Raivataka

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Mount Raivataka = Girnar
Radha-Damodar ji & Revati Baldev ji temple at Junagarh

Raivataka (रैवतक) was a mountain mentioned in the epic Mahabharata [1] and in the Harivamsa Purana 2.55.111.[2] In the Mahabharata it was mentioned as situated in the Anarta Kingdom. In the Harivamsa Puarana it was "close to the sporting ground of the King Raivataka" (2.56.29) and called "the living place for the gods" (2.55.111). People from Dwaraka visited this mountain and celebrated its worshipping as a grand festival. This mountain is identified to be the Girnar mountains in Gujarat.[3]

Variants

History

The most astonishing claim made so far about historicity of Neminath was made following the discovery of a copperplate inscription found at Kathiawar, deciphered by Dr. Pran Nath. According to Dr. Pran Nath King Nebuchadnezzar I (Reign ca. 1126–1103 BC, Dynasty IV of Babylon) considered himself to be the Lord of Mt. Girnar (historically also known as Ujjayanta or Raivata or Revata) visited Mt. Raivata and paid homage to Neminath (or Arishtanemi), the paramount deity of Mt. Raivata. He also contributed a grant to build a temple in honor or Neminath.

Tej Ram Sharma

Tej Ram Sharma [4] mentions .... The names of the rivers, mentioned in the Junagarh Inscription of Skandagupta, as issuing from the mountain Raivataka [5] or Urjayat [6] have been disputed. Fleet explains 'Palasiniyam Sikatavilasini' as 'Palasini, beautiful with (its) sandy stretches'. [7] D.C. Sircar takes Sikata to be Suvarnasikata which is the same as modern Sonarekha. [8],p.R.B. Pandey regards Sikata to be the same Suvarnasikata mentioned in the Junagarh Inscription of Rudradaman and as identical with Suvarnarekha which flows at the foot of Girnar hill. [9] H.D. Sankalia while discussing the names of mountains Girinagara, Urjayat and Raivataka, and the rivers at Junagarh does not consider these disputed lines of the Junagarh Inscription of Skandagupta. He only discusses Suvarnasikata and Palasini on the basis of the Junagarh Inscription of Rudradaman I. [10]


Tej Ram Sharma[11] writes ...2. Raivataka (रैवतक) (No. 14, L. 16)= Junagarh Rock Inscription of Skandagupta Gupta Years 136, 137 and 138 (=A.D. 455, 456 and 457) (the same as Urajayat see Urjayat) :

Raivataka is also mentioned in the Adi-Parvan of the Mahabharata, 84 the Vividhatirthakalpa, 85 the Brhatsamhita, 86 the Dohad Stone Inscription of Mahamuda, 87 and the Jaunpur Inscription of Isanavarman. 88 Its modern name Girnar was a switch over to it from the city name Girinagara, i. e., 'a city on or at the foot of a hill'. 89 Raivataka derives its name from king Revata, the father of Revati, (the wife of Baladeva, Krishna's elder brother). 90 Revata is supposed to have come there from Dwaraka and lived on the hill. There is still a tank called Revati-kunda near Damodarakunda in the gorge of the hill. 91 The Gujarati Sanskrit poet Magha in the Sisupalavadha devotes the whole of Canto IV (verses 1-68) to the description of the Raivataka mountain. In Canto VI (verses 1-79) the poet describes the occurrence of six seasons one by one at the mountain Raivataka.


84. Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India by N. L. Dey. p. 165 : Historical and Literary Inscriptions by R. B. Pandeya. p. 96, f.n.5.

85. Vividhatirthakalpa, p. 7, verse I.

86. बृहत्संहिता XIV, V. 19.

87. Epigraphia Indica. XXIV, P.V. Jan. 1938, p. 216.

88. Corpus Inscripionum Indicarum, Vol. III by John Faithful Fleet . p. 230, L. 7.

89. Studies in the Historical and Cultural Geography and Ethnography of Gujarat by H. D. Sankalia . pp. 50-51: Studies in the Historical and Cultural Geography and Ethnography of Gujarat by H. D. Sankalia p. 57.

