Gwalior

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
District map of Gwalior

Gwalior (ग्वालियर) is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India.

Location

It lies 76 miles (122 km) south of Agra and has a population of over 12 lakh (1,200,000). The Gwalior metropolitan area is the 46th most populated area in the country.

Chhatri of Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana at Gwalior fort

Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of North India, and the city and its fortress have served as the center of several of North India's historic kingdoms. At present also its strategic location is marked by the presence of major air base at Maharajpura. Gwalior is the administrative headquarters of Gwalior district and Gwalior division.

Variants of name

Geography

Gwalior is located at 26.22|N|78.18|E [1]. It has an average elevation of 197 metres. Gwalior is a historical Indian city - is located on the periphery of Madhya Pradesh State, 321 km (199.5 Miles) from Delhi and 121 km (76 Miles) from Agra.

Tahsils in Gwalior District

Origin of name

The city is named after a sage called Gwaliap. A king once met this sage in a dense forest, and the sage told him to build a city on that spot after his name.

Jatwara Trans Chambal

The approximate axis of the Jatwara Trans Chambal could be taken to comprise the general line represented by Bhind, Gohad and Indargarh, overlapping the modern districts of Bhind (Gohad and Lahar tahsils), Gwalior (Morar and Bhitarwar blocks and Dabra tahsils) and Datia (Indargarh tahsil) in the present day Madhya Pradesh. Astride this axis and in a fan-like direction from it, there is a scattered population of Jats: to the East, it extends towards the lower reaches of the Chambal and Sind Rivers: to the West towards Gwalior, Shivpuri, Dabra, Magrora, and Bhitarwar. Gohad, Pichhore and Magrora were Jat states having about 360 Jat Forts. As a rule exclusive Jat habitations are few. More often the Jat is to be found in solitary homesteads in composite ethnic villages, his remote ancestor probably having been assigned the custody of the local Jat garhi (minor fortification), still precariously perched atop the neighboring hillock.

Jat Gotras in and around Gwalior

History

Maharaja Bhim Singh Chhatri at Gwalior Fort
View from the summit of the Gwalior Fort showing the palace of the Maharajah of Scindia. circa 1882.

Ram Sarup Joon[2] writes that ....Samudra Gupta conquered the whole of Punjab and a major part of India. The clans defeated by him included


Ram Sarup Joon[3] writes that ...The Pehwa edict describes the rule of three Tomar kings. It is mentioned that they were the descendants of 'Jabala', the Hun who had ruled there before them- the third edict narrates the rule of Jabla Toraman.

There is an old saying in Rohilkhand that the Chief Toraman Kachwaha attacked Iran in 943 A.D. He conquered the territory from Iran to Bhopal. He constructed a fort at Gwalior. The descendants of Bhur Sen came to be called Kachhwaha in 945 A.D., and ruled Gwalior till 933 A.D., when Pratihars seized power. Therefore, if we accept this the Kachwaha Rajputs are the descendants of Torman, Jabla Gujars.

Charak Rai (the Bhat] who lived during the reign of Emperor Shah Jehan writes that the king of Iran was Torman. Shri Bhanderkar and General Cunningham and Mr. Smith all prove that Torman, Kachwaha and Pratihars are all descendants of Jabla Gujars. One of the edicts of Hun Chief Jabla was excavated in Malwa, at Mandsor, and is said to have been inscribed in 533 A.D.

According to this edict King Meharkul was the son of Torman, who was defeated and driven out by Yashodharaman.


Ram Sarup Joon[4] writes that ...In the history of Bundel Khand Mr. Bage Bahadur Mazbut S1ngh has elaborated, proving Gwalior Pratihars as Gujars. An elder of King Brijman Pratihar Laxman was on the throne of Gwalior in 933 AD, According to Shri Bhanderkar, after Brijman, the Pratihar kings adopted the title of Kachwaha. From the foregoing it is quite evident that Pratihars and Kachwahas are of the same stock.


At the heart of Gwalior is its fortress (Gwalior Fort), built by Raja Man Singh Tomar, of the Tomar dynasty. This formidable structure had the reputation of being one of the most invincible forts of India. It occupies an isolated rock outcrop. The hill is steepended to make it virtually unscalable and is surrounded by high walls which enclose buildings from several periods. The old town of Gwalior lies at the eastern base of the fortress. Lashkar, formerly a separate town that originated as a military camp, lies to the south, and Morar, also a formerly separate town, lies to the east . Gwalior, Lashkar and Morar are presently part of Gwalior Municipality.

Massive Gwalior Fort, popularly called Gibraltar of India overlooks the city. The great Mughal Emperor Babur reputedly described it as, "The pearl in the necklace of the forts of Hind".

In the east of the city are two magnificent examples of early Mughal architecture. One is mausoleum of, 16th century Sufi saint Ghous Mohammed, and another is tomb of Mian Tansen, a great singer and one of the 'Nine Jewels' of Emperor Akbar's court.

Close to the heart of the city is splendid Jai Vilas Palace, patterned on the style of the 'Palais de Versailles' in France combines Tuscan, Italian and Corinthian styles of architecture.

Rich in cultural heritage and architectural marvels, Gwalior has the added advantage of it's proximity to Agra, the city of Taj Mahal, Khajuraho, the city of great temples and Delhi, the national capital.

Historically and architecturally, Gwalior is interesting first as a very ancient seat of Jain worship; secondly for its example of palace architecture of the best Hindu period (1486-1516); and thirdly as an historic fortress. Many historical places are found near the Dabra-Bhitarwar Road. Prior to the founding of Gwalior the region was also known by its ancient name of Gopasetra. The great Apabhramsha poet Pandit Raighu lived in Gwalior. Gwalior had an institutional seat of the Bhattarakas of Kashtha Sangh and later Mula Sangh.


