Agra

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Agra district map

Agra (आगरा) is a city in Uttar Pradesh. It was founded by Agre clan of Jats.

Tahsils in Agra district

Villages in Agra Tahsil

Abhaypura, Agra (CB), Agra (M Corp.), Akbarpur, Akola, Albatia, Anguthi, Artauni, Azizpur (CT), Babarpur Mustkil, Baad, Bagda, Bahenta, Bain Khera, Bainpur Mustkil, Bajhera, Balhera, Bamrauli Ahir, Bamrauli Katara, Barara, Barauli Ahir, Barauli Gujar, Basai, Basua Nagla, Bhahai, Bhandai, Bichpuri, Bijhamai, Bilahani, Bisarna, Bishara Kalan, Bishari Bhand, Brahmnagar, Budhana Mustkil, Budhera, Chak Vi Chor Nagaria, Chamrauli, Chauhatna, Dayalbagh (NP), Dehtora, Deoretha, Deori, Dhamota, Dhanauli (CT), Digner, Etmadpur Madra, Gamari, Gangraua, Garhsani, Gutla, Hingot Kheria, Ikthara, Islampur, Itaura, Jakhoda, Janara, Jarua Katra, Jaupura, Kaboolpur, Kahrai, Kakrari, Kakua, Kalal Kheria, Kalika Nagla, Kalwari, Karmana Mustkil, Kaulakha, Khal, Khallauwa, Khaspur Mustkil, Khera Bhagor, Kuan Khera, Kundol, Kuthawati, Lakavali, Lakhanpur, Lalau, Laramada, Lodhai, Mahua Khera, Malpura, Manghatai, Mankenda, Mayapura, Mehra Naharganj, Midhakur, Mohammadpur, Mundhera, Nadauta, Nagla Nathu, Nainana Jat (CT), Nainana-Brahman, Nanpur, Naubari, Nauphari, Pachgain Khera, Patholi, Patti Pachgain, Pawawali, Pinani Ramnagar, Rajrai, Rampura, Rohta, Sadarban, Sahara, Saimari, Salemabad, Samogar Ehtmali, Samogar Mustkil, Sargan Khera, Sarvatpur, Shyamo, Sikandarpur Mustkil, Siroli, Sucheta, Sujgai, Sunari, Sutendi, Swami Mustkil, Swamibagh (NP), Tanora Nurpur Mustkil, Tapara, Tora,

History

It finds mention in the epic Mahabharata where it was called Agrevaṇa (अग्रेवण). Monier Williams interprets it as 'the border of the forest'.[1] . But it is not the correct interpretation. This area was inhabited by the Agre clan of the Jats and hence its meaning is 'the forest of Agre people'. Ptolemy, the famous second century A.D. geographer, marked it on his map of the world as Agra. [2]

Legend ascribes the founding of the city to Rājā Badal Singh (around 1475), whose fort, Badalgarh, stood on or near the site of the present Fort. However, the 11th century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra, then held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.[3] Sultan Sikandar Lodhī was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in the year 1506; he died in 1517 and his son Ibrāhīm Lodhī remained in power there for nine more years, finally being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526.[4] It achieved fame as the capital of the Mughal emperors from 1526 to 1658 and remains a major tourist destination because of its many splendid Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all three of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In addition Akbar's tomb at Sikanrabad in Agra is a monument of note.

Capture of Agra Fort (12 June 1761)

Agra was the richest town during those. Maharaja Suraj Mal decided to capture Agra fort to re-establish his influence in doab region. On 3 may 1761 the Jat army of Suraj Mal with 4000 Jat soldiers reached Agra under the command of Balram Singh and gave the massage of Maharaja Suraj Mal to the kiledar (incharge) of Agra fort that the army wants to cross Jamuna and needs camping place. The kiledar gave the sanction for camping. Meanwhile the Jat army started entering the fort, which was resisted by the guards in which 200 people died. Jat army started war from Jamamasjid. During this period Maharaja Suraj Mal stayed at Mathura to observe the situations. On 24 May 1761 Maharaja Suraj Mal along with Imād and Gangadhar Tantya moved from Mathura, crossed Jamuna and reached Aligarh. From Aligarh his army moved and captured the areas of Jat ruler koīl and Jalesar. They reached Agra to help his army at Agra in the first week of June. Maharaja Suraj Mal arrested the family members of the guards staying in Agra town and pressurized the guards of fort for surrender. At last the kiledar agreed to surrender by receiving a bribe of Rs 1 lakh and jagir of five villages. Thus after a seize of one month Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. [5]

Maharaja Jawahar Singh Memorial Agra

After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under residentship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. There is a haveli in the name Maharaja Nawal Singh in Agra Fort and also a Chhatri of Maharaja Jawahar Singh built in right-side of Khasmahal near the Chhatri of Rosanara-Jahanara.[6],[7]

Jat Khaps in Agra districts

  • Source: Jat Bandhu, April 1991

References

  1. Monier Williams' Sanskrit Lexicon. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/
  2. http://agra.nic.in/hist.htm
  3. District Profile - Government Website
  4. http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_agrafort.asp
  5. Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197-200
  6. Agra Gazeteer 1884, page 620
  7. Jatbandhu Agra, 25 January 2005

External links


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