90. Diskalkar, Selections From Sanskrit Inscriptions by D. B. Diskalkar. Vol. I. Pt II, p. 55 : Studies in the Historical and Cultural Geography and Ethnography of Gujarat by H. D. Sankalia . p. 51.

Mention by Panini

Raivata (रैवत) is a place name mentioned by Panini under Arihanadi (अरीहणादि) (4.2.80.1) group. [12]

Mention in Mahavansha

Mahavansa/Chapter 4 mentions about The Second Buddhist Council. It mentions about Revata - a thera from Pava, a thera of Soreyya. ....Sixty great theras from Pava and eighty from Avanti, all free from the asavas, came together on the Ahoganga. The bhikkhus who met together here from this and that region were in all ninety thousand. When they had all conferred together they, knowing that the deeply learned thera Revata of Soreyya who was free from the asavas, was the chief among them at that time, went thence to seek him out......There the thera Yasa, as the thera Sambhuta had charged him to do, at the end of the recital of the sacred word, addressing himself to the great thera Revata, questioned him on the Ten Points. The thera rejected them, and when he had heard the matter, he said: `Let us make an end (of this dispute).' The heretical bhikkhus, too, in order to win support, sought the thera Revata. Preparing in abundance the things needful for ascetics,' they took ship with all speed and went to Sahajäti, bestowing food sumptuously when the mealtime came.

In Mahabharata

Raivata (रैवत) Mahabharata (II.13.49), (XIII.116.67),

Raivataka (रैवतक) (Mountain) Mahabharata (I.221.1), (VI.12.16)

Revati (रेवती) Mahabharata (VI.12.16)


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13 mentions the tribes who fled out of fear of Jarasandha. Raivata (रैवत) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.13.49). [13].... we fled from fear of Jarasandha, with our cousins and relatives. Reflecting upon everything, we fled towards the west. There is a delightful town towards the west called Kushasthali, adorned by the mountains of Raivata. In that city, O monarch, we took up our abode.


Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 116 gives List of Kings who had abstained from flesh in Karttika month. Raivata (रैवत) is mentioned in (XIII.116.67). [14]....These other kings also, viz., Shyenachitra, O monarch, and Somaka and Vrika and Raivata and Rantideva and Vasu and Srinjaya,....


Adi Parva Mahabharata Book 1 Chapter 211 mentions the Raivataka mountain festival of Bhojas, Vrishnis and Andhakas. Raivataka (रैवतक) (Mountain) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.221.1). [15]....Within a few days after this, there commenced on the Raivataka mountain, a grand festival of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. At the mountain-festival of the Bhojas, the Vrishnis and the Andhakas, the heroes of those tribes began to give away much wealth unto Brahmanas by thousands.....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 12 describes Sakadvipa, Seven Varshas, Shaka tree, Four provinces and Rivers in Shakadvipa. Raivataka (रैवतक) (Mountain) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.12.16).[16]....The next, O thou of Kuru's race, is the large mountain called Jaladhara. Thence Indra daily taketh water of the best quality. It is from that water that we get showers in the season of rains, O ruler of men. Next cometh the high mountain called Raivataka, over which, in the firmament, hath been permanently placed the constellation called Revati.

In Puranas

Vishnu Purana/Book IV:Chapter I (pp. 354-355) mentions that ...Sharyati, the fourth son of the Manu, had a daughter named Sukanya, who was married to the holy sage Chyavana: he had also a righteous son, called Anartta. The son of the latter was Revata, who ruled over [p. 355]: the country called after his father Ánartta, and dwelt at the capital denominated Kushasthali. The son of this prince was Raivata or Kakudmin, the eldest of a hundred brethren. He had a very lovely daughter, and not finding any one worthy of her hand, he repaired with her to the region of Brahmá to consult the god where a fit bridegroom was to be met with.