According to local legend, the original fort of Gwalior was founded by the Kachwaha chief, Suraj Sen. His palace is the most interesting example of early Hindu work of its class in India. Another palace of even greater extent was added to this in 1516. The Mughal emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan added palaces to these two, the whole making a group of edifices unequalled for picturesqueness and interest by anything of their class in central India. Among the apartments in the palace was the celebrated chamber, named the Baradari, supported on 12 columns, and 45 ft (15 m) square, with a stone roof, forming one of the most beautiful palace-halls in the world. It was, besides, singularly interesting from the expedients to which the Hindu architect was forced to resort to imitate the vaults of the Muslims. Of the buildings, however, which so excited the admiration of the first Mughal emperor Babur, probably little now remains.

Jai Vilas palace, in Lashkar is a marvellous palace museum, part of which is open to the public and gives a glimpse into the life of the royal family.

The Fort area is also home of the Scindia School, a well regarded institution founded by the late Maratha Maharaja Madho Rao Scindia of Gwalior in 1897.

A striking part of the Jain remains at Gwalior is a series caves or rock-cut sculptures, excavated in the rock on all sides, and numbering nearly a hundred, great and small. Most of them are mere niches to contain statues, though some are cells that may have been originally intended for residences. One curious fact regarding them is that, according to inscriptions, they were all excavated within the short period of about thirty-three years, between 1441 and 1474. One of the colossal figures is 57 ft (17 m) high, which is taller than any other in northern India.

Gwalior fort also has the Gurudwara Data Bandi built in the memory of the sixth Sikh Guru Har Gobind. This Gurudwara is particularly large and grand, built entirely of marble with coloured glass decorating the main building. Recital of the Guru Granth Sahib creates a peaceful and sacred atmosphere.


Gopadri in Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[5] mentions that when Sussala became King of Kashmir second time in 1121 AD he faced difficulties. There happened a disaster on the bridge over the Sindhu, king was defeated but Renewal of war continued. It is mentioned that Ananda of the family of Kaka, Loshtasha, Nala and other renowned warriors in the Damara army were killed by the king's (Sussala) soldiers. Lamnā was not brought before the eyes of the severe king, but the king's servants, like Chandalas, killed many people. The remnant of Bhikshu's army ascended the hill of Gopadri in fear, but the king's soldiers surrounded them on all sides and their destruction became imminent. In order to save his horses, the proud Bhikshu sent them to a place beyond the reach of arrows. Prithvihara's neck was pierced by an arrow, and he with difficulty stood by the side of Bhikshu. There also stood two or three great warriors similarly distressed. Besieged, as a sea side rock by the waves, the army of Bhikshu left Gopāchala and ascended other hills. The king's army was led up the hill by Sussa. At this time Mallakoshta's infantry which had harassed many places arrived at the spot. The royal soldiers in their eagerness to follow up the enemy, left the king behind and never thought of him. The king -was attacked by Mallakoshta,


[p.95]: but at the very moment when he was unable to save himself any longer, Prajji and his younger brother entered the field of battle. On the eighth dark lunar day of Ashada, many horsemen arrived and the sound of their weapons told their worth. Mallakoshtaka, aided by his son, was checked by them, as the forest fire, aided by wind, is quenched by the rains of Shravana and Bhadra.

Places of historical importance

  • Gwalior
  • Pavaya (पवाया) : the ancient name Padmavati (पद्मावती).

Capture of Gwalior Fort by Jats

Following the decline of the Mughal Empire, the fort was usurped by Gohad dynasty by a Jat Rana King. [6] Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana increased his power and was planning to expand his territories. He marched to Malwa in 1736 but came back and targeted the Gwalior Fort. Marathas were also in race to win the Gwalior Fort. The weak and easy-going Mughal satrap Alikhan, looking to the power of Jats, surrendered the fort to Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana. Meanwhile there was a severe fight between Marathas and Jats to win the Gwalior Fort but Jats won and the Gwalior fort came under Jats. Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana occupied the Gwalior fort from 1740-1756.[7]


In 1756 Marathas attacked the Gwalior Fort under the leadership of Mahadji Sheetole, Yammaji Rahalkar and Motiram Bani with a huge army. Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana was wounded and died in war on Chaitra sudi nawami (Ram nawami) in 1756. [8]

The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707–1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757–1782) occupied the Gwalior Fort thrice:

Historical monuments on Gwalior fort by Jats

Bheemtal, chatri of Maharaja Bheem Singh Rana of Gohad, built by Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana after his conquest of the Gwalior fort

Maharaja Bhim Singh had constructed a historical monument Bhimtal in 1754 on the Gwalior fort. His successor Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana constructed a grand Chhatri near Bhimtal in memory of Maharaja Bhim Singh on the Gwalior Fort. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior organizes a fair on Gwalior fort on Ram Navami every year in honour of Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana.[15]

Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior is doing important activities of Conducting research on Jat history and Jat historical places. Their greatest contribution is finding of the historical facts, never recorded in history, that Jat rulers of Gohad had occupied the Gwalior fort twice Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1740-1756) and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana (1780-1783). During this period they constructed historical monuments in the Gwalior Fort - The Chhatri of Maharaja Bhim Singh and Bhimtal.

