Rajatarangini tells that in Kashmir history King Shachinara was succeeded by Ashoka, the great grandson of Shakuni, and son of king Shachinara's first cousin. He was a truthful and spotless king, and a follower of Buddha. He caused many stupas to be built on the rocky banks of the Vitasta (Jhelum) at Shushkaletra.
On the extremity of Dharmaranya he built a chaitya so high that its top could not be seen. It was he who built Srinagara, which contained no less than ninety-six lacs of beautiful houses. He pulled down the dilapidated wall of the compound of the temple of Srivijayesha and built a new stone wall in its stead. He also caused to be erected two palaces near the courtyard of that god, and named them Ashoka and Isvra.
Ashoka's brave son Jaloka, said to have been the gift of Shiva whom he pleased by his worship, drove back the Mlechchhas from the country and succeeded in regaining his father's throne. An account of his accomplishments, would astonish even the gods. If a golden egg wore thrown into a tank, he could pierce it with his arrow. He knew the art of being under water, by which device he enjoyed the youthful daughters of the Nagas. He was the worshipper of Vijayeshvara, Nandisha and Kshetrnjyeshtesha — all, different representations of Shiva. His victory over those foreigners, which gained him great reputation, did not cease with their expulsion from his kingdom, but he pursued them to tho sea. Weary of battles against them, he rested at a place where he tied up his hair, for which reason the place was named Ujjatadimba. He then turned his arms in another direction, conquered Konouje, and thence carried to his kingdom, some men of each of the four castes, who were versed in law and religion. Before his time, Kashmira was a poor country, and justice was not well administered. For the proper administration of the country he created seven new offices, viz. : those of Chief Justice, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Treasurer, Commander-in-Chief, Ambassador, High Priest and Augur. He entrusted the government of Dvāra and other places to his queen
[p.10]: Ishānadevi, He established eighteen places of worship, and built Vāravāla and other ediifices, and used to hear the Nandi Purana recited by disciple of Vyasa. He set up the god Jeshtharudra in Srinagara, and also worshipped the god Sodara.
It is narrated of this king that one day, when he was going to the temple of Vijayeshvara, he met a woman in the way who asked him for some food, and when he promised her whatever food she wanted, she changed herself into some deformed shape and asked for human flesh. Unwilling to kill any one to satisfy her unnatural appetite, he permitted her to take off-what she liked from his own body. This heroic self-devotion seemed to move her, and she remarked that for his tender regard for the life of others she considered him a second Buddha. The king, being a follower of Shiva, did not know Buddha, and asked her who Buddha was whom she took him to be. She then unfolded her mission and said, that on the other side of the hill of Lokāloka, where the sun never shone, there lived a tribe of Krittika who were the followers of Buddha. This tribe, she continued with the eloquence of a missionary, were never angry even with those who did them injury, forgave them that trespassed against them, and even did them good. They taught truth and wisdom to all, and were willing to dispel the darkness of ignorance that covered the earth. " But this people," she added, " you have injured. There was a monastery belonging to us in which the beating of-
[p.11]: drums once disturbed your sleep, and incited by the ad vice of wicked men you have destroyed the monastery. The angry Buddhists sent me to murder you, but our high priest interfered ; he told me that you were a powerful monarch, against whom we would not be able to cope. He said that if you would listen to me, and build a monastery with your gold, you would atone for the sins of which you are guilty in destroying the former one. Here I came therefore find tested your heart in disguise." Krittidevi then returned to her people after extorting from the king a promise to build a monastery, and agreeably to his promise he caused it to be erected on tho very place of their meeting.
At Nandikshetra he caused a house of Shiva Bhutesha to be erected and bestowed much wealth on it. It seems his last days were spent in devotion. On the banks of the Kanakavahini (कनकवाहिनी) there was a holy place named Chira-mochana, Here the king performed his devotions for three nights. At tho time of song and dance, one hundred females of his household rose up to dance before the god Jeshtharudra and he bestowed those women on that god. He and his queen died at Chiramochana.