रैवतक

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[17] ने लेख किया है ..... रैवतक (AS, p.802) गुजरात में आधुनिक जूनागढ़ के पास का एक पर्वत है, जिसे गिरनार भी कहते हैं। 'रैवतक' नामक पर्वत द्वारका (प्राचीन कुशस्थली) के पूर्व की ओर स्थित था, जिसका उल्लेख महाभारत, सभापर्व अध्याय 38 दाक्षिणात्य पाठ के अंतर्गत (तथा अन्य स्थानों पर भी) है- 'भाति रैवतक: शैलो रम्यसानुर्महाजिर:, पूर्वस्यांदिशिरम्यायां दिशिरम्यायां द्वारकायां विभूषणम्।' इसके पास पांचजन्य तथा सर्वर्तुक नामक उद्यान वन सुशोभित थे, जो रंग-बिरंगे फूलों से चित्रित वस्त्र की भांति सुंदर दिखते थे- 'चित्रकाम्बलवर्णाभं पाण्चजन्यंवनं तथा सर्वर्तुकवनं चैव भांति रैवतक प्रति'; 'कुशस्थली पुरीरम्या रैवतैनोपशोभिताम्।' महाभारत, सभापर्व 14,50

सौराष्ट्र, काठियावाड़ का गिरनार नामक पर्वत ही महाभारत का रैवतक है। 'महाभारत' और 'हरिवंशपुराण' से विदित होता है कि रैवतक के निकट यादवों की बस्ती थी और यह लोग प्रतिवर्ष संभवतः कार्तिक मास में धूमधाम से 'रैवतकमह' नामक उत्सव मनाते थे, जिसमें रैवतक पर्वत की प्रायः 25 मील की परिक्रमा की जाती थी।

जैन ग्रंथ 'अंतकृत दशांग' में रैवतक को द्वारवर्ती के उत्तर-पूर्व में स्थित माना गया है तथा पर्वत के शिखर पर 'नंदनवन' नामक एक उद्यान की स्थित बताई गई है। 'विष्णुपुराण' 41,64 के अनुसार आनर्त का पुत्र रैवत नामक राजा था, जिसने कुशस्थली (द्वारका का पूर्व नाम) में रहकर राज्य किया था- 'आनर्तस्यापि रेवतनामा पुत्रो जज्ञे योसावानर्तविषयं बुभुजे पुरी च कुशस्थलीमध्युवास।' इसी रैवत के नाम पर ही रैवतक पर्वत प्रसिद्ध हुआ था। रैवत की पुत्री रेवती, कृष्ण के भाई बलराम को ब्याही गई थी। (दे. कुशस्थली) रैवतक का नामोल्लेख 'श्रीमद्भागवत' में भी है- 'द्रोणश्चित्रकूटो गोवर्धनो रैवतकः कुकभो नीलो गोकामुख इंद्रकीलः।'

महाकवि माघ ने 'शिशुपालवध' 4,7 में रैवतक का सविस्तार काव्यमय वर्णन किया है। कवि ने रैवतक की क्षण-क्षण में नवीन होने वाली सुंदरता का कितना भावमय वर्णन किया है- 'दुष्टोपि शैलः स मुहुर्मुरेरपूर्ववद् विस्मयमाततान, क्षणे-क्षणे यन्नवतामुपैतितदैव रूपं रमणी यताया:।' अर्थात् "यद्यपि कृष्ण ने रैवतक को कई बार देखा था, किंतु इस बार भी पहले कभी न देखे हुए के समान उसने उनका विस्मय बढ़ाया, क्योंकि रमणीयता का सच्चा स्वरूप यही है कि क्षण-क्षण में नई ही जान पड़ती है।"

जैन धार्मिक ग्रंथ 'विविधतीर्थकल्प' में रैवतक तीर्थ रूप में वर्णित है। यहाँ 22वें तीर्थंकर नेमिनाथ ने 'छत्रशिला' नामक स्थान के पास दीक्षा ली थी। यहीं

