Pushkar

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Location of Pushkar in Ajmer district

Pushkar (पुष्कर) (also Pushkara) is a town in the district Ajmer of Rajasthan in India. Pushkar means born due to a flower.

Jat Gotras

In Mythology

Pushkar Lake

According to Hindu Mythology it is said that the gods released a swan with a lotus in its beak and let it fall on earth where Brahma would perform a grand yagna. The place where the lotus fell was called Pushkar. It is situated 14 Km from Ajmer city and is one of the five sacred dhams (pilgrimage sites for devout Hindus.) It is often called "Tirth Raj" - the King of Pilgrimage Sites - and has also in recent years become a popular destination for foreign tourists as well.

Pushkar lies on the shore of Pushkar Lake. It has five principal temples, many smaller temples and 52 ghats where pilgrims descend to the lake to bathe in the sacred waters. One of the primary temples is the 14th century temple dedicated to Brahma, the Hindu god of Creation. A few temples dedicated to Lord Brahma exist in the world. The other temples of Brahma include those at Besakih in Bali, Bithoor in Uttar Pradesh, India, village Asotra near Balotra city of Barmer district in Rajasthan, India and Prambanan in Indonesia. One more temple is located in Kathmandu Nepal.

Pushkar is also famous for its Annual Pushkar Camel Fair.

चौहान सम्राट

संत श्री कान्हाराम[1] ने लिखा है कि.... [पृष्ठ-76]: ईसा की दसवीं सदी में प्रतिहारों के कमजोर पड़ने पर प्राचीन क्षत्रिय नागवंश की चौहान शाखा शक्तिशाली बनकर उभरी। अहिच्छत्रपुर (नागौर) तथा शाकंभरी (सांभर) चौहनों के मुख्य स्थान थे। चौहनों ने 200 वर्ष तक अरबों, तुर्कों, गौरी, गजनवी को भारत में नहीं घुसने दिया।

चौहनों की ददरेवा (चुरू) शाखा के शासक जीवराज चौहान के पुत्र गोगा ने नवीं सदी के अंत में महमूद गजनवी की फौजों के छक्के छुड़ा दिये थे। गोगा का युद्ध कौशल देखकर महमूद गजनवी के मुंह से सहसा निकल पड़ा कि यह तो जाहरपीर (अचानक गायब और प्रकट होने वाला) है। महमूद गजनवी की फौजें समाप्त हुई और उसको उल्टे पैर लौटना पड़ा। दुर्भाग्यवश गोगा का बलिदान हो गया। गोगाजी के बलिदान दिवस भाद्रपद कृष्ण पक्ष की गोगा नवमी को भारत के घर-घर में लोकदेवता गोगाजी की पूजा की जाती है और गाँव-गाँव में मेले भरते हैं।


[पृष्ठ-77]: चौथी पाँचवीं शताब्दी के आस-पास अनंत गौचर (उत्तर पश्चिम राजस्थान, पंजाब, कश्मीर तक) में प्राचीन नागवंशी क्षत्रिय अनंतनाग का शासन था। इसी नागवंशी के वंशज चौहान कहलाए। अहिछत्रपुर (नागौर) इनकी राजधानी थी। आज जहां नागौर का किला है वहाँ इन्हीं नागों द्वारा सर्वप्रथम चौथी सदी में धूलकोट के रूप में दुर्ग का निर्माण किया गया था। इसका नाम रखा नागदुर्ग। नागदुर्ग ही बाद में अपभ्रंश होकर नागौर कहलाया।

551 ई. के आस-पास वासुदेव नाग यहाँ का शासक था। इस वंश का उदीयमान शासक सातवीं शताब्दी में नरदेव हुआ। यह नागवंशी शासक मूलतः शिव भक्त थे। आठवीं शताब्दी में ये चौहान कहलाए। नरदेव के बाद विग्रहराज द्वितीय ने 997 ई. में मुस्लिम आक्रमणकारी सुबुक्तगीन को को धूल चटाई। बाद में दुर्लभराज तृतीय उसके बाद विग्रहराज तृतीय तथा बाद में पृथ्वीराज प्रथम हुये। इन्हीं शासकों को चौहान जत्थे का नेतृत्व मिला। इस समय ये प्रतिहरों के सहायक थे। 738 ई. में इनहोने प्रतिहरों के साथ मिलकर राजस्थान की लड़ाई लड़ी थी।