Gwalior Stone Inscription of Mihirakula (ca. early 6th century CE)

  • [Ôm!] May he (the Sun) protect you, who is victorious,-dispelling the darkness of the banks of clouds with the masses of the multitude of his rays that light up the sky; (and) decorating the top of the side of the mountain of dawn with (his) horses, which have the tossing ends of (their) manes deshevelled through the fatigue (induced) by (their) startled gait;-(and) who,-having (his) chariot-wheels (?) swallowed (?)…………. The mountain of dawn; dispelling distress; (being) the light of the house which is the world; (and) effecting the destruction of night,-creates the fresh beauty of the waterlilies by (his) rays which are of the colour of molten gold!
  • (Line 2.)-(There was) a ruler of [the earth], of great merit, who was renowned by the name of the glorious Tôramâna; by whom, through (his) heroism that was specially characterised by truthfulness, the earth was governed with justice.
  • (L. 3.)-Of him, the fame of whose family has risen high, the son (is) he, of unequalled prowess, the lord of the earth, who is renowned under the name of Mihirakula, (and) who, (himself) unbroken, [broke the power of] Pasupati.
  • (L. 4.)-While [he], the king, the remover of distress, possessed of large and pellucid eyes, is governing the earth; in the augmenting reign, (and) in the fifteenth year, of (him) the best of kings; the month Kârttika, cool and fragrant with the perfume of the red and blue waterlilies that are caused to blossom by the smiles of the rays of the moon, having come; while the spotless moon is shining; and a very auspicious day,-heralded by the chiefs of the classes of the twice-born with the noise of the proclamation of a holy day, (and) possessed of the (proper) tithi and nakshatra and muhûrta,-having arrived;-
  • (L. 5.)-The son’s son of Matritula, and the son of Mâtridâsa, by the name Mâtrichêta, an inhabitant of ………… on the hill, has caused to be made, on the delightful temple, the chief among the best of temples, of the Sun, for the purpose of increasing the religious merit of (his) parents and of himself, and of those who, by the ……… of the king, dwell on this best of mountains.
  • (L. 7.)-Those who cause to be made an excellent house of the Sun, like in lustre to the rays of the moon,-their abode is in heaven, until the destruction of all things!
  • (L. 7.)-(This) very famous proclamation of the true religion has been composed through devotion to the Sun, by him who is renowned by the name of Kesava and by…. ditya.
  • (L. 8.)-As long as the moon shines on the thicket that is the knot of the braided hair of (the god) Sarva; and as long as the mountain Meru continues to have (its) slopes adorned by the feet of the nymphs of heaven; and as long as (the god) Vishnu bears the radiant (goddess) Srî upon (his) breast which is like a dark-blue cloud;-so long (this) chief of [stone]-temples shall stand upon the delightful summit of the hill!
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 163-164.

The Gwalior Prashasti of Gurjara-Pratihara Bhoja

[Page-99] The stone which bears this inscription was discovered in 1896, about half a mile west of Gwalior town, at Sagar Tal in the Gird-Gwalior district. It contains 17 lines. The first twelve lines are incised with great care and neatness and the letters are so distinct and beautiful that they can be read without hesitation even from a distance. The remaining lines, for some unaccountable reasons are not so distinctly engraved, but can be read, without any great difficulty, especially from the reverse side of the estampage. The whole inscription is thus clearly legible except two letters at the end of line 5 where the stone surface is damaged. The language of the inscription is Sanskrit, and except the benedictory formula at the beginning, it is throughout composed in metrical form.


[Page-100] The inscription records erection of a house in his sereglio, by the Grjar-Pratihara king Bhoja in honour of Vishnu, and begins in an invocation to that God. Verse-2 describes the creation of the Sun and names some important kings born in solar race. Verse-3 refers to Rama and his terrible fight with Ravana.The family to which Bhoja belonged is traced from Lakshamana, the younger brother of Rama (V.3).


[Page-101] Of these, Nagabhata I defeated a Mlechchha army (v. 4), and Devaraja is said to hare defeated a host of tings (v. 5). His son Vatsaraja, a famous king, forcibly wrested the empire from the Bhandi clan (vv. 6-7) and Nagabhata II defeated Chakrayudha and also conquered kings of the Anartta, Turushka, Malava, Vatsa, Matsya and other countries (vv. 8-11). Bhoja also called Mihira, is said to have defeated his powerful enemies and verses 16-26 describe his greatness in general terms.

The chronology of the kings mentioned in this inscription may be fixed with a tolerable degree of certainty. We have the dates 756-7 AD for Nagabhata I, 783-4 A.D. for Vatsaraja, 815 A.D. for Nagabhata II, and dates ranging from 843 to 881 A.D. for Bhoja. Again, we learn from a Jaina book, the Prabhavaka-charita, that king Nagavaloka of Kanyakubja, the grand-father of Bhoja died in 890 Vikrama-Samvat, and this Nagavaloka has been correctly identified with Nagabhata II. Thus the first three kings of the genealogical table may be placed between 725 and 775 A.D., and the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh kings may be taken to have ascended the throne respectively at about 775, 800, 833 and 840 A.D.

Before the discovery of this inscription, our knowledge of the Gurjara-Pratlhra kings, who played such an important part in Indian history, was very limited and inaccurate. Although the late A. M. T. Jackson, M.A., I.C.S., and Prof. Bhandarkar laid the true foundation of our knowledge about the Gurjara-Pratlhara history, a complete understanding of the subject, in all its bearings, was impossible, in consequence of the view held by Dr, Fleet, Dr. Kielhorn and others, that the homonymous kings referred to in the copper-plates lived earlier than, and were thus different from, those mentioned in the stone inscriptions. It was the discovery of this inscription that finally settled the question and facilitated the proper treatment of the Gurjara-Pratlhara history. Dr. V. A. Smith has clearly pointed out, that the express mention of the family name of the kings in this inscription helps us to definitely assign the royal dynasty of Kanauj to the Grurjara-Pratlhira clan.

