Arnoraja

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.), Jaipur
Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Chahaman - Guvaka-II
Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Chandanaraja - Someshwara

Arnoraja (अर्णोराज) (r. 1133-1151 AD) was a King of Chauhan dynasty. He was succeeded Ajairaja II before 1133 AD.

History

Jaisingh Siddhraj, Chalukya ruler, attacked Arnoraj but later he returned the kingdom of Arnoraj and married his daughter Kanchandevi with him. Arnoraj's second wife was Sidhawa ,daughter of Marwar ruler of Avichi province. Jaisingh Siddharaj's son also fought against Arnoraj. Arnoraj entered into a treaty with king Ballal of Ujjain and attacked Siddharaj's son Kumarpal. Near about 1155 A.D. He ruled from V. 1190 to 1208. Arnoraja's fight against Turushka i.e. the Yaminis of Lahore and Ghazna was inheritance from his father Ajayaraja who perhaps never succeeded in recovering Nagaur from Muslims. Very early in Arnoraja's reign the Muslims had reached as far as Ajmer. In the battle that followed on the plain outside the city, the Yamini commonder was decisively beaten and fled before the pursuing Chauhana. Many Muslim slodiers died of the exhaustion caused of their heavy armour, and not a few perished of thirst in the waterless desert. Some found their graves in the shifting sand-dunes of Rajasthan. A large amount of booty fell into the hands of soldiers of Arnoraja. [1]

Equally great was Arnoraja's success in Malwa. Bijolia inscription refers to the defeat of Niraana-Narayana i.e. Naravarman, the ruler of Malwa in verse-17. The fragmentary Chauhan prasasti too begins its account of Arnoraja by mentioning Naravarman (verse-22, Line-23). The details of the expedition to Sindhu and Sarasvati are not clear. "Rendered thirsty", says the Chauhan Sapadalaksha prashasti, "by having remained in the waterless desert with his thirst unquenched by Prahladakupa (perhaps Pallu in Bikaner area), Arnoraja reached Sindhu and Sarasvati. [2][3]

Chauhana Sapadalaksha fragmentary prashasti tell us that Arnoraja's soldiers rendered muddy the waters of the river Kalindi (Jamuna) and women of Haritanaka country shed tears.[4]

Arnoraj had also conquered the kingdom of Kusha-Varana (Varan is modern Bulandshahr) then held by the Dod clan ruler either Sahajaditya or Bhojadeva. That it did not escape the victorious arms of Arnoraja might be seen from the first part of verse 17 of Bijolia Inscription. [5] [6]

Arnoraja attacked Kumarapala Chalukya but got defeated. This defeat of Arnorja and Ballala, his the Malwa ally, is mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti, dated Thursday, the 5th of bright half of ashvina, V. 1208 and that of Arnoraja alone is in Chittor Inscription of V. 1207 which states that after having defeated the ruler of Shakambhari, Kumarapala reached Shalipura (modern Shalera) and fixing his camp there went to have the glorious view of the Mount Chitrakuta. (Lines: 10-13, EI,II,p.421ff) Thence he proceeded to Palari where, according to Tod he placed an inscription in the month of Pausha, V. 1207. [7]

Arnoraja deserves to be regarded as one of the great rulers of his dynasty. He added to the glory of his people and the territory of his kingdom by his expeditions of Malwa, Haryana and other land. His greatest achievement was the decisive defeat of the Ghazanvites which kept them away from Sapadalaksha for nearly twenty years.

Arnoraja did not survive long after his defeat. He was murdered by Jagaddeva, his eldest son by Sudhavi of Marwar. His other sons were Vigraharaja IV, Devadatta and Someshvara. He was a Saiva but cordial with other sects.

Jeenmata Inscriptions of Arnoraja V. 1196 (=1139 AD)

संवत 1196 महाराजा अर्णोराज के समय के दो शिलालेख.

