Raziya Sultan

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Raziyya al-Din (1205 – 13.10.1240) or Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ, usually referred to in history as Razia Sultan (रजिया सुल्तान), was born in Budaun and was the Sultan of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240.

Her reign

Razia (also called Radiyya or Raziyya) succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (r.1211-1236) to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and last women ruler of Delhi Sultanate. But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish's appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on April 29, 1236, Razia's brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, was elevated to the throne instead.

Ruknuddin's reign was short. With Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Ruknuddin abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated after only six months in power.

With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi. She dressed like a man and sat in open durbar. She was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a Monarch.

Razia miscounted the consequences that a relationship with one of her advisers, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, would have for her reign. According to some accounts, Razia and Yaqut were lovers, other sources simply identify them as close confidants. In any case, before long she had aroused the jealousy of the Turkic nobility by the favoritism she displayed toward Yaqut, who was not a Turk, when she appointed him to be Superintendent of the Stables. Eventually, a childhood friend named Malik Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda, joined a rebellion by other provincial governors who refused to accept Razia's authority.

Raziya Sultan killed by Jats

A battle between Razia and Altunia ensued, with the result that Yaqut was killed and Razia taken prisoner.[1] To escape death, Razia agreed to marry Altunia. Meanwhile, Razia's brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah, had usurped the throne. After Altunia and Razia undertook to take back the sultanate from Bahram through battle, both Razia and her husband were defeated on 24th of Rabi' al-awwal A.H. 638 (Oct. 1240). They fled Delhi and reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Jats and were robbed and killed on 25th of Rabi' al-awwal A.H. 638,[2] this date corresponds to October 13, 1240.[3] Bahram, for his part, would later be dethroned for incompetence.

Jats fought for Raziya

From other sources we find that the Jat sardars of Ranthambore area had helped Bhagabhatta Chauhan against the Muslims. During Mughal period Jalaluddin Tuniya of Rajiya group wanted to become the ruler of Ranthambore. Rajiya also wanted to attack Ranthambore so asked for the help of Jats. When she was about to attack Ranthambore, a big group of Jats arrived with Gulam Sardar Tuniya and she returned back. Al-Tuniya with the help of Jat Sardars, attacked Delhi. [4] Jats fought with bravery for this woman. [5][6]

रणथम्भोर पर चढाई

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज[7] के अनुसार रणथम्भोर पर पहले चौहानों का अधिकार था। किन्तु उससे लगभग दो सदी पहले जाटों का अधिकार था। रणथम्भोर में चौहान राजपूत आठवीं सदी से पीछे पहुंचे थे। किन्तु उस समय भी जाटों का जोर कम नहीं हुआ था। भाटों के काव्यों पर यदि हम विश्वास करें तो कहा जाता है कि गौर और नागिल जाटों ने उस स्थान पर बीसियों पीढ़ी राज्य किया था। रणमल नामक एक जाट सरदार ने जिस स्थान पर रणखम्भ गाड़ा था तो आस-पास के राजाओं ने लड़ने की चुनौती दी थी, उसी स्थान पर आज रणस्तंभपुर या रणथम्भोर है। भाग भट्ट चौहान की भी, आस-पास के जाट सरदारों ने मुसलमानों के विरुद्ध सहायता की थी। मुस्लिम-काल में जलालूद्दीन तूनियां जो कि रजिया के दल का था, यहां का शासक बनना चाहता था। रजिया भी रणथम्भोर पर चढ़कर आई। उसने जाटों से सहायता चाही। जब कि वह रणथम्भोर के पास पहुंचने वाली थी कि तूनियां गुलाम सरदार के साथ जाटों का एक बड़ा दल आ गया और वह लौट गई। रजिया ने लौटकर अपनी मर्जीदान के साथ शादी कर ली। अलतूनियां ने बादशाही के जाट-सरदारों की मदद लेकर दिल्ली पर चढ़ाई की।1 जाट बड़ी वीरता के साथ लड़कर इस औरत के लिये काम आये।2


1. तारीख फरिश्ता। उर्दू (नवलकिशोर प्रेस का छपा) पृ. 105, 106।
2. वाकए राजपूताना। जिल्द 3।


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-593


रजिया बेगम और सर्वखाप पंचायत

सन 1237 ई. में दिल्ली तख्त पर आसीन रजिया बेगम घरेलू झगडों से परेसान हो गई थी. अमीर उसकी हत्या करना चाहते थे. जब कोई रास्ता न बचा तो रजिया सुल्ताना ने तत्कालीन सर्वखाप पंचायत के चौधरी को सहायता के लिए पुकारा. इस प्रस्ताव पर विचार करने के लिए एक गुप्त स्थान पर आयोजन हुआ जिसमें पंचायती सेना द्वारा रजिया सुल्ताना का साथ देने का फैसला लिया गया.पंचायती सेना ने अचानक दिल्ली पर धावा बोलकर रजिया सुल्ताना के विरोधियों को कुचल डाला. रजिया ने खुश होकर पंचायती मल्ल योद्धाओं के लिए 60000 दुधारू पशु उपहार में दिए. [8]

External links

References

  1. Raziya Sultanl
  2. The history of India : as told by its own historians. Volume II/VIII. Tabakat-i Nasiri of Minhaju-s Siraj,p.337
  3. Conversion of Islamic and Christian dates
  4. Tarikh Farista, Urdu, Nawal Kishor Press, p. 105-106
  5. Waqay Rajputana, III
  6. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter I,p.593
  7. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter I,p.593
  8. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 19-20