The rise and growth of the great Gurjara empire, which played such a conspicuous part in Indian polity in the ninth century AD, is clearly traced by our inscription. The names of the early kings of the dynasty, recorded in inscriptions, such as the Daulatpura copper-plate of Bhojadeva, Dighwi Dubauli plate of Mahendrapala and the Bengal Asiatic Society's copper-plate of Vinayakapala are but a mere string of names without any details such as are to be found in the present inscription. This invests our record with particular importance, and the data it furnishes may be justly said to have revealed an altogether new chapter of Indian history. The founder of the royal line is named Nagabhata, a name not yet found in any other record of the family. He is said to have defeated the Malechchha army, and the manner in which this solitary fact is mentioned with regard to him seems to show that it was looked upon


[Page-102] as of great importance in the history of the family. Now the locality of and the period when he flourished may be gathered from a passage in the Jaina Harivamsha. The passage has been noticed by various scholars, and the following remark of Dr. Fleet may be taken to represent the earlier views regarding its interpretation.

"A passage in the Jana Harivamsha of Jinasena tells us that that work was finished in Saka-samvatvat 705 (expired)= 783-784 A.D., when there were reigning in various directions determined with town named Vardhamanapura, which has to be identified with modern Wadhwan town in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar, in the north, Indrayudha; in the south, Shrivllabha, in the east Vatsaraja, king of Avanti (Ujjain) ; and in the west, Varaha or Jayavaraha in the territory of the Sauryas."

[Page-103]

Thus all the available evidence shows that Nagabhata I established the greatness of his family by his triumphant success over the Arabs. The Hansot plates of the Chahamana feudatory Bhartrivaddha II records a grant that was made at Broach, in the increasing reign of victory of the glorious Nagavaloka, in the year 756 A.D. Prof. D. R. Bhandarkar upheld the view that this Nagavaloka is no other than Nagabhata I, and Dr. Sten Konow has accepted it. It would then follow that he re-established the Pratihara sovereignty over Broach which the family of Jodhpur must have lost during the Arab expeditions. A reminiscence of Nagabhata's struggle with the neighbouring powers seems to have been preserved in the Ragholi plates of Jayavardhana II, a king of the Shaila dynasty, ruling over part of the Central Provinces. We are told that Prithuvardhana, a king of the family, who probably ruled about the middle of the eighth century AD, conquered the country of the Gurjaras.

We have seen above, in connection with the Jodhpur inscription of the Pratihara Bauka, how, as an indirect result of the Mlechchha invasion, the suzerainty hitherto enjoyed by the dynasty of Harichandra passed into the family of Nagabhata. It would appear that shortly after 725 A.D., when the Arab invaders seemed to have carried away everything before them and, in particular, defeated the Pratihara clan who had been ruling in Rajputana for about two centuries, Nagabhata gained successes over the Mlechchha forces and established his supremacy over the clan. The struggle which thus began between the two Pratihara families was long and tedious. Siluka, the king of the Rajputana family, succeeded in regaining his territory after defeating one Devaraja, probably the nephew of Nagabhata I. Vatsaraja, the son and successor of Devaraja, however, continued the struggle and gave the final blow to the tottering rival power. The empire over which it had ruled for well-nigh two hundred years then finally passed into the hands of the family of Nagabhata.

The data furnished by our inscription, supplemented by a few other known facts, enable us to sketch a brief history of the empire that was thus founded by Vatsaraja. Verses 6 and 7 describe his mighty prowess and splendour, and mention, in particular, that he had subdued the whole world. This statement, allowing for the natural exaggeration of the Prasasti writers, cannot be said to be altogether inaccurate, inasmuch as it is pretty certain that Vatsaraja had conquered the lord of Gauda and was thus probably master of by far the greater p&rt of Northern India. This state of prosperity, however, did not continue long. The Rashtrakuta king Dhruva inflicted a crushing defeat upon him, overran his territory as far as the Gauges


[Page-104] - NA


[Page-105] and one inscription specifically refers to the defeat inflicted upon Ngabhata by the same king, and his triumphant march to the Himalayas, It would thus appear that the Gurjara empire so laboriously rebuilt by Nagabhata II once more fell beneath the crushing blows of the hereditary foes of his family. There are reasons to believe that this was brought about by a confederacy between the two chief enemies of the Gurjaras, vis. the Palas of Bengal and the Rashtrakutas of the south. For the same inscription that records the defeat of Nagabhata II in the hands of Govinda III also mentions the fact that Dharmapala and Chakrayudha visited or submitted to the last named king of their own accord .

The victory of the Rashtrakutas, although by no means final and decisive, was no doubt disastrous to the Gurjaras. The province of Malwa passed into the hands of the Rashtrakuta, and Andhra, Vidarbha and Kalinga also possibly shared the same fate. The Pratiharas, however, did not cease to give trouble to the Rashtrakutas, for we are told in the inscription of the feudatory chief Karkaraja of Gujarat, that the Rashtrakuta king had caused his arm to become an excellent door-bar of the country of the lord of the Gurjaras.

But ere long the political situation changed. The Rashtrakutas themselves were torn asunder by internal dissensions, Karkaraja of Lata, the son and successor of Indraraja, was expelled by his younger brother in 812 A.D., and what was worse still, the revolutionary movement, thus set on foot, afterwards developed into an attempt to prevent the accession of Amoghavarsha I.

This unexpected embroglio in the Rashtrakuta affairs left the Palas and the Gurjaras free to fight among themselves. It appears that Nagabhata retained his hold upon Kanauj.