[p.803]:'अवलोकन' नाम के शिखर पर उन्हें 'कैवल्य ज्ञान' की प्राप्ति हुई थी। इस स्थान पर कृष्ण ने 'सिद्ध विनायक मंदिर' की स्थापना की थी। 'कालमेघ', 'मेघनाद', 'गिरिविदारण', 'कपाट', 'सिंहनाद', 'खोड़िक' और 'रेवया' नामक सात क्षेत्रपालों का यहीं जन्म हुआ था। इस पर्वत में 24 पवित्र गुफ़ाएँ हैं, जिनका जैन सिद्धों से संबंध रहा है। रैवतक का दूसरा नाम 'गिरनार' भी है। रैवताद्रि का 'जैनस्रोत' भी 'तीर्थमाला चैत्यवंदनम' में भी उल्लेख है- 'श्री शत्रुंजय रैवताद्रि शिखरे द्वीपे भृगो:पत्तने।'


2. 'विष्णुपुराण' 2-4-6-2 के अनुसार रैवतक शाकद्वीप का एक पर्वत था- 'पूर्वस्तत्रो-दयगिरिर्जलाधारस्तथापरः तथा रैवतकः श्यामस्तथैवास्तगिरिद्विज।'


रैवतक गुजरात में आधुनिक जूनागढ़ के पास का एक पर्वत है, जिसे 'गिरनार' भी कहते हैं। इसी पर्वत पर अर्जुन (पाण्डव) ने सुभद्रा का हरण किया था। सुभद्रा बलराम की सहोदरा, रोहिणी के गर्भ से उत्पन्न हुई थी तथा अभिमन्यु की माता थी। [18][19]

रैवतोद्यान

रैवतोद्यान (AS, p.803): रैवतोद्यान का उल्लेख विष्णुपुराण में हुआ है। यह प्राचीन भारत में रैवतक पर्वत के निकट एक उद्यान था, जो द्वारका के पास स्थित था - 'एकदा रैवतोद्याने पपौ पानं हलायुधः।' विष्णुपुराण 5-36-11

External links

See also

References

  1. Adi Parva, chapter 217, vers 8
  2. Shanti Lal Nagar (editor) Harivamsa Purana Vol. 2 p.551
  3. Vittam Mani Puranic Encyclopaedia, p.626
  4. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Appendix V :The Rivers of Junagarh, p. 322
  5. Sircar, Hz. p. 313. L. 16 इमाश्च या रैवतकाद्विनिर्गता: पलाशिनियं सिकता-विलासिनी
  6. Ibid., p. 176. LL. 5-6 :गिरेरुर्जयतः सुवर्णसिकता-पलासिनी- प्रभृतीनां नदीनाम ....।
  7. Corpus Inscripionum Indicarum, Vol. III by John Faithful Fleet , p. 64.
  8. Select Inscriptions by D. C. Sircar. p. 313, f.n.l.
  9. Historical and Literary Inscriptions by R. B. Pandeya. p. 97, f.n.l.
  10. Studies in the Historical and Cultural Geography and Ethnography of Gujarat by H. D. Sankalia. pp. 50-51.
  11. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of the Rivers and the Mountains,p.298
  12. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.501
  13. इति संचिन्त्य सर्वे सम प्रतीचीं दिशम आश्रिताः, कुश स्थलीं पुरीं रम्यां रैवतेनॊपशॊभिताम (II.13.49)
  14. श्येनचित्रेण राजेन्द्र सॊमकेन वृकेण च, रैवतेन रन्ति देवेन वसुना सृञ्जयेन च (XIII.116.67)
  15. ततः कतिपयाहस्य तस्मिन रैवतके गिरौ, वृष्ण्यन्धकानाम अभवत सुमहान उत्सवॊ नृप (I.221.1)
  16. उच्चैर गिरी रैवतकॊ यत्र नित्यं परतिष्ठितः, रेवती दिवि नक्षत्रं पितामह कृतॊ विधिः (VI.12.16)
  17. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p802.
  18. भागवत पुराण 9.22.29, 33; ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण 3.71.154, 178; विष्णु पुराण 4.44.35, 20, 30; वायु पुराण 12.17-24; 35.28
  19. भारतकोश-रैवतक