Badnagar prashasti of Arnoraja V. 1208 (= 1151 AD)

Arnoraja attacked Kumarapala Chalukya but got defeated. This defeat of Arnorja and Ballala, his the Malwa ally, is mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti, dated Thursday, the 5th of bright half of ashvina, V. 1208 and that of Arnoraja alone is in Chittor Inscription of V. 1207 which states that after having defeated the ruler of Shakambhari, Kumarapala reached Shalipura (modern Shalera) and fixing his camp there went to have the glorious view of the Mount Chitrakuta. (Lines: 10-13, EI,II,p.421ff) Thence he proceeded to Palari where, according to Tod he placed an inscription in the month of Pausha, V. 1207. [8]

Bijolia inscription of Chauhans V.E. 1226 (1170 AD)

यह शिला लेख एपिग्राफिक इंडिया भाग 26 प. 90 -100 पर प्रकाशित हुआ है. डॉ. गोपीनाथ शर्मा [9]लिखते हैं कि यह लेख बिजोलिया के पार्श्वनाथ मंदिर की उत्तरी दीवार के पास एक चट्टान पर उत्कीर्ण है. इसमें 93 संस्कृत पद्यों का प्रयोग किया गया है. इसका समय विक्रम संवत 1226 फाल्गुन कृष्णा तृतीया, तदानुसार फरवरी 5, सन 1170 है. इसमें साम्भर और अजमेर के चौहान वंस की सूची तथा उपलब्धियों का वर्णन है. इसमें शासकों को वत्स गोत्र का बताया गया है.

इस वंशावली में जयराज → विग्रहराज → चन्द्रराज → गोपेन्द्रराज → दुर्लभराज → गोविन्दराज → चन्द्रराज → गुवक → चन्द्रराज → वाक्पतिराज → विन्ध्यराज → विग्रहराज → गोविन्द → सिंह → दुर्लभराज → पृथ्वीराज → अजयराज → अर्णोराज आदि हैं का विशेष उल्लेख है.

The Chauhan ruler Arnoraj had also conquered the kingdom of Kusha-Varana (Varan is modern Bulandshahr) then held by the Dod clan ruler either Sahajaditya or Bhojadeva. That it did not escape the victorious arms of Arnoraja might be seen from the first part of verse 17 of Bijolia Inscription. [10]

याद्राज्यं कुशवारणं प्रतिकृतमं राजांकुशेन स्वयं, येनात्रैव नु चित्रमेतत्पुनर्म्मन्यामहे तं प्रति | तच्चित्रं प्रतिभासते :सुकृतिना निर्व्वाणनारायण- न्यक्काराचरणेन भंगकरणं श्रीदेवराजं प्रति ||17||

Madanpur Inscriptions of Prithviraja III year V. 1239 (1182 AD)

There is one Inscripton incised on a Jaina temple which shows that Prithviraja III conquered Chandel ruler Parmardi or Paramala.

Jinapala's Kharataragachchhapaṭṭavalī tells us that in V. 1239 (1182 AD) Prithviraja III started his digvijaya and on his conquest of all quarters had pitched his first camp at Narayana. He marched against Jejakabhukti, which according to Madanpur (Bundelkhand) Inscriptions, "was laid waste in V.1239 by Prithviraja III, the son of Someshvara and the grandson of Arnoraja".

Prithviraja III conquered Mahoba, the capital of Chandel ruler Parmardi or Paramala, after a stiff fight with Banafara hroes Alha and Udala who were aided also by an army of Kanauj. [11]

The original text is as under:

श्री चाहुमान-वंश्‍येन पृथ्‍वीराजेन भूभुजा |
परमर्दी-नरेन्‍द्रस्‍य देशोयमुदवास्‍यत ||
अर्णोराजस्‍य पौत्रेण श्रीसोमेश्‍वरसुनुना |
जैजाकभुक्तिदेशोयं पृथ्‍वीराजेन लूनित: ||
संवत् 1239 [12]