[Page-106] which he had conquered from Chakrayadha, transferred his capital there and probably succeeded in offering an effective resistance to the Palas till his death in 833-34 AD.

Of Ramabhadra, the son and successor of Nagabhata II, we know very little and Gurjara power declined during his reign is quite evident. Bhoja, the son and successor of Ramabhadra seems to have been a powerful king. Bhoja regained the Power and prestige of the family by defeating Pala kings.

Translation of Gwalior Prashasti of Gurjara-Pratihara Bhoja

Gwalior Inscription L.1-4
Gwalior Inscription L.5-10
Gwalior Inscription L.11-15
Gwalior Inscription L.16-17
  • (Line L.1) Om, adoration to Vishnu !
  • (Verse l.) May the dark-blue body of the Energy of (demon) Naraka protect you, that body which shines like the sky kissed by the of discs of the Sun and the Moon, inasmuch as) it is illuminated by the white lower part of the Naga Shesha used as a bed, and is made crimson by the brilliancy of the (jewel) Kaustubha glittering on its breast.
  • (Verse 2.) As from the fresh seed taken from a fruit in a garden, and in a natural fertile soil, grows balbuous root of a superior kind, from which again spring forth Kalpa trees, so from the (particle of) light evolved, by the energy of demons from self-delightedness (atmarama) and sown by him in soil well qualified by nature, was born the Sun, the root of all that is good, and from the Sun, again, a line of kings such as Manu, Ikshvaku, Kaku(t)stha and the first Prithu.
  • (Verse 3.) In their race, in the family in which Vishnu set foot, Rama, of auspicious birth carried on a war of destruction and slaughter with the demons – dire on account of the adamantine arrows - which killed Ravana.
All praise unto his younger brother, Lakshamana (Saumitri),- a stern rod of chastisement in war with Meghanada, the destroyer of Indra's pride, - who served as the door-keeper (of Rama), owing to (his) commandment not to allow others to enter (lit to repel others).
  • (Verse 4.) In that family, which bore the insignia of Pratihara (door-keeper), and was a shelter of three worlds, king Nagabhata I appeared as the image of the old sage (Narayana) in a strange manner, inasmuch as, having crushed the large armies of the powerful Malechchha king, the destroyer of virtue, he shone with four arms brilliant on account of the glittering terrible weapons.
  • (Verse 5.) His brother's son, who added to the renown o the family and had the well-known name Kakustha (Kakutstha), but who, on account of his (habit of) saying welcome things in an inverted manner, was known, in the world as Kakkuka (i.e., one who always laughs), was a paramount king.
(Then) was born his illustrious younger brother, Devaraja who performed the same task as the great Wielder of thunderbolt (Indra); (for) he curbed a multitude of kings (bhubhrit) by having destroyed their powerful allies (pakshah) and caused them to cast off their (free) movements (gati) ; Indra also curbed a multitude of mountains (bhubhrit) by having destroyed their powerful-wings (pakshah) and thus caused them to cast off their movements (gati).
  • (Verse 6.) His son, king Vatsaraja, who was compassionate towards the entire world he had subdued, and resembled the Sun in prowess, revealed himself by attaining his own kingdom which rivaled the mountain Udaya.
His riches, too, highly fragrant by reason of the flavour of the wine of elephant ichor, and shining in company of the needy, appeared exceedingly beautiful, having eclipsed the lotus-eyed women, who too became exceedingly merry by having tasted wine which was like ichor of elephants and appeared charming in the fond embrace of their lovers.
  • (Verse 7.) With strong bows as his companion he forcibly wrested the empire, in battle from the famous Bhandi clan, hard to be overcome by reason of the rampart made of infuriated elephants.
Having successfully wielded a position weighty with renown, he, the foremost among the most distinguished Kshatriyas, stamped the noble race of Ikshvaku with his own name by virtue of his blameless conduct.
  • (Verse 8.) The primeval man was again born to him, and, being far-famed, and possessed of elephant hosts, was called Nagabhata (II).
The kings of Andhra, Sindhu, Vidarbha and Kalinga succumbed to his youthful energy as moths do unto fire.
  • (Verse 9.) Who, desirous of the great growth of -virtuous acts enjoined in. the Vedas, performed a series of religious ceremonies according to the custom of the Kshatriya families ; and, after having defeated Chakrayudha, whose lowly demeanour was manifest from his dependence on others, he became eminent, although he (life his body) was humble through modesty.
  • (Verse 10.) Having vanquished his enemy, the lord of Vanga, who appeared like a mass of dark-dense cloud in consequence of the crowd of mighty elephants, horses and chariots, Nagabhata, who alone gladdens (the heart of) the three worlds, revealed himself, even as the rising Sun, 'the sole source of manifestation of the three worlds, reveals himself by vanquishing dense and terrible darkness.
  • (Verse 11.) Of him, whose mode of life was beneficial to all mankind, the incomprehensible royal qualities (like eloquence, statesmanship, etc,) became manifest in the world, even from boyhood, by his forcible seizure of the hill forts of the kings of Anartta, Malava, Kirata, Turashka, Vatsa and Matsya.
