Origin of name
Jhargram which means a forest village.
Jhargram is located at 22.45°N 86.98°E.
Legend has it that around 1590 CE Raja Man Singh of Amber had come to conquer Bengal on behest of Mughal Emperor Akbar from Rajasthan to expand the Mughal Empire to Eastern India. He appointed one of his loyal officers in the army, Sarveshwar Singh to defeat the local rulers of the region known as Junglekhand, this area is also mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari as Jharikhanda,it was populated by Tribals known as Santhals, Mallas ,Bhumij and Lodhas. The area belonged to the Malla Raja, the Mallas were ancient warrior tribes and were powerful people in the eastern part of India since the time of Mauryas and the Guptas.
Sarveshwar Singh together with the Rajput military force and cavalry invaded the deep forest and defeated the Malla rulers hence he adopted the surname Malla Deb. In order to commemorate this victory every year an idol of Malla Raja is made and killed on Vijaya Dasami (Dessehra) day. Raja Man Singh was appointed the Governor of Bengal,Bihar and Orrissa by the Mughal Emperor. After the campaign, he decided to return to Rajasthan and granted mansabdari of the 1200 km square Junglekhand region to Sarveshwar Singh as a reward. The first fortress was supposed to have existed in Old Jhargram but the ruins of the fortress is said to have gone underground due to some unknown reasons. Sarveshwar Singh was the founder of the Jhargram kingdom, he belonged to the Chauhan clan. He took the title of Raja and named the State Capital as Jhargram which means a forest village which was surrounded by walls and canals known as Ugal in local language,even today the day after Durga Ashtami the four corners (Ugals) are worshipped for the protection of the erstwhile kingdom.
The Man who was the hero or bull within the surrounded wall and canal was called Ugal Sanda. As such the full name of the Raja of the State was known as Raja Sarveshwar Malla Ugal Sanda Deb and the title has been continued up to Raja Narasingha Malla Ugal Sanda Deb.
The Marathas invaded the region between 1742-47, the rulers of Jhargram joined forces with Raja of Bishnupur and The Nawab of Bengal to fight a war against them and were victorious . Jhargram remained an independent kingdom till 1767 when East India Company led by Robert Clive came from Midnapore via Radhanagar to capture the Jhargram fort. The Raja took part in Chuar Rebellion to protect his independent status and revolted against British but ultimately surrendered and a Revenue was fixed . Then the kingdom was then recognized as a Zamindari estate under the law of primogeniture and the ruler was given the title of Raja. Jhargram twice fell into the Court of Wards after the death of Raja Raghunath Malla Ugal Sanda Deb and Raja Chandi Charan Malla Ugal Sanda Deb respectively. But was later released when the Raja Narasingha Malla Deb attained majority. In this connection it may be mentioned that in 1944–45 the then Vice-Roy of India agreed to recognize Jhargram as feudatory state,but at that time whole India was going through a turmoil and moved towards independence.The Cabinet mission came here to negotiate with Congress & Muslim League and other Parties etc. The proposal for feudatory status of Jhargram Raj was moped then.
The Kangsabati river - Kangsabati river enters the division on the north from Bankura district and flows along a tortuous course running to south and south-west direction and then flows towards east keeping the Midnapore town on the left(north). The river has contracted rapidly below Midnapore and at Kapastikri (about 20 km down below from Midnapore) the river has bifurcated. One course has gone towards north and finally has drained into the Rupnarayan river while the other course has run towards south-east and finally has fallen into the Haldi river.
The Tarafeni river - Tarafeni river originates in the north-west portion of this division near Patagarh in Banspahari Range. It runs towards east within the jurisdiction of Belpahari and Binpur police Stations and finally has fallen into the Kangsabati river.
The Subarnarekha river - This river enters the division on the west from Dhalbhum (Jharkhand State) and passes through the south of the division intersecting the Gopiballavpur Police Station and forming the northern boundary of Nayagram Police Station (Kharagpur Division). On the south of Dantan it enters the Balasor district of Orissa and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. The Subarnarekha has rapid stream with a sandy bed, and its banks are generally high and well defined. In season of high flood the river overflows its left bank about 6 km above the point where it leaves Paschim Midnapore district to enter the Balasor district.
The Dulung river - It is the main tributary of the Subarnarekha. It originates in the north-west portion of the division near Dulungdiha (J.L.No. 100, P.S. : Binpur) and runs generally in a southern direction near the western boundary of the division till it enters Jamboni Police Station. While passing through this police station from north to south it is joined by the Kupon river, Bashi Khal, Polpala Khal, Deb river and Putrangi Khal. Thereafter, it enters Gopiballavpur Police Station where its general direction is from west to east and then Sankrail police station where it again runs in a southernly direction and joins the Subarnarekha.
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