Jat Gotra from Sumana
Ancient Tamil epic Manimekalai and the Sri Lankan history book Mahavamsa both mention a dispute between two Naga kings in northern Sri Lanka. According to the chronicles, in the 5th year after enlightenment, Lord Buddha visited Nagadipa to settle a dispute between two Nàga Kings - Chulodara and Mahodara regarding a gem throne. Mahodara wanted to take possession of it. When Buddha came over from Jetavanarama in the city of Sravasti, He was accompanied by God Sumana , a protective deity residing on a tree at the entrance to the Vihara.
Mahavansa/Chapter 4. They (theras) took those needful things (that they had brought as gifts) and sought the thera Revata, but the thera did not take their part and dismissed (the pupil) who took their part. They went thence to Vesali, shameless they went from there to Pupphapura, and told king Kalasoka: `Guarding our Master's perfumed chamber we dwell in the Mahävana-vihära in the Vajji territory; but bhikkhus dwelling in the country are coming, great king, with the thought: We will take the vihara for ourselves. Forbid them!'
Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells that ....The sons of Kalasoka were ten brothers, twenty-two years did they reign in Magadha. Afterwards, the nine Nandas were kings in succession; they too reigned twenty-two years in Magadha. Then did the brahman Canakka anoint a glorious youth, known by the name Candagutta (Chandra Gupta Maurya), as king over all Jambudipa, born of a noble clan, the Moriyas, when, filled with bitter hate, he had slain the ninth (Nanda) Dhanananda.
Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells that ....The sons of Kalasoka were ten brothers, twenty-two years did they reign in Magadha. Afterwards, the nine Nandas were kings in succession; they too reigned twenty-two years in Magadha. Then did the brahman Canakka anoint a glorious youth, known by the name Candagutta, as king over all Jambudipa, born of a noble clan, the Moriyas, when, filled with bitter hate, he had slain the ninth (Nanda) Dhanananda.
Twenty-four years he reigned, and his son Bindusära reigned twenty-eight. A hundred glorious sons and one had Bindusara; Asoka stood high above them all in valour, splendour, might, and wondrous powers. He, when he had slain his ninety-nine brothers born of different mothers, won the undivided sovereignty over all Jambudipa. Be it known, that two hundred and eighteen years had passed from the nibana of the Master unto Asoka's consecration.
Four years after the famous (Asoka) had won for himself the undivided sovereignty he consecrated himself as king in the city Pataliputta. Straightway after his consecration his command spread so far as a yojana (upward) into the air and downward into the (depths of the) earth.'
Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells that .... Nigrodha was the son of prince Sumana, the eldest brother of all the sons of Bindusara. When Bindusära had fallen sick Asoka left the government of Ujjeni conferred on him by his father, and came to Pupphapura (Pushpapura=Peshawar), and when he had made himself master of the city, after his father's death, he caused his eldest brother to be slain and took on himself the sovereignty in the splendid city.
Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells that ....The consort of prince Sumana, who bore the same name (Sumana), being with child, fled straightway by the east gate and went to a candala village, and there the guardian god of a nigrodha-tree called her by her name, built a hut and gave it to her.
Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 57 tells Names of all those Nagas that fell into the fire of the snake-sacrifice. Sumana is mentioned in shloka 9 as Nagas of race of Takshaka.
- मुद्गरः शशरॊमा च सुमना, महाहनू वेगवाहनः
- एते तक्षकजा नागाः परविष्टा हव्यवाहनम (Mahabharata.I.57.9)
The Mahabharata Book 2: SECTION IX Sabha Parva Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr.1883-1896 mentions names of following naga kings who attended the Sabha of Yudhishthira:
Vasuki and Takshaka, and the Naga called Airavata; Krishna and Lohita; Padma and Chitra endued with great energy; the Nagas called Kamvala and Aswatara; and Dhritarashtra and Valahaka; Matimat and Kundadhara and Karkotaka and Dhananjaya; Panimat and the mighty Kundaka, O lord of the Earth; and Prahlada and Mushikada, and Janamejaya,--all having auspicious marks and mandalas and extended hoods;--these and many other snakes. O Yudhishthira, without anxiety of any kind, wait upon and worship the illustrious Varuna. And, O king, Vali the son of Virochana, and Naraka the subjugator of the whole Earth; Sanghraha and Viprachitti, and those Danavas called Kalakanja; and Suhanu and Durmukha and Sankha and Sumanas and also Sumati; and Ghatodara, and Mahaparswa, and Karthana and also Pithara and Viswarupa, Swarupa and Virupa, Mahasiras; and Dasagriva, Vali, and Meghavasas and Dasavara; Tittiva, and Vitabhuta, and Sanghrada, and Indratapana--these Daityas and Danavas, all bedecked with ear-rings and floral wreaths and crowns, and attired in the celestial robes, all blessed with boons and possessed of great bravery, and enjoying immortality, and all well of conduct and of excellent vows, wait upon and worship in that mansion the illustrious Varuna, the deity bearing the noose as his weapon.
Sumana has been described in shloka 13 as under:
- सुहनुर दर्मुखः शङ्खः सुमनाः सुमतिः सवनः
- घटॊदरॊ महापार्श्वः करदनः पिठरस तदा ।।13 ।।
- विश्वरूपः सुरूपश च विरूपॊ ऽद महाशिराः
- दशग्रीवश च बाली च मेघवासा दशावरः ।।14 ।।
- कैटभॊ विटटूतश च संह्राथश चेन्थ्र तापनः
- दैत्यदानव संघाश च सर्वे रुचिरकुण्डलाः ।।15 ।।
Back to The Ancient Jats