  • (Verse 12.) (The great Rama), the protector of virtue, after having forcibly bridged over the oceans (lit. the lords of rivers), full of exceedingly cruel animate, by means of continuous chain of rocks placed by the best monkey force, looked bright by having killed the evil-doers who served as obstacles and (as he thereby) got (lit. was joined by) his wife and renown. His (Nagabhata's) son, Rama by name, also shone fort like tide (homonymous) predecessor, by similar worthy deeds ; for he, the defender of religion, too, had the haughty and cruel commanders of armies forcibly bound down by (his subordinate) kings who had the best cavalry under their charge, and looked radiant by having , destroyed the obstacles caused by the evil doers (as he thus) attained the fame which was unto him even as a consort.
  • (Verse 13.) That lord of prosperity, who had overpowered the points of compass by means of valour (alone), unsupported by the other expedients (such as sama, dama, bheda), was yet demurely waited upon by the other Means (i.e. although he neglected them as necessary, they were within his beck and call).
  • (Verse 14) The production of the wealth of that successful one was merely a source of delight ; it was at the disposal of the supplicants, but never a to satisfy his own desires,
  • (Verse 15.) A pure soul, averse from the world, he obtained a son, by name Mihira, by (the favour of) the Sun, propitiated by mysterious rites, in order to dispose of the lordship over his subjects.
  • (Verse 16.) The lord, who ruled over many kings (bhubhrit) after having overcome them, and (being therefore) known as Bhoja, shone more gloriously than Agastya who (merely) checked the rise of (a single bhubhrit, i.e. mountain) Vindhya through favour (and not by his own prowess).
  • (Verse 17.) Famous, unperturbed, adept in removing the evils of the world, embraced by Lakshmi (sovereign power), but not soiled by the stain of arrogance, he was affectionate towards the meritorious and an asylum of good and pleasant words. Does he or Rama stand foremost when Brahma counts his own creation ?
  • (Verse 18.) The other Lakshmi, the source of the of fame of Dharmma’s (Dharmapala’s) son, who was cast out of the ocean of hostile forces, churned by the Kula mountains in the form of kings of his (Bhoja's) own race, who was married by offering (as an oblation) fried grains, which were the destroyed enemies in the fire of his valour, and who was protected by (his), superior accomplishments, mild, uncommon and pure like nectar, became a fit remarried bride of that king.
  • (Verse 19.) In order to extend the duration, of his life beyond all measure, the, ascetics on account of the protection afforded to them, the preceptors out of affection, the servants out of devotion, the multitude of foes, out of policy, and mankind in general, for the sake of its livelihood, made their respective services (treasures) subservient to him, who was worthy a recipient as the Creator Himself.
  • (Verse 20.) According to the injunction of the Sruti, this is a truism, so long as the world lasts, that he who does a thing enjoys the fruits thereof, and not (another) though he be the lord of even hundred kings. It is strange that the meritorious deeds of honest men, whose intellect was undefiled, went to increase the prosperity of this king, who was the conqueror of Kali and the Lord of fame.
  • (Verse 21.) Of him, who had burnt the powerful hostile races by the fire of his anger, and guarded the oceans by his valour, the absence of greed (for further conquest) shone indeed (even as the satiety of a man who had drunk a large quantity of water).
  • (Verse 22.) Like Kumara (Karttikeya) with his host of Matrika who performed wonderful deeds, he subdued the terrible Asuras with the help of a band of woman that lived upon arms.
  • (Verse 23.) Vidhi (Fate), writing anew (the destinies of the world), wrote in the chancery of that king, looking at (i.e. being guided by) his face, since the latter was the master of the world in consequence of his prowess. (In other words the destiny of the world was absolutely at the command of that all-powerful king.)
  • (Verse 24.) Fame, resulting from the unbounded energy of that lord of the world, was unto him even as a consort, and like a flame, issuing out of a flood of luxuriant lustre, returned after conquering the Sun. It is a wonder that she crossed the oceans.
  • (Verse 25.) In order to increase the fame and religious merit of his consorts, the king erected a house within his seraglio compound in the name of Narakadvisha (Vishnu).
  • (Verse 26.) As long as the sky has the flowing celestial stream (Ganga) as it upper garment, as long as there lasts the power originating from severe religious austerities, as long the truth protects all that is above, so long may this noble and famous work purify the world.
  • (Versa 27.) Baladitya (is) the poet of this prasasti which would exist along with the world up to the end of the Kapa; (he,) the son of Bhattadhaneka and the fruit of penances, as it were of a number of learned men, (is) the (personified) inner facility of discrimination, standing before king Bhojadeva, the protector of the, world, inasmuch m he (Baladitya) follows the good rules sanctioned by the best of sages.