नागदुर्ग के पुनः नव-निर्माण का श्री गणेश गोविन्दराज या गोविन्ददेव तृतीय के समय (1053 ई. ) अक्षय तृतीय को किया गया। गोविंद देव तृतीय के समय अरबों–तुर्कों द्वारा दखल देने के कारण चौहनों ने अपनी राजधानी अहिछत्रपुर से हटकर शाकंभरी (सांभर) को बनाया। बाद में और भी अधिक सुरक्षित स्थान अजमेर को अजमेर (अजयपाल) ने 1123 ई. में अपनी राजधानी बनाया। यह नगर नाग पहाड़ की पहाड़ियों के बीच बसाया था। एक काफी ऊंची पहाड़ी पर “अजमेर दुर्ग” का निर्माण करवाया था। अब यह दुर्ग “तारागढ़” के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।

अजमेर से डिवेर के के बीच के पहाड़ी क्षेत्र में प्राचीन मेर जाति का मूल स्थान रहा है। यह मेरवाड़ा कहलाता था। अब यह अजमेर – मेरवाड़ा कहलाता है। अजयपाल ने अपने नाम अजय शब्द के साथ मेर जाति से मेर लेकर अजय+मेर = अजमेर रखा। अजमेर का नाम अजयमेरु से बना होने की बात मनगढ़ंत है। अजयपाल ने मुसलमानों से नागौर पुनः छीन लिया था। बाद में अपने पुत्र अर्नोराज (1133-1153 ई.) को शासन सौंप कर सन्यासी बन गए। अजयपाल बाबा के नाम से आज भी मूर्ति पुष्कर घाटी में स्थापित है। अरनौराज ने पुष्कर को लूटने वाले मुस्लिम आक्रमणकारियों को हराने के उपलक्ष में आना-सागर झील का निर्माण करवाया।


[पृष्ठ-78]: विग्रहराज चतुर्थ (बिसलदेव) (1153-1164 ई) इस वंश का अत्यंत पराक्रमी शासक हुआ। दिल्ली के लौह स्तम्भ पर लेख है कि उन्होने म्लेच्छों को भगाकर भारत भूमि को पुनः आर्यभूमि बनाया था। बीसलदेव ने बीसलपुर झील और सरस्वती कथंभरण संस्कृत पाठशाला का निर्माण करवाया जिसे बाद में मुस्लिम शासकों ने तोड़कर ढाई दिन का झौंपड़ा बना दिया। इनके स्तंभों पर आज भी संस्कृत श्लोक उत्कीर्ण हैं। जगदेव, पृथ्वीराज द्वितीय, सोमेश्वर चौहानों के अगले शासक हुये। सोमेश्वर का पुत्र पृथ्वीराज तृतीय (1176-1192 ई) ही पृथ्वीराज चौहान के नाम से विख्यात हुआ। यह अजमेर के साथ दिल्ली का भी शासक बना।