चौहान सम्राट

संत श्री कान्हाराम[13] ने लिखा है कि....नागदुर्ग के पुनः नव-निर्माण का श्री गणेश गोविन्दराज या गोविन्ददेव तृतीय के समय (1053 ई. ) अक्षय तृतीय को किया गया। गोविंद देव तृतीय के समय अरबों–तुर्कों द्वारा दखल देने के कारण चौहनों ने अपनी राजधानी अहिछत्रपुर से हटकर शाकंभरी (सांभर) को बनाया। बाद में और भी अधिक सुरक्षित स्थान अजमेर को अजमेर (अजयपाल) ने 1123 ई. में अपनी राजधानी बनाया। यह नगर नाग पहाड़ की पहाड़ियों के बीच बसाया था। एक काफी ऊंची पहाड़ी पर “अजमेर दुर्ग” का निर्माण करवाया था। अब यह दुर्ग “तारागढ़” के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।

अजमेर से डिवेर के के बीच के पहाड़ी क्षेत्र में प्राचीन मेर जाति का मूल स्थान रहा है। यह मेरवाड़ा कहलाता था। अब यह अजमेर – मेरवाड़ा कहलाता है। अजयपाल ने अपने नाम अजय शब्द के साथ मेर जाति से मेर लेकर अजय+मेर = अजमेर रखा। अजमेर का नाम अजयमेरु से बना होने की बात मनगढ़ंत है। अजयपाल ने मुसलमानों से नागौर पुनः छीन लिया था। बाद में अपने पुत्र अर्णोराज (1133-1153 ई.) को शासन सौंप कर सन्यासी बन गए। अजयपाल बाबा के नाम से आज भी मूर्ति पुष्कर घाटी में स्थापित है। अर्णोराज ने पुष्कर को लूटने वाले मुस्लिम आक्रमणकारियों को हराने के उपलक्ष में आना-सागर झील का निर्माण करवाया।


[पृष्ठ-78]: विग्रहराज चतुर्थ (बिसलदेव) (1153-1164 ई) इस वंश का अत्यंत पराक्रमी शासक हुआ। दिल्ली के लौह स्तम्भ पर लेख है कि उन्होने म्लेच्छों को भगाकर भारत भूमि को पुनः आर्यभूमि बनाया था। बीसलदेव ने बीसलपुर झील और सरस्वती कथंभरण संस्कृत पाठशाला का निर्माण करवाया जिसे बाद में मुस्लिम शासकों ने तोड़कर ढाई दिन का झौंपड़ा बना दिया। इनके स्तंभों पर आज भी संस्कृत श्लोक उत्कीर्ण हैं। जगदेव, पृथ्वीराज द्वितीय, सोमेश्वर चौहानों के अगले शासक हुये। सोमेश्वर का पुत्र पृथ्वीराज तृतीय (1176-1192 ई) ही पृथ्वीराज चौहान के नाम से विख्यात हुआ। यह अजमेर के साथ दिल्ली का भी शासक बना।

Religion

Dasharatha Sharma[14] writes that At Ajmer, Jaina Sadhu Jinavallabha's met the Chauhan ruler Arnoraja, who was pleased to donate a good site for the construction of some new temples, in which worship was to be performed in accordance with Jinavallabha's teachings.

External links

References

  1. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.49
  2. Line-14:मन्ये समाक्रान्त-मरू-पिपासु: संसारसिन्धुञ्च सरस्वतीञ्च
  3. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.50
  4. Line-17:वाष्प-वारिणि कालिंदी हरितानक-योपिताम् | सत्त्वाक्रान्तस्य मिलिता यत्प्रमाणे रजस्वला ||
  5. याद्राज्यं कुशवारणं प्रतिकृतमं राजांकुशेन स्वयं, येनात्रैव नु चित्रमेतत्पुनर्म्मन्यामहे तं प्रति | तच्चित्रं प्रतिभासते सुकृतिना निर्व्वाणनारायण- न्यक्काराचरणेन भंगकरणं श्रीदेवराजं प्रति ||17||
  6. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.51-52
  7. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.60
  8. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.60
  9. राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्तोत्र, प. 94-95
  10. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.51-52
  11. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 83
  12. Dasharatha Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties", p.109.
  13. Sant Kanha Ram: Shri Veer Tejaji Ka Itihas Evam Jiwan Charitra (Shodh Granth), Published by Veer Tejaji Shodh Sansthan Sursura, Ajmer, 2015. pp.77-78
  14. Early Chauhan Dynasties", pp.255-256.