Sikandar Lodi

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Sikandar Lodi (सिकंदर लोदी) (r. 1489-1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 to 1517. He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Khan in July 1489.[1][2]

The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate. He was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.

Early life

Sikandar was the son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. Sikandar was of Pashtun origin through his father.[3]

History

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on July 17, 1489. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra.

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God. Coin of Sikandar Lodi

The History of the Delhi Sultanate by M.M. Syed notes that Sikandar Lodi frequently razed temples and erected mosques in their place, for example at Mandrail, Utgir, and Narwar. In Mathura, he prevented Hindus from bathing in the sacred ghats and from shaving.

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts..he took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people.he introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari,means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands. Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India. 1514. Mat̲nawī-yi mihr u māh (905H.). Publication of the Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, serial no.

Sikandar Lodi tried to conquer the Gwalior Fort, and he attacked five times, but was foiled on all occasions by the king of Gwalior Maharaja Mansingh. He developed Agra as his second capital (after Delhi), as it took a lot of time to travel from Delhi to Gwalior. Agra was known as Shiraz of India during Sikandar Lodi's time.[5] Finally he attacked a small region, near Gwalior named Narwar, and he had to wait 11 months at the gates of the Narwar fort, after 11 months when the people found that nothing had left to eat, they surrendered to Sikandar Lodi. Once again he attacked on Gwalior, and was defeated by Maharaja Mansingh and his wife Mrignayani.

Death

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

सिकंदर लोदी और सर्वखाप पंचायत

सन 1490 में दिल्ली पर सिकंदर लोदी का शासन था. उसने प्रजा पर राजस्व कर बढा दिए और हिन्दुओं पर जजिया कर लगा दिया. किसानों की हालत ख़राब हो गई और हाहाकार मच गया. लोदी के आतंक के विरुद्ध सर्वखाप पंचायत के नेतृत्व में किसानों की महा पंचायत हुई. पंचायत ने दिल्ली को घेरने का संकल्प लिया. दिल्ली में जब लोदी को पता लगा कि सर्वखाप पंचायत के मल्ल योद्धा दिल्ली के लिए कूच कर गए हैं तो सुलतान डर गया. वह सर्वखाप पंचायत के मुख्यालय सौरम गया और पंचायत से समझौता कर लिया तथा 500 अशर्फियाँ भी पंचायत को भेंट की, बदले में पंचायत ने अपनी सेना वापिस बुला ली. [4]

सिकंदर लोदी की मृत्यु के बाद उसका लड़का इब्राहीम लोदी गद्दी पर बैठा, परन्तु उसके छोटे भाई जलालुद्दीन ने विद्रोह कर दिया. इब्राहीम लोदी ने सर्वखाप पंचायत की सहायता मांगी. सर्वखाप के मल्ल योद्धाओं ने जलालुद्दीन और उसके हजारों सैनिकों को रमाला (बागपत) के जंगलों में घेर लिया और आत्मसमर्पण के लिए मजबूर कर दिया. [5]

References

  1. SULṬĀN SIKANDAR IBN I SULṬĀN BUHLŪL, The Muntakhabu-'rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  2. Lodi Kings: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  3. Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 23
  5. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 23