Strabo

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Strabo (63/64 BC – ca. AD 24) was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.

स्ट्राबो - यह भी यूनानी लेखक था। रोम के हमलों के बाद से इसका परिचय जाटों से हुआ था और इसी कारण इसने उनके वर्णन को स्थान दिया है।[1][2]

His life

Strabo was born in a wealthy family from Amaseia in Pontus (modern Amasya Turkey),[3] which had recently become part of the Roman Empire. Pontus fell to the Roman general Pompey in 63 BC and after the murder or suicide of Mithridates VI of Pontus was broken up into smaller provinces in 64 BC. Strabo in Book 12 Chapter 3 Section 41 states that the Romans took possession of Bithynia "a little before my time", setting the date of his birth to after 63 BC.. He studied under various geographers and philosophers; first in Nysa, later in Rome. He was philosophically a Stoic and politically a proponent of Roman imperialism. Later he made extensive travels to Egypt and Kush, among others. It is not known when his Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 AD, others around 18 AD. Last dateable mention is given to the death in 23 AD of Juba II, king of Maurousia (Mauretania), who is said to have died "just recently".[4] On the presumption that "recently" means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next (24 AD), when he died.

Strabo's History

Strabo's History is nearly completely lost. Although Strabo quotes it himself, and other classical authors mention that it existed, the only surviving document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan (renumbered [Papyrus] 46).

Several different dates have been proposed for Strabo's death, but most of them conclude that Strabo died shortly after 23 AD.

Strabo is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era.

Map of Europe according to Strabo

It is an important source of information on the ancient world, especially when information is corroborated by other sources. Within the books of Geographica is a map of Europe.

Strabo on Jat clans

Strabo came to know about Jats after attack on Rome by the Jats. Based on the information of Herodotus and Strabo Alexander Cunningham and James Tod have written about Jats. Here is details of some Jat clans mentioned in Strabo, Geography (eds. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.)- Full text this book is Online under the heading - See also.