जाट महासभा का पुष्कर में जलसा सन् 1925

सर्वप्रथम सन् 1925 में अखिल भारतीय जाट महासभा ने राजस्थान में दस्तक दी और अजमेर के निकट पुष्कर में अखिल भारतीय जाट महासभा का जलसा हुआ. इसकी अध्यक्षता भरतपुर महाराजा कृष्णसिंह ने की. इस अवसर पर जाट रियासतों के मंत्री, पंडित मदन मोहन मालवीय, पंजाब के सर छोटूरामसेठ छज्जू राम भी पुष्कर आये. इस क्षेत्र के जाटों पर इस जलसे का चमत्कारिक प्रभाव पड़ा और उन्होंने अनुभव किया कि वे दीन हीन नहीं हैं. बल्कि एक बहादुर कौम हैं, जिसने ज़माने को कई बार बदला है. भरतपुर की जाट महासभा को देखकर उनमें नई चेतना व जागृति का संचार हुआ और कुछ कर गुजरने की भावना तेज हो गयी. यह जलसा अजमेर - मेरवाडा के मास्टर भजनलाल बिजारनिया की प्रेरणा से हुआ था. शेखावाटी के हर कौने से जाट इस जलसे में भाग लेने हेतु केसरिया बाना पहनकर पहुंचे, जिनमें चिमनाराम सांगसी, भूदाराम सांगसी, सरदार हरलाल सिंह, चौधरी घासीराम, पृथ्वीसिंह गोठडा, पन्नेसिंह बाटड़, हरीसिंह पलथाना, गोरुसिंह, ईश्वरसिंह, चौधरी गोविन्दराम, पन्ने सिंह देवरोड़, रामसिंह बख्तावरपुरा, चेतराम भामरवासीभूदाराम सांगसी, मोती राम कोटड़ी आदि प्रमुख थे. ये लोग एक दिव्य सन्देश, एक नया जोश, और एक नई प्रेरणा लेकर लौटे. जाट राजा भरतपुर के भाषण से उन्हें भान हुआ कि उनके स्वजातीय बंधू, राजा, महाराजा, सरदार, योद्धा, उच्चपदस्थ अधिकारी और सम्मानीय लोग हैं. पुष्कर से शेखावाटी के किसान दो व्रत लेकर लौटे. प्रथम- समाज सुधार, जिसके तहत कुरीतियों को मिटाना एवं शिक्षा-प्रसार करना. दूसरा व्रत - करो या मरो का था जिसके तहत किसानों की ठिकानों के विरुद्ध मुकदमेबाजी या संघर्ष में मदद करना और उनमें हकों के लिए जागृति करना था.[2]

पुष्कर ले लौटने के बाद बगड़ में जाट पंचायत की स्थापना की गयी. प्रचार के लिए भजनोपदेशकों की टोलियाँ तैयार की गयी. अनपढ़ समाज पर भजनोपदेशकों के गीतों का चमत्कारिक प्रभाव पड़ा. भजनोपदेशक अन्य राज्यों से भी आये थे और स्थानीय स्तर पर भी तैयार हुए. पंडित दत्तुराम, भोलासिंह, चौधरी घासीराम, पृथ्वी सिंह बेधड़क, हुकमीचंद, मनसाराम आदि कलाकारों ने गाँव-गाँव को गीतों से गूंजा दिया. स्थानीय स्तर पर मोहरसिंह, सूरजमल साथी, हनुमानदास, बस्तीराम, देवकरण पालोता, तेज सिंह भादौन्दा, गनपतराम महाशय आदि भजनोपदेशक तैयार हो गए. शेखावाटी के ग्रामीण अंचलों को जगाने का श्रेय इन्ही भजनोपदेशक को जाता है. 1925 में झुंझुनू जिले के हनुमानपुरा और कुहाडवास में जन सहयोग से स्कूल खोली गयी. उत्तर प्रदेश के शिक्षक हेमराज सिंह कुहाडवास में और चंद्रभान सिंह हनुमानपुरा में पढ़ाने लगे. इसी क्रम में आगे चलकर कूदन, पलथाना, कटराथल, मांडासी आदि गाँवों में स्कूल खोली गयी. खंडेलावाटी में चौधरी लादूराम रानीगंज ने आर्थिक भार वहन कर शिक्षा की जोत जगाई. शेखावाटी में जनसहयोग से करीब 30 स्कूल खोली गयी. [3]