Gwalior Inscription of 876 CE

The first inscription showing the use of zero which is dated and is not disputed by any historian is the stone inscription found at the Chaturbhuja Temple at Gwalior dated 933 in the Vikrama calendar (876 CE.), where 50 garlands are mentioned (line 20), here 50 and 270 are written with zero.[16]

Gwalior Fort Inscription of 1453 CE

सं १५१० वर्षे माघ सुदी ८ सोमे गोपाचल दुर्गे तोमर वंशान्वये राजा श्री डूंगरेन्द्र देव राज्य पवित्रमाने श्री काष्ठासंघ माथुरान्वये भट्टारक श्री गुणकीर्ति देवास्तत्पट्टे श्री मलयकीर्ति देवास्ततो भट्टारक गुणभद्रदेव पंडितवर्य रइघू तदाम्नाये अग्रोतवंशे वासिलगोत्रे सकेलहा भार्या निवारी तयोः पुत्र विजयष्ट शाह ... साधु श्री माल्हा पुत्र संघातिपति देउताय पुत्र संघातिपति करमसीह श्री चन्द्रप्रभु जिनबिंब महाकाय प्रतिष्ठापित प्रणमति ..शुभम् भवतु ..||
A Gwalior Fort Inscription 1453 CE[17]

In the early 15th century, Agrawals flourished as a trader community, under the Tomaras of Gwalior.[18] According to several Sanskrit inscription at the Gwalior Fort in Gwalior District, several traders (Sanghavi Kamala Simha, Khela Brahmachari, Sandhadhip Namadas etc.) belonging to Agrotavansha (Agrawal clan) supported the sculptures and carving of idols at the place.,[19][20] Historian K.C. Jain comments:

"Golden Age of the Jain Digambar Church in Gwalior under the Tomara rulers inspired by the Kashtha Bhattarakas and their Jaina Agrawal disciples who dominated the Court of father and son viz. Dungar Singh (1425-59)and Kirti Singh (1459-80) with the Poet-Laureate Raighu as their mouthpiece and spokesman, a centenarian author of as many as thirty books, big and small of which two dozen are reported to be extant today. Verify the advent of the Hisar-Firuza-based Jain Agrawals who functioned as the ministers and treasurers of the ruling family had turned the Rajput State of Gwalior into a Digambara Jain Centre par excellence representing the culture of the Agrawal multi-millionner shravakas as sponsored by them."

Pin codes of villages in Gwalior district

Antri 475001 • Behat 475002 • Bhander 475335 • Bhitarwar 475220 • Collectorate Gwr 474001 • Dabra 475110 • Dabra Jwalaganj 475110 • Dabra Tehsil 475110 • Darpan Colony 474005 • Daulatganj 474001 • Gwalier Utila 474055 • Gwalior (laskhar) H O 474001 • Gwalior Birlanagar 474004 • Gwalior City 474003 • Gwalior Fort 474008 • Gwalior Jaderukalan 474040 • Gwalior Laskhar City 474009 • Gwalior Maharajpur A F 474020 • Gwalior Morar H O 474006 • Gwalior Motijheel 474010 • Gwalior Motimahal 474007 • Gwalior Panihar 474042 • Gwalior R S 474002 • Gwalior Residency 474005 • Hazira Chauk 474003 • J A Hospital 474009 • Jacob Parade 474001 • Janakganj 474001 • Jiwaji University 474002 • Jiwajiganj 474001 • K P Colony 474002 • Kampoo 474001 • Lala Ka Bazar 474001 • Lashkar H O (gwalior) 474001 • Laxmiganj 474001 • Madhoganj 474001 • Morar H O (gwalior) 474006 • Morar Military Camp 474006 • Morar Town 474006 • Naya Bazar 474009 • Naya Sarafa 474001 • Panihar (gwalior) 474042 • Phalka Bazar 474001 • R B Colony 474002 • R K Puri 474006 • S K Chhaoni 474009 • Salon B 475336 • Shaktingar 474002 • Sikandar Kampoo 474001 • Tekanpur (gwalior) 475005 • Tilaknagar 474001 • Usha Colony 474009 • V N Marg 474001 • Airaya 475001 • Ajaypur 474001 • Akbai 475005 • Amrol 475001 • Aron 475330 • Badera Bujurg 475115 • Badori 475001 • Bagwai 475220 • Bandholi 474006 • Barki Sarai 475001 • Beru 475005 • Bhadroli 474010 • Bhageh 475115 • Bhangna 475110 • Bhensnari 475110 • Bhori 475001 • Bijoli 474006 • Bilhati Kalan 474006 • Billowa 475001 • Birla Nagar 474004 • Chandpur 475110 • Chhimak 475110 • Chinore 475110 • Chirpura 475001 • Collectorate 474001 • Dabka 475002 • Dabra Gaon 475110 • Dabra Lsg 475110 • Darpan Colony Gwalior 474011 • Defence Colony 474002 • Dharamshala [d.d. Nagar] 474020 • Dhuan 475330 • Dorar 475330 • Dubha 475220 • Gadajar 475220 • Gharsondi 475110 • Ghatigaon 475330 • Gijjora 475115 • Girgaon 474020 • Gohinda 475220 • Gwalior R.s. 474002 • Harsi 475220 • Hastinapur 475002 • Hathnora 475115 • Hazira Chowk 474003 • Industrial Estate Gwalior 474002 • Itm 474001 • Itma 475220 • J.a. Hospital 474009 • Jaderuakalan 474006 • Jakhara 475002 • Jakhoda 475330 • Jamahar 474010 • Janak Ganj 474001 • Janaktal 474001 • Jhadoli 475220 • Jigsoli 474010 • Jiwaji Ganj 474001 • Jorasi 475001 • K.p. Colony 474002 • Kachhaua 475001 • Kalyani 475005 • Karahi 475330 • Karahiya 475220 • Kariyawati 475220 • Kerua 475220 • Kethoda 475115 • Khediraimal 475110 • Kitora 475115 • Ladhera 475001 • Ladhwaya 475005 • Lashkar City 474009 • Lashkar H.o. 474001 • Laxmiganj Mandi 474010 • Maharajpura 475110 • Maharajpura A.f. 474020 • Mastura 475220 • Mauchh 475001 • Mehgaon 475110 • Mena 475110 • Mohan Garh 475220 • Mohna 475330 • Morar H.o. 474006 • Moti Jheel 474010 • Moti Mahal 474007 • Mudia Pahad 474001 • New High Court 474011 • Odhpura 474010 • Panihar 475330 • Par 475001 • Parsen 474006 • Patai 475330 • Pichhore Gird 475115 • Purani Chhawani 474010 • Putti 475115 • R.b. Colony Gwalior 474002 • R.k Puri Gwalior 474011 • Rahi 475220 • Rangawan 475002 • Ratwai 474006 • Renhat 475330 • Richharikalan 475220 • S.p. Ashram 474012 • Sabrai 475330 • Salwai 475110 • Samaya 475110 • Sankhini 475220 • Senthri 474020 • Shakti Nagar 474002 • Shankarpur 474010 • Shinde Ki Chhawani 474001 • Shukalhari 475115 • Sigora 474010 • Simaria Tal 475110 • Simariatanka 475330 • Singharan 475220 • Sirsod 474006 • Sukhapatha 475115 • Supaoli 474006 • Susera 474010 • Tankoli 475002 • Tekanpur 475005 • Tighra 474001 • Tiholi 475002 • Tilak Nagar 474001 • Ummegarh 475330 • Urba 475001 • Utila 474006 • V.n. Marg 474001 • Wahangikhurd 474006