Alexander Cunningham writes that Srinagari, the old capital of Kashmir prior to the erection of Pravarasenapura, is stated to have been founded by the great Asoka,  who reigned from B.C. 263 to 226. It stood on the site of the present Pandrethan, and is said to have extended along the bank of the river from the foot of the Takht-i-Suliman to Pantasok, a distance of more than three miles. The oldest temple in Kashmir, on the top of the Takht-i-Suliman, is identified by the unanimous consent of all the Brahmans of the valley with the temple of Jyeshta Rudra, which was built by Jaloka, the son of Asoka, in Srinagari. This identification is based on the fact that the hill was originally called Jyeshteswara. The old bridge abutments at the village of Pantasok are
[p.96]: also attributed to Asoka ; and the other ruins at the same place are said to be the remains of the two Asokeswara temples which are noted in the native chronicle of Kashmir. Srinagari was still the capital of the valley in the reign of Pravarasena I., towards the end of the fifth century, when the King erected a famous symbol of the god Siva, named after himself Pravareswara. This city still existed in A.D. 631, when the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang arrived in Kashmir, although it was no longer the capital of the valley.
Rajatarangini mentions another Jaloka as King of Kashmir who was son of Pratipaditya. This prince derived his glory from his father, and reigned with equal glory for the same period as his father (thirty-two years).
Ashoka the Great (273-232 BCE) built many stupas in Kashmir, and was succeeded by his son Jalauka. Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that Here we must note that Dahla or Dhila, Phur, Juna, and of course Chandragupta Maurya-all are Jats of the Dhillon, Por/Phor, Juna and Maurya clans. It is possible that Juna of Muslim writers may be the Jalauka of Rajatarangini of Kalhana who expressly states that Jalauka, the successor of Asoka in Kashmir, conquered the country up to Kanauj (Kanya Kubja.)(Rajat, 1. 117) "This implies that the successor of Asoka at Pataliputra in Magadha, lost his hold over the western half of India, up to Kanya Kubja" This remark of Kalhana makes it clear that Kanya Kubja was the dividing line between the dominions of the successors of Asoka in Kashmir and Magadha." This fact of conquest of Kanauj, by Juna/Jalauka of the Por clan, after Asoka, is thus confirmed from two sources, viz., Farishta and Kalhana. The third confirmation comes from Parishishta Parvan of Hema Chandra which says that Samprati, successor of Asoka in Magadha, ruled over the eastern half of India, including the Deccan. This Will clear a lot of confusion about the successors of Asoka Maurya.
Our purpose here is not to write history but to identify the ethnic group to which the various Indian rulers and clans belonged, and to find out whether their descendants are still existing. It is our contention that practically nothing is completely wiped out from the earth and this applies to matter as well as to the people in fact much more to the people than to matter. The search should be to find out the present descendants of the ancient ruling clans. It wil1 be found that only in rare cases, has a whole clan or ruling group, lost its identity leaving behind no trace of It. As a rule the ancient people wil1 be still found existing in better or worse surroundings. The present Por Jats are the descendants of ancient Pauras and belong to the same clan as that of Poros the great adversary of Alexander and the Paur kings of Puranas and Strabo. It is for the historians to find out their actual history. For the Muslim form Phur/Fur we must remember that in Arabic script, the letter 'p' is written as 'f'. 135 Buddha Prakash has given evience from Shahanama and other sources showing the relations of Poros With Darius III. How Darius sought help from Poros whom he cal1ed "the ruler of the men of Hind, the man of wisdom, red and ardent soul" ....how Poros sent help to Darius against Alexander, but too late is al1 described by the learned author and need not be repeated here.136 We conclude this chapter on identification of Poros by quoting from McCrindle's Invasion to say that, "the name of Poros .... is formed from Paura or Paurava ....with the Greek termination 'os' added" 137. The Por/Phor Jats are still existing and belong to this noble clan of Poros.
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/List of Kings,p.xx
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book I,pp.9-11
- The Ancient Geography of India/Kingdom of Kashmir,pp.95-96
- 'Raja Tarangini,' i. 104.
- ' Raja Tarangini,' i. 124.
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book II,p. 26
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/List of Kings,p.xx
- Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Porus and the Mauryas,pp. 172-173
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