliest ages till the fall of the Roman empire. London: Humanities Press International. ISBN 978-9-070-26511-3.p.150
  16. Oltean, Ioana Adina (2007). Dacia: landscape, colonisation and romanisation. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41252-0.p.44
  17. Pliny the Elder: The Natural History. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A., Ed.
  18. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc, : Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998 p. 237

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