Rai Dynasty

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The Rai Dynasty (A.D. 507 to 642) rulers of Sindh were Buddhists of the Mauryan clan Jats. Rai was their title. Their capital was at Alor.

Territory

Their state extended from Kashmir and Kannauj in the east, Makran and Kewal port in the west, Surat port in south, Kandahar, Sistan, Suleyman, Ferdan and Kekanan hills in the north.

History

The chronology of Rai rulers of Sindh is as under[1]:

Rai Meharsan II had a war with Badshah Nimroz of Iran in which he was killed. After him Rai Sahasi II became the king. Once Sahasi Rai second fell ill. He called his minister to see the letters. The minister sent his munshi Chach for this purpose. The wisdom of Chach influenced the king and he appointed Chach to look after the palace. This way he got free entry into the palace. Chach developed illigal relations with the queen Suhanadi. Chach conspired with the Rani Suhanadi and killed Raja Sahsi Rai second and married with the queen and became ruler of Sindh starting a line of Brahmin rulership in samvat 689 (632 AD).[2]

Rana Maharath, the ruler of Chittor, was brother-in-law of Raja Sahasi Rai. Rana Maharath attacked Chach but Rana was killed in the war in 632. After Chach his son Chandra became king of Sindh. Later after death of Chandra Raja Dahir became the ruler of Sindh.

Qanungo[3] writes that Brahmans in Sindh prospered under the patronage of the native Jat princes till they became so powerful that about 10 A.H. Chach, the Brahman father of Dahir, - usurped the throne of his master, King Sahasi Ray II through the influence of the fair but faithless queen Suhandi, who had fallen in love with him. He married the widowed queen formally and reigned vigorously for 40 years, leaving behind him the reputation of a wise and enlightened prince. But he was an implacable foe of the Jats, the bulk of whom were reduced to serfdom He degraded the Jats and Luhanas and bound over their chiefs. He took hostages from them and confined them in the fort of Brahmanabad.

King Síharas

Sir H. M. Elliot[4] quoting Chachnama writes that Chroniclers and historians have related that the city of Alor, the capital of Hind and Sind, was a large city adorned with all kinds of palaces and villas, gardens and groves, reservoirs and streams, parterres and flowers. It was situated on the banks of the Síhún, which they call Mihrán. This delightful city had a king, whose name was Síharas, son of Sáhasí Ráí Sháhí. 1 He possessed great wealth and treasures. His justice was diffused over the earth, and his generosity was renowned in the world. The boundaries of his dominions extended on the east to Kashmír, on the west to Makrán, on the south to the shores of the ocean and to Debal, and on the north to the mountains of Kardán 2 and to Kaikánán. 3 He had established four maliks, or governors, in his territories.


[p.139]:

He (the king) himself dwelt at the capital, Alor, and kept under his own rule Kardán, 2 and Kaikánán and Banarhás. 3 He enjoined upon every one of his princes the necessity of being prepared for war, by keeping the implements of warfare, arms, and horses ready. He also ordered them to attend to the security of the country, the con¬ciliation of the subjects, and the reparation of the buildings, so that they might keep their districts and dependencies safe. Through¬out his dominions there was no disaffected person who could make any pretensions against the specification of his frontiers. Suddenly, by the decree of God, the army of the king of Nímroz marched from Fárs to Makrán. 4 When Síharas heard this he went forth from the fort of Alor, 5 haughty in mind and careless in heart, with the main part of his army to encounter him. They joined battle, and when many brave men and tried warriors, on both sides, had been slain, the Persian army, placing their whole trust in the Almighty, made an assault, and broke and put to flight the army of Ráí Síharas. He himself stood firm, fighting for his name and honour, until he was killed. The king of Fárs then returned to Nímroz, and Ráí Sáhasí, son of Síharas, sat upon the throne of his father. He established his authority in the country, and the four princes who had been appointed by his father submitted and assented to him, exhibiting every mark of obedience, piacing their wealth at his disposal, and supporting him with honesty and energy. The whole country was thus safely secured in the power of Ráí Sáhasí; and the people lived happily under his just and equitable rule. He had a chamberlain named Rám, son of Abi (?), a man of science and wisdom. 6 This man had full and general authority over all parts of the dominions of Ráí Sáhasí; no person could enter or leave the king's service but through him. The duties of chief secretary were entrusted to him, and Ráí Sáhasí had faith in his eloquent pen, and never doubted his rectitude.


[p.140]:
Chach, son of Siláíj, goes to the Chamberlain Rám.
The office of Chamberlain is conferred on Chach, son of Siláíj.
The Rání falls in love with Chach, and Chach refuses compliance.
Sáhasí Ráí dies and goes to hell.
Chach ascends the throne of Malik Sáhasí Ráí.
Chach fights with Mahrat (Chief of Jaipúr1 ) and kills him by stratagem.
Chach marries Rání Súbhan Deo.
Chach sends for his brother Chandar and establishes him in Alor.
Chach issues orders appointing Chandar his deputy.
Chach asks Budhíman, the minister, questions concerning the government.
* * * * *

Budhíman, the minister, bowed his head to the ground, and said, "May Ráí Chach live for ever, and may it be known to him, that this government was under the dominion of a sole king, and his chiefs were always obedient to him. When the country was ruled by Síharas, son of Díwáíj, and when he was conquered by the army of Fárs, Sáhasí succeeded to the empire. He similarly appointed all the four rulers to their territories, expecting them to exert themselves in the collection of the revenue and the protection of the country.

See also

Reference

  1. [[Jat History Thakur Deshraj]|Jat Itihas by Thakur Deshraj (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p.700
  2. Jat Itihas by Thakur Deshraj (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p.700-701
  3. History of the Jats:Dr Kanungo/Origin and Early History, p.16
  4. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/III. Chach-náma,pp.138-140

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