पुष्कर सम्मलेन के पश्चात् शेखावाटी में दूसरी पंक्ति के जो नेता उभर कर आये, उनमें प्रमुख नाम निम्न हैं - ताराचंद झारोड़, बूंटीराम किशोरपुरा, भैरूसिंह तोगडा , डूंगरसिंह कुमावास, हरलालसिंह-बेगराज मांडासी, रेखसिंह हनुमानपुरा, छत्तू सिंह टाईं (राजपूत), हरदेव सिंह पातुसरी , रंगलाल गाड़िया, दुर्गादत्त कांइयां झुंझुनू, रामेश्वर रामगढ़िया मंडावा, कुरड़ाराम झारोड़ा, इन्द्राज सिंह, हंसराज घरडाना, चेतराम-ख्याली राम भामरवासी, स्वामी मिस्रानंद बिगोदना, चत्तर सिंह बख्तावरपुरा, देवकरण पालोता, आशा राम भारू का बास, देवासिंह बोचाल्या, चन्द्र सिंह , खमाण सिंह पलथाना, देवी सिंह दिनारपुरा, गोपाल सिंह रशीद्पुरा, हरिराम फरटिया , गणेश राम, कल्लूराम, स्वामी पदमदास कूदन, किसन सिंह बाटड़ानाऊ, बालूराम कंवरपुरा (खंडेला वाटी) पेमाराम पलसाना, हरबक्श गढ़वाल खंडेला वाटी , गणेश राम भारनी आदि... इतिहास में आम जन की भागीदारी का यह अनुपम उदहारण है. [4]

Geography

Pushkar is located at 26.5° N 74.55° E. It has an average elevation of 510 metres (1673 feet).

History

Pushkar is one of the oldest cities of India. The date of its actual founding is not known, but legend associates Lord Brahma with its creation.

The Ramayan mentions Pushkar and says that Vishvamitra performed tapa here. It further says that the Apsara Menaka came to Pushkara to bathe in its sacred waters.

The Mahabharata says that while laying down a programme for Maharaja Yudhishthira’s travel, “Maharaja after entering the Jungles of Sind and crossing the small rivers on the way should bathe in Pushkara". And, per Vaman Purana, Prahlada on his pilgrimage to holy places visited Pushkarayana.

A Pratihara ruler of Mandore, Nahadarava, restored this tirtha in the seventh century. He got the place cleared and the lake restored by making an embankment on the side of the river Luni. He rebuilt old palaces and built twelve dhrnashalas (resting places) and ghats on three sides of the lake.

The sage Parasara is said to have been born here. His descendants, called Parasara Brahamanas, are found in Pushkar and the surrounding area. The famous temple of Jeenmata has been cared for by Parasara Brahmans for the last 1000 years. Pushkarana Brahamanas may also have originated here.

Tejaji and Pushkar

Tejājī was married to Pemal in early childhood at Pushkar with the daughter of Rai Mal Jat of Jhanjhar gotra, chieftain of village Paner . After marriage there was a dispute between two families in which māmā of Pemal and father of Tejaji were killed.

Dudi Jats and Pushakar

Dudi Jats had ruled in Rajasthan. The Dudis are considered to be originated from Pushkar in Ajmer and ruled Didwana, Sambhar Lake, Nagaur area for 30 generations before the rule of Muslims and Rajputs.

Pushkar bathe by Maharani Kishori

An incident that is very popular about Jawahar Singh and Maharani Kishori that relates to the Pushkar Snan(Bath).

Maharani Kishori, wife of Maharaja Suraj Mal, who had adopted Jawahar Singh, was adept at political intrigues. She was pained to see that Maharaja Jawahar Singh was not adopting a favourable policy towards the members of the family and the nobles. She knew that only keeping him engaged in warfare could control him. She also knew that the Rajput]]s could never tolerate this abrupt rise of Jat rule and would always resist the latter's efforts to gain power. The solution for both the problems lay in war.

Maharani Kishori expressed her desire to her proud son that she wanted to go for a sacred bath at Pushkar. Jawahar Singh pointed out that Pushkar was situated in the territory of his eternal and deadly foe, Raja Madho Singh, who would not tolerate her arrival at Pushkar with a large retinue, and advised her that if at all she were keen to go for Pushkar bath, she would go with only a few followers and Rupa Ram the Purohit.

