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Pradyumna (प्रद्‍युम्‍न) is Chandravanshi King, son of Krishna by Rukmini. He is a form of the Hindu god Vishnu. He is one in 24 Keshava Namas (names), praised in all pujas. Pradyumna (प्रद्‍युम्‍न) is also a character in the Srimad Bhagavatam.

Genealogy of Pradyumna

Hukum Singh Panwar[1] has given the ancestry of Bharatpur rulers starting from 1. Yadu. Shini is at S.No. 38 and Krishna at S.No. 43 as under[2]:

34. Andhaka → 35. Bhajmana → 36. Viduratha → 37. Shura → 38. Shini → 39. Bhoja → 40. Hardika → 41. Devamidha → 42. Vasudeva → 43. Krishna → 44. Pradyumna → 45. Aniruddha → 46. Vajra

Lord Kṛṣṇa's son Pradyumna fathered the greatly powerful Aniruddha in the womb of Rukmavatī, the daughter of Rukmī. This took place while they were living in the city of Bhojakaṭa.[3]

The eldest of Rukmini's sons was Pradyumna, who was married to a princess of Vidarbha ; she bore him two sons, Aniruddha and Vajra, and from the latter the Bhattis claim descent. Vajra had two sons, Naba and Khira. [4]

Jat Gotras from Pradyumna

Panahar (पनहार) Panahi (पनही) gotra of Jats originated from Maharaja Pradyumna (प्रद्युम्न). [5]

Pradyumna is mentioned at S.No. 44 in the genealogy of Sinsinwar rulers of Bharatpur.[6]

Pradyumna in epics

When a child only six days old, he was stolen by the demon Sambara and thrown into the ocean. There he was swallowed by a fish, which was afterwards caught and carried to the house of Sambara. When the fish was opened, a beautiful child was discovered, and Mayadevi or Mayavati, the mistress of Sambara's household, took him under her care. The sage Narada informed her who the child was, and she reared him carefully.

When he grew up she fell in love with him, and informed him who he was and how he had been carried off by Sambara. He defied the demon to battle, and after a long conflict slew him. Then he flew through the air with Mayavati, and alighted in the inner apartments of his father's palace.

Krishna presented him to his mother Rukmini "with the virtuous Mayavati his wife," declaring her really to be the goddess Rati, the goddess of sexual pleasure and wife of the love-god Kama. Though Pradyumna passed as the son of Krishna, he was, according to the legend, a revival or resuscitation of Kama, the god of love, who was reduced to ashes by the fiery glance of Siva, and so the name Pradyumna is used for Kama.

Pradyumna also married Kakudmati, the daughter of Rukmin, and had by her a son named Aniruddha.

Pradyumna was killed at Dwaraka in the presence of his father during a drunken brawl.

The Vishnu Purana puts the following words into the mouth of Narada when he presented Pradyumna to Rukmini: "When Manmatha (the deity of love) had perished, the goddess of beauty (Rati), desirous to secure his revival, assumed a delusive form, and by her charms fascinated the demon Sambara, and exhibited herself to him in various illusory enjoyments. This thy son is the descended Kama ; and this is (the goddess) Rati, his wife. There is no occasion for any uncertainty; this is thy daughter-in-law."

In the Harivamsa he has a wife named Prabhavati, daughter of King Vajranabha. When he went to see her for the first time, he changed himself into a bee and lived in a garland of flowers which had been prepared for her.

According to the Mahabharata, he was Sanatkumara, the son of Brahma.

In Bhagavata Purana

Bhagavata Purana SKANDHA X. CHAP. 55

The god Kama is an aspect of Vasudeva. He had been burnt before by the fire of Rudra's anger. To get back his body, he was born as the son of Krishna by Rukmini and became known as Pradyumna. He was not unlike his father in any respect. The Asura Samvara, who was Kama (or passions) incarnate, (Kamarupin), knew the child to be his enemy and stole him away and threw him into the sea. A big fish swallowed him up. That fish with others was caught in a large net by the fishermen. They presented the fish to Samvara. The servant cut open the fish and the child came out. They made him over to Mayavati. She was frightened but Naroda told her all about the child. This Mayavati, named Rati, had been the wife of Kama. She had been waiting for the re appearance of her husband in a body, She was employed by Samvara as a cook. Knowing the child to be Kama Deva, she nursed him and became attached to him. In time, Kamadeva grew up and Mayavati approached him with expressions of love. " What is this mother ?" asked Kamadeva, " Why this change in your feelings towards me !"

" Thou art Kamadeva, O Lord, son of [Krishna]]. Thou hadst been stolen away by Samvara. I am thy wife Rati. The Asura had thrown thee into the sea, when a fish devoured thee. I have got thee back from the stomach of that fish. Samvara is an adept in many forms of Maya. Kill him by means of Delusion and other powers of Maya known to thee."

Rati gave to Pradyumna the Vidya known as Mahamaya, the destroyer of all other Mayas.

Pradyumna fought with Samvara and killed him with the help of Mahamaya. Rati then carried her husband to Dvaraka. There the women mistook him for Krishna and bashfully moved aside. Even Rukmini could only half decide that he was her son. Krishna appeared with Vasudeva, Devaki and Rama. Narada related the story of Pradyumna's adventures. There was great joy at Dvaraka and people welcomed Pradyumna and his wife. Pradyumna was an image of Krishna. What wonder if even his mother became attached to him !


  1. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.1
  2. Yadu Vamsavali of Bharatpur given by Ganga Singh in his book 'Yadu Vamsa', Part 1, Bharatpur Rajvansa Ka Itihas (1637-1768), Bharatpur, 1967, pp. 19-21
  3. Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.61.18
  4. James Tod:Annals of Jaisalmer, Vol.II, p.195
  5. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 262
  6. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.1

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