List of Villages in Gwalior District

Ajaigarh, Akbai, Akbai Badi, Amroul, Antari, Aroli, Aron, Arru, Badagaon, Badagaonjagir, Baderafutkar, Badki, Bagwai, Bahadurpur, Bahangikhurd, Bajna, Bandholi, Baniya Tor, Banwar, Barahana, Barai, Baraua Nurabad, Baretha, Barol, Barotha, Basondi, Behat, Behata, Benheri, Beragarh, Berja, Bhageh, Bharthari, Bhengana, Bhensnari, Bhitarwar, Bhori, Bijak Pur, Bijoli, Bilara, Bilaua, Bilheti, Buzurg, Chait, Chak Keshopur, Chand Pur, Chaproli, Charkha, Chhimak, Chinour, Chiruli, Chitawani, Chitoli, Dabka, Dabra, Dangiyapura, Daulatpur, Deogarh, Deogarh, Deori Kalan, Dhahi, Dhiroti, Doni, Dorar, Dubaha Tanka, Dubahi, Dugnawali, Duhiya, Eraya, Fusawali, Gadajar, Gadhi, Gadhota, Gharsondi, Ghatigaon, Gijaurra, Gohinda, Gundhara, Gurri, Guthina, Gwalior, Harsi, Hastanapur, Hathnoura, Himmatgarh, Hukamgarh, Ikehara, Ikona, Itayal, Itma, Jakhara, Jakhoda, Jamroha, Jarga, Jatrathi, Jaura, Jhadoli, Jigsoli, Jorasi, Kachhaua, Kaitha, Kaithi, Kaithoda, Kalyani, Karahi, Karahi, Karhiya, Kariyawati, Kerua, Khadwai, Khairwaya, Kheda Bhitarwar, Kheda Tanka, Khedi Raimal, Khureri, Kiroi, Kishorgarh, Kithoda, Kitora, Kuleth, Kumharra, Ladera, Lakhan Pura, Lakhnoti, Lidhora, Lidhoura, Lohgarh, Ludhari, Magrora, Maharaj Pur, Maina, Malnpur, Mastura, Masud Pur, Mehadpur, Mehagaon, Mehgaon, Milawali, Mohana, Mohangarh, Mohnpur, Morar Cantt, Mukhtyarpur, Naugaon, Nayagaon, Nibi, Nirawali, Odpura, Pachora, Palayachha, Pali Dirman, Panihar, Par, Parsen, Patai, Patha Panihar, Pawaya, Pichhore, Pipraua, Putti, Rahi, Raipur, Rairu, Rangawan, Rarua, Ratwai, Renhat, Richhari Kalan, Richhari Khurd, Rithondan, Rora, Saharan, Sahasari, Sahona, Salwai, Samaya, Samrai, Samudan, San Khini, Sarnagat, Sekrajagir, Semari, Shuklhori, Shyampur, Sigora, Simiriya Tal, Simiriya Tanka, Singpur, Sinharan, Sirohi, Siroli, Sirsa, Sirsa, Sirsaud, Sisgaon, Sojna, Soni, Sonsa, Sukha Patha, Supawali, Susera, Syau, Tekanpur, Tighra, Tiholi, Udaipur, Ummedgarh, Urwa, Utila, Virampura,

Notable persons

  • Dilip Singh Rana - 90/2 Tokonya Murar, Mob: 9425118211
  • Ramvir Singh - F-13, Dr Rajendra Prasad Colony, Tansen Marg, Gwalior – 474002, Phones: 0751-2382130, Mob:8989415641

Jat Monuments

Gallery

External links

See also

References

  1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Gwalior
  2. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 58
  3. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p. 138
  4. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p. 139
  5. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII, p.94-95
  6. Thorton p. 68-69
  7. Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior,p.359
  8. Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior,p.359
  9. Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, p. 359
  10. An Historical Sketch of the Native States of India’, by Col. G B Malleson. Facsimile reprint published by The Acadamic Press, Gurgaon, 1984.
  11. V.S.Krishnan:Madhya Pradesh District Gazetteer, Gwalior
  12. ‘Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas’, Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri, Nav Sahitya Bhawan. (New Delhi, Delhi. 1985), p. 29
  13. Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, p. 360
  14. An historical sketch of the native states of India/Gwalior, by Col. Malleson, p. 143
  15. Dr Natthan Singh (2004) : Jat-Itihas, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior,p.360
  16. The Hindu-Arabic Numerals By David Eugene Smith, Louis Charles Karpinski
  17. http://www.webdunia.com/dharm/jain/gopachal/19_gopachal9.htm Gopachal ke Jinamandir
  18. Kashtha Sangha Bhattarakas of Gwalior and Agrawal Shravakas, Dr. K. C. Jain
  19. [http://www.webdunia.com/dharm/jain/gopachal/19_gopachal9.htm गोपाचल के जिन मन्दिर एवं प्रतिमाएँ
  20. रामजीत जैन, गोपाचल सिद्ध क्षेत्र, १९८७

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