  • Xanthii - Sir Alexander Cunningham, Former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, considered the Jat people to be the Xanthii (a Scythian tribe) of Scythian stock who he considered very likely called the Zaths (Jats) of early Arab writers.[5] He stated "their name is found in Northern India from the beginning of the Christian era." These people were considered by early Arab writers to have descended from Meds and Zaths.[6][7] Sir Cunningham believes they "were in full possession of the valley of the Indus towards the end of the seventh century.[8] Sir Alexander Cunningham held that the Rajputs belonged to the original Scythian stock, and the Jats to a late wave of immigrants from the north west, of Scythian race.[8]
  • Jutland - Herodotus and Strabo agree that in about 2000 BC, the Jati community lived in Jutland. They built a temple there dedicated to their Goddess Ahilya. Her abode was in the garden and a cow drew her chariot. They also built the temple Apsala. The name of their God was Oven, which meant Budha the forefather of Chandravansh.
  • Dahia - Strabo says that Arsaces, a king of the Dahi, Conquered Parthia. [9] In 224 A.D. the Sassanids superseded, the Arscid Empire of Iran founded by him. Here the Orkan are the same as Varkan or Virks. “ The Armenians still call the Georgians by the name of Virk which is pronounced with a guttural termination” [10] [11]
  • Asiagh & Takhar - The Greek writer Strabo has only praise Takhars, in spite of the fact that they had destroyed the Greek kingdoms of Bactria. Says he:
"The best known as the nomad tribes are those who drove away the Greeks out of Bactria, the Asi, the Pasiani, the Tochri and Śacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of Jaxartes...[12], [13]
  • Lega & Gill - THE Amazons are said to live among the mountains above Albania. Theophanes, who accompanied Pompey in his wars, and was in the country of the Albanians, says that Gelæ and Legæ, Scythian tribes, live between the Amazons and the Albanians, and that the river Mermadalis2 takes its course in the country lying in the middle between these people and the Amazons.[14] Strabo mentions the Gelæ again, c. vii. § 1, but in a manner which does not agree with what he here says of their position. We must perhaps suppose that this people, in part at least, have changed their place of residence, and that now the greater part of their descendants are to be found in Ghilan, under the name of Gelæ, or Gelaki. The name of Leges, or Legæ, who have continued to occupy these regions, is recognised in that of Legi, Leski. Gossellin.
  • Dahiya - THE nomades, or wandering tribes, who live on the left side of the coast on entering the Caspian Sea, are called by the moderns Dahæ, and surnamed Parni. (C. viii. § 2) Then there intervenes a desert tract, which is followed by Hyrcania; here the Caspian spreads like a deep sea till it approaches the Median and Armenian mountains. [15]
  • Saka & Massagetæ - On the left hand opposite to these parts are situated the Scythian and nomadic nations, occupying the whole of the northern side. Most of the Scythians, beginning from the Caspian Sea, are called Dahæ Scythæ, and those situated more towards the east Massagetæ and Sacæ; the rest have the common appellation of Scythians, but each separate tribe has its peculiar name. All, or the greatest part of them, are nomades. The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Bactriana, the Asii, Pasiani, (Asiani?) Tochari, and Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Iaxartes,i.e. Syr-Dariya, opposite the Sacæ and Sogdiani, and which country was also occupied by Sacæ; some tribes of the Dahæ are surnamed Aparni, some Xanthii, others Pissuri. [p. 246] The Aparni approach the nearest of any of these people to llyrcania, and to the Caspian Sea. The others extend as far as the country opposite to Aria. [16]
  • Scythians - On the left hand (On advancing from the S. E. of the Hyrcanian Sea towards the E.) opposite to these parts are situated the Scythian and nomadic nations, occupying the whole of the northern side. Most of the Scythians, beginning from the Caspian Sea, are called Dahæ Scythæ, and those situated more towards the east Massagetæ and Sacæ; the rest have the common appellation of Scythians, but each separate tribe has its peculiar name. All, or the greatest part of them, are nomades. The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Bactriana, the Asii, Pasiani, (Asiani?) Tochari, and Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Iaxartes,(The Syr-Daria) opposite the Sacæ and Sogdiani, and which country was also occupied by Sacæ; some tribes of the Dahæ are surnamed Aparni, some Xanthii, others Pissuri. [p. 246] The Aparni approach the nearest of any of these people to llyrcania, and to the Caspian Sea. The others extend as far as the country opposite to Aria. [18]
  • Dahæ - Afterwards Arsaces, a Scythian, (with the Parni, called nomades, a tribe of the Dahæ, who live on the banks of the Ochus,) invaded Parthia, and made himself master of it. Afterwards Arsaces, a Scythian, (with the Parni, called nomades, a tribe of the Dahæ, who live on the banks of the Ochus,) invaded Parthia, and made himself master of it. [19]
  • Dahæ - They say that the Dahæ Parni were an emigrant tribe from the Dahæ above the Mæotis, who are called Xandii and Parii. But it is not generally acknowledged that Dahæ are to be found among the Scythians above the Meotis, yet from these Arsaces according to some was descended; according to others he was a Bactrian, and withdrawing himself from the increasing power of Diodotus, occasioned the revolt of Parthia. [20]
  • Dabas - Other tribes do not put to death even the greatest offenders, but only banish them from their territories together with their children; which is contrary to the custom of the Derbices, who punish even slight offences with death. The Derbices worship the earth. They neither sacrifice, nor eat the female of any animal. Persons who attain the age of above seventy years are put to death by them, and their nearest relations eat their flesh. Old women are strangled, and then buried. Those who die under seventy years of age are not eaten, but are only buried. [21]
  • Manda - MEDIA is divided into two parts, one of which is called the Greater Media (Manda). Its capital is Ecbatana, a large city containing the royal seat of the Median empire. This palace the Parthians continue to occupy even at this time. Here their kings pass the summer, for the air of Media is cool. Their winter residence is at Seleucia, on the Tigris, near Babylon. [22]
  • Virk - Strabo says that Arsaces, a king of the Dahi, conquered Parthia.[23] In 224 A.D., the Sassanids superseded, the Arscid Empire of Iran founded by him. Here the Orkan are the same as Varkan or Virks. "The Armenians still call the Georgians by the name of Virk, which is pronounced with a guttural termination".[24][25]
  • Sibia - They pretended that the Sibæ were descended from the people who accompanied Hercules in his expedition, and that they retained badges of their descent; that they wore skins like Hercules, and carried clubs, and branded with the mark of a club their oxen and mules. The Sibæ, according to Quintus Curtius, who gives them the name of Sobii, occupied the confluent of the Hydaspes and the Acesines. This people appear to have been driven towards the east by one of those revolutions so frequent in all Asia. At least, to the north of Delhi, and in the neighbourhood of Haridwar, a district is found bearing the name of Siba.[26]
  • Sibia & Malli - Below, and next in order, are the people called Sibæ, whom we formerly mentioned,71 and the great nations, the Malli72 and Sydracæ (Oxydracæ). It was among the Malli that Alexander [p. 95] was in danger of losing his life, from a wound he received at the capture of a small city. The Sydracæ, we have said, are fabled to be allied to Bacchus. [27]
  • Darda - This writer says that he saw skins of the myrmeces (or ants), which dig up gold, as large as the skins of leopards. Megasthenes, however, speaking of the myrmeces, says, among the Derdæ a populous nation of the Indians, living towards the east, and among the mountains, there was a mountain plain of about 3000 stadia in circumference; that below this plain were mines containing gold, which the myrmeces, in size not less than foxes, dig up. [28]
  • Takshak - Strabo writes that the Takshaks named Kardastan as Takshakstan. Later the name was changed to Turkistan and consequently, the inhabitants began to be called -Turks.[30]
  • Goraya - Strabo has also mentioned Goraya tribe.[31]

See also

External links

References

  1. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter VI,p.173
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV,p.320
  3. Geography Book XII Chapter 3 Section 15, "Amaseia, my fatherland."
  4. Strabonis Geographica, Book 17, Chapter 7.
  5. Sir Alexander Cunningham, (Sir, Major-General, and former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India), Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 33.
  6. Sir Alexander Cunningham, (Sir, Major-General, and former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India), Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 33.
  7. Rose, H.A., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Reprinted by the Languages Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970, first published in 1883, pp. 362-363, (Vol. II), 58 (Vol. I).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Alexander Cunningham, The Ancient Geography of India: The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang (1871), pp. 290-291. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Alexander Cunningham" defined multiple times with different content
  9. Rowlinson, op. cit , p. 520
  10. ibid. p. 530 note 4
  11. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), 1980, Sterling Publishers New Delhi, p. 280
  12. Strabo, XI, 151
  13. Bhim Singh Dahiya -Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 273
  14. Strabo,XI. 5.1
  15. Strabo, XI.7.1
  16. Strabo, XI.7.2
  17. Strabo, XI.7.6
  18. Strabo, XI.8.2
  19. Strabo, XI.9.2
  20. Strabo, XI.9.3
  21. Strabo, XI.11.7
  22. Strabo, XI.13.1
  23. Rowlinson, op. cit., p. 520.
  24. Rowlinson., p. 530, note 4.
  25. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India, p.280
  26. Strabo, XV.1.8
  27. Strabo, XV.1.33
  28. Strabo, XV.1.44
  29. Strabo, XV.1.54
  30. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter VI, p.116
  31. XV, p. 567

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