The Rani retorted by saying that she was the mother of Maharaja Jawahar Singh, and the Rani of Maharaja Suraj Mal and taking a bath like Marwari women would hurt her pride, and that she would like to take her bath along with the Rajput Ranis there.

She would also like to give away alms surpassing the Rajput Ranis. She said, she did not understand why the Jats should be afraid of the Rajputs any longer. Jawahar Singh knew well that this would lead to warfare and bloodshed.

Jawahar Singh marched to Pushkar with 60,000 Cavalry, 1 lakh Infantry and 200 guns. With fluttering banners and beating drums they entered Jaipur territory and set up a impressive camp in the Sandy plains of Pushkar.

Maharani Kishori was weighed in gold, which was given in charity. The other Ranis who had come on this occasion felt humiliated because they were not in a position to match the charity of Maharani Kishori. The Rajput vanity was hurt.

Jawahar Singh travelled to Pushkar, along with his troupes, in Samvat 1828 on Kartika Sudi Purnima. On reaching the site Jawahar Singh saw the beautifully constructed bathing enclosures which were meant soleful for the Rajput kings. He was asked to bathe in the kachha (mud) bank on the other side of the lake, known as gawar ghat. But Jawahar Singh and his mother Maharani Kishori not only decided to bathe in the pukka ghat but also constructed a new one, now popular as the Bharatpur ghat.

Incensed by this act of defiance, the Raja of Jaipur attacked Jawahar Singh in December 1767 but was humbled at the battle of Maonda. Thus a triumphant Jawahar Singh returned to Bharatpur.

The Pushkar episode & Battle of Mawanda

Ram Sarup Joon[5] writes that ... Maharani Kishori, wife of Maharaja Suraj Mal, who had adopted Jawahar Singh, was adept at political intrigues. She was pained to see that Jawahar Singh was not adopting a favourable policy towards the members of the family and the nobles. She knew that he could be controlled only by keeping him engaged in warfare. She also knew that the Rajputs could never tolerate this abrupt rise of Jat rule and would always resist the latter's efforts to gain power. The solution for both the problems lay in war. Kishori


History of the Jats, End of Page-168


expressed her desire to her proud son that she wanted to go for a sacred bath at Pushkar. Jawahar Singh pointed out that Pushkar was situated in the territory of his eternal and deadly foe, Raja Madho Singh, who would not tolerate her arrival at Pushkar with a large retinue, and advised her that if at all she was keen to go for Pushkar bath, she would go with only a few followers and Rupa Ram the Purohit. The Rani retorted by saying that she was the mother of Jawahar Singh, and the Rani of Suraj Mal and taking a bath like Marwari women would hurt her pride, and that she would like to take her bath along with the Rajput Ranis there. She would also like to give away alms surpassing the Rajput Ranis. She said, she did not understand why the Jats should be afraid of the Rajputs any longer. Jawahar Singh knew well that this would lead to warfare and bloodshed.

Jawahar Singh made the big mistake of leaving Pratap Singh the rebel of Jaipur, for the defence of Bharatpur. He considered Partap Singh to be a reliable man, but in this he was deceived.

Jawahar Singh marched to Pushkar with 60,000 Cavalry, 1 lakh Infantry and 200 guns. With fluttering banners and beating drums they entered Jaipur territory and set up a impressive camp in the sandy plains of Pushkar.

Rani Kishori was weighed in gold which was given in charity. The other Ranis who had come on this occasion felt humiliated because they were not in a position to match the charity of Rani Kishori. The Rajput vanity was hurt. Pratap Singh, who was left as the guardian of Bharatpur in the absence of Jawahar Singh, also came to know of this. He left Bharatpur undefended, and joined the camp of Madho Singh. Pratap Singh instigated Madho Singh against Jawahar Singh. All the Rajput rulers assembled at Pushkar and held a conference in which no Jat rulers were invited. Raja Madho Singh said in this conference that the Jat ruler had injured the vanity of all the Rajputs.


