Andhaka

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Andhaka (अंधक) was Brother of Maharaja Vrishni and son of Bhīma (Sātvata), descendant of Yadu in Yadavavansha. [1] The Andhak vansha started after him. Andhak is also a gotra in Jats, who are descendants of Maharaja Andhak. [2]

Genealogy of Andhaka

Hukum Singh Panwar[3] has given the ancestry of Bharatpur rulers starting from 1. Yadu. Shini is at S.No. 38 and Krishna at S.No. 43 as under[4]:

34. Andhaka → 35. Bhajmana → 36. Viduratha → 37. Shura → 38. Shini → 39. Bhoja → 40. Hardika → 41. Devamidha → 42. Vasudeva → 43. Krishna → 44. Pradyumna → 45. Aniruddha → 46. Vajra

Jat gotras from Andhaka

Andhaka in Hindu mythology

Andhaka Ancestry as per Bhagavata Purana
Andhaka Ancestry as per Bhagavata Purana

In Hinduism, Andhaka often refers to a malevolent demon. Andhaka was the demon son of Shiva, and was created from a drop of his sweat. He was born blind. After birth, Andhaka was given to Hiranyaksha to be raised, as he had no sons. Later, Andhaka became the king of Hiranyaksha's kingdom. Shortly after becoming king Andhaka discovered that his cousins were plotting to overthrow him, so he retreated to the forest to meditate. He fasted and stood upon one leg for more than one million years, chopping off parts of his body as a sacrifice to Brahma as he waited. Brahma then duly appeared and Andhaka asked that he be allowed to see, and become immortal — to be able to be killed by no-one. Brahma agreed so long as Andhaka named the circumstances of his own death, to which Andhaka said he would die if he ever chose to marry a woman who is like a mother to him. Andhaka returned to his kingdom and quickly calmed the problems with his cousins. Some millions of years later, three of Andhaka's generals (Duryodhana, Vighasa and Hasti) happened upon Shiva and his wife Parvati in a cave, but did not recognise them. They thought that the woman beautiful enough for their king, and so hurried back to tell him the good news. Andhaka asked them to return and ask for the woman in marriage. Shiva refused and Andhaka rushed to the cave to do battle. There then followed a battle that lasted for hundreds of years and involved many other gods and demons, but finally Shiva killed Andhaka by thrusting his trident through his son's chest.

History

Vasudeva Saran Agrawala[7] writes that The Lichchhavis are said to have comprised 7707 rajans living in Vesali, and it is stated in Lilita-vistara that each one of them thought: I am King, I am King. Panini mentions that Vrijis, of whose confederation the Lichchhavis formed part. There is reference in the Jatakas to the Lichchhavi rulers consecrated to rulership by sprinkling sacred water on them (Jat. IV.148). A similar custom prevailed among the Andhaka-Vrishnis and other Sanghas.


V. S. Agrawala[8] writes that besides the Ayudhajivi Sanghas stated as such in the Ashtadhyayi, there were some other communities in Panini’s time, which as we know from other sources were republics. These include :Andhaka- Vrishni (VI.2.34) – The Puranas make them identical with the Satvatas whom Panini mentions as a Sangha in the Ganapatha. The Mahabharata refers to them as a Sangha and so does Kautilya. Panini refers to Rajanya leaders amongst the Andhaka-Vrishnis, which as explained by Kashika denoted members of such families as were entitled to be consecrated to rulership (abhishikta vamsya) . The chief feature of Andhaka-Vrishni constitution appears to be a full-fledged party system. The party of Akrura and that of Vasudeva are referred to by Patanjali showing that the followers of each leader were designated in accordance with their respective party leaders, e.g., Akruta-vargya, Akrura-vargina, and Vasudeva-vargya, Vasudeva –vargina.


Mathura was the capital of the closely linked clans of Vrishni, Andhaka, and Bhoja. [9] They are generally known as Yadavas after their eponymous ancestor Yadu, and sometimes as Surasenas after another famed ancestor. The kingdom of Andhakas was at place called Ānjaī to the north of Mathura Janapada. [10]


यदुवंश के शाखागोत्र - : 1. वृष्णि 2. अन्धक 3. हाला 4. शिवस्कन्दे-सौकन्दे 5. डागुर-डीगराणा 6. खिरवार-खरे 7. बलहारा 8. सारन 9. सिनसिनवाल 10. छोंकर 11. सोगरवार 12. हांगा 13. घनिहार 14. भोज[11]

अन्धक- वृष्णि ज्ञाति राज्य

ठाकुर देसराज लिखते हैं - भगवान् कृष्ण ने पहले-पहल अन्धक और वृष्णि लोगों को सम्मिलित करके ही ज्ञाति राज्य की नींव डाली थी, जिसका कि हम पीछे के पृष्ठों में वर्णन कर चुके हैं। अन्धक लोग मथुरा से उत्तर की ओर आजकल के आंजई नामक स्थान के आसपास गणतंत्र प्रणाली से शासन करते थे। साम्राज्यवादी जरासंध से तंग आकर ये वृष्णियों के साथ समुद्र-स्थित द्वारिका में जा बसे थे। राजपूताने से होकर ये किस समय संयुक्त-प्रदेश में वापस आए, यह कुछ पता नहीं चलता। किन्तु आजकल ये औंध, अन्तल और अनलक नामों से पुकारे जाते हैं। अन्धक शब्द का औंध, अन्तल और अनलक बन जाना भाषा-शास्त्र से बिल्कुल सम्भव है। (जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ -556)

Migration of Andhakas to Dwaraka

Jarasandha, father-in-law of Kans, invaded Mathura with a vast army; and though Krishna destroyed his army of demons, another asura, Kalayavan by name, surrounded Mathura with another army of thirty million monstrous fiends. Then Krishna thought it well to depart to Dwaraka along with his people Vrishnis, Bhojas and Andhakas. [12]

Formation of Jat sangha

Krishna departed to Dwaraka along with Andhakas, Vrishnis, Bhojas etc clans. Mahabharata mentions in chapter 25, shloka 26 that Lord Krishna founded a federation ‘Gana-sangha’ of Andhak and Vrishni clans. This federation was known as ‘Gyati-sangh’. Each member of this ‘Gyati-sangh’ was known as ‘Gyat’. Krishna was chief of this sangha. The chief of Andhaka republic was Ugrasena. Over a period of time ‘Gyati’ became ‘Gyat’ and it changed to Jat. The use of sutra - Jat jhat sanghate in sanskrit by Panini's grammar seems to have started from here. Thus Krishna is the real ancestor and founder of Jats. [13] [14]

References

  1. Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihās, Jaypal Agencies,Agra 2005 (Page 152)
  2. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas,
  3. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.1
  4. Yadu Vamsavali of Bharatpur given by Ganga Singh in his book 'Yadu Vamsa', Part 1, Bharatpur Rajvansa Ka Itihas (1637-1768), Bharatpur, 1967, pp. 19-21
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. अ-9
  6. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter VIII, s.n. 17, p-585
  7. India as Known to Panini, p. 428-429
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.451-452
  9. Genealogy of Yadavas
  10. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 225
  11. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.187
  12. Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists,
  13. Mahabharata: Krishna – Narad Uvach
  14. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, pp. 106-109

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