Jharkhand

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Jharkhand (झारखंड) is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is its sub capital.

Location

Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east.

History

There was a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. [1]

The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,[2][3] who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[4]

Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappa people. This has led to a great interest in the deciphering of Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary to Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary to Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empire.

According to legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. The Singh Deo's of Orissa have been very instrumental in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. Consequently, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhand's neighboring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance. This became the turning point in the history of the region wherein rulers from Orissa moved in with their armies and created states that were governed for the benefit of the people and involved their participation, thus ending the barbarism that had marked the region for centuries. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, and exist to this day.

Later, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara.

In the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" — the Land of "jungles" (forests) and "jharis" (bushes).

Jat History

The following areas and tribes find common place in Jat History. There is need to further research.

Geography

Most of the state lies on the Chhota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest.

The People

During the first census of 1872 the following 18 tribal communities were listed as the Aboriginal Tribes: (1) Khorta (2) Binjhia, (3) Gond, (4) Ho, (5) Kharia, (6) Kharwar, (7) Khond, (8) Kisan, (9) Korwa, (10) Mal Paharia, (11) Munda, (12) Oraon, (13) Santhal, (14) Sauria Paharia, (15) Savar, (16) Bhumij, (17) Birhor Chero.

Later 4 Tribes were classified as semi-Hinduized aboriginals, viz., (1) Banjara, (2) Bathundi, (3) Chik Baraik and (4) Mahli.

As of now the following 32 communities of Jharkhand are listed as the Scheduled Tribes as per details in the state government’s website.

Primitives Tribes: Asur, Birhor, Birajia, Korba, Mal Paharia, Sauriya Paharia, Sabar, Hill Kharia and Parahiya.

Other Tribes: Biga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Bhumij, Binjhia, Chero, Chik Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Khadia, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Lohra, Mahali, Munda, Oraon and Santhal.

Administrative districts

Palamu Division:

North Chotanagpur Division:

South Chotanagpur Division:

Kolhan Division:

Santhal Pargana Division:

References

  1. Gautam Kumar Bera (2008). The unrest axle: ethno-social movements in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-81-8324-145-8.
  2. Munda Rajas
  3. jharkhandstatenews http://www.jharkhandstatenews.com/arjun-munda-unveils-ancient-tribal-rajas-statue-in-pithoria/
  4. J.B. Hoffmann (1984). A missionary social worker in India. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 54. ISBN 978-88-7652-539-1.