History of the Jats, End of Page-169


It was here that a witty Marwari, Raja Vijay Singh pointed out that after all the Jats were also Hindus and if they donated liberally on this auspicious occasion according to their financial position, it must not be taken as humiliation by Rajputs. Madho Singh, however, rejected this advice and appealed for war. The decision of this conference soon reached Jawahar Singh. He was expecting it. Madho Singh laid on ambush in a valley to intercept Jawahar Singh on his return. Jawahar Singh had anticipated this and took the alternative route via Turna Wati, which was a bottle-neck surrounded by hills. The column of troops with cavalry and artillery was marching under the leadership of Captain Samru. The palanquins of the Ranis were escorted by Jawahar Singh in the rear of the column. All of a sudden they were attacked by Rajputs from three sides. It was a fierce battle, in which the Rajputs suffered great losses. In the battle, it was found that only 11 tender aged members were left in the family of Raja Madho Singh. The rest lost their lives. It is said that 25,000 casualties occurred in this battle. Jawahar Singh reached Bharatpur. Both of Jats and Rajputs claimed themselves victorious in this battle, but apparently the loss did not have not much of a repercussion on the strength of Jats, whereas Madho Singh had to suffer such a severe blow that his power never recovered. Later Jawahar Singh was killed by some unknown person while he was out on hunting.

Pushkar Adhiveshan of Jats, November 1925

The Pushkar Adhiveshan in November 1925 organized by All India Jat Mahasabha was presided over by Maharaja Kishan Singh of Bharatpur. Sir Chhotu Ram, Madan Mohan Malviya, Chhajju Ram and many other farmer leaders also attended it. This function was organized with the initiative of Master Bhajan Lal Bijarnia of Ajmer - Merwara. The farmers from all parts of Shekhawati had come to attend it. To name a few of them, Chaudhary Govind Ram, Kunwar Panne Singh Deorod, Ram Singh Bakhtawarpura, Chetram Bhadarwasi, Bhuda Ram Sangasi, and Moti Ram Kotri and Har Lal Singh attended it. The Shekhawati farmers took two oaths in Pushkar namely,

  1. They would work for the development of the society through elimination of social evils and spreading of education.
  2. ‘Do or Die’ in the matters of exploitation of farmers by the Feudal lords (Jagirdars).

and finaly,

  1. A Resolution was passed to work for ending the British rule from India.

Jat Temples

Nathu Ram Mirdha Statue Installed

Statue of Nathu Ram Mirdhawas installed by Shri Jat Mandir Samiti, Pushkar during its 89th Akhil Bharatiy Jat Mahasabha Sammelan at Jat Vishram sthali Pushkar, Ajmer on 20 October 2009. The function was Chaired by Jyoti Mirdha, Member Lok Sabha from Nagaur constituency and the Chief Guest on the occasion was Harji Ram Burdak, Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Minister, Rajasthan.[6]

References

  1. Sant Kanha Ram: Shri Veer Tejaji Ka Itihas Evam Jiwan Charitra (Shodh Granth), Published by Veer Tejaji Shodh Sansthan Sursura, Ajmer, 2015. pp.76-78
  2. डॉ. ज्ञानप्रकाश पिलानिया: राजस्थान स्वर्ण जयंती प्रकाशन समिति जयपुर के लिए राजस्थान हिंदी ग्रन्थ अकादमी जयपुर द्वारा प्रकाशित 'राजस्थान में स्वतंत्रता संग्राम के अमर पुरोधा - सरदार हरलाल सिंह' , 2001 , पृ. 20-21
  3. राजेन्द्र कसवा: मेरा गाँव मेरा देश (वाया शेखावाटी), जयपुर, 2012, ISBN 978-81-89681-21-0, P. 100
  4. राजेन्द्र कसवा: मेरा गाँव मेरा देश (वाया शेखावाटी), जयपुर, 2012, ISBN 978-81-89681-21-0, P. 100
  5. History of the Jats/Chapter X,p. 168-170
  6. Jat Samaj, November 2009, p. 31

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