Iltutmish

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Iltutmish (Hindi: अलतमश; Persian: شمس الدین التتمش) or Altamash, or Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (r.1211-1236) was the founder of the Delhi Sultanate. He was the third ruler of the Slave dynasty of Turkic origin. He founded the Delhi Sultanate in 1211 and received the Caliph's investiture in his rule. He conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting rulers, and Ranthambhore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers.

Iltutmish rose to prominence in the court of Muhammad Ghuri and later in Lahore under Qutb-uddin Aibak. He dethroned Aibak's successor, Aram Shah, and moved the seat of the Sultan to Delhi.

Name and Titles

Iltutmish is a Turkic name. He is said to be named after an eclipse that supposedly occurred at his birth (an event of some importance in the view of the people of the time), hence Ay-tutumash - Eclipse of the moon.

Other plausible etymologies for his name include Altamash, which donates the number sixty, or the guard of the army, which is the ancient Turkic Khanates numbered at sixty. He is often referred to as "altamash", which is most likely an Arabic variation of his Turkic name.[1]

The title "Shams ad-Dunya Wa'd-Din" is a royal Laqab (regal title) of the time, translated as "Sun of the world and [of the] Faith" which he used once he was established as Sultan at Delhi. Subsequent to his investure is the Caliph is his reign, he was also addressed to as "Yamin Amir al-Mu'minin" - The right hand man of the commander of the Faithful, or as "Naib" (lieutanant) of the Commander of the Faithful, which is the Caliph.

Early life

Shams-ud-din belonged to the tribe of Ilbari in the Eurasian Steppe of Turkestan. He was sold into slavery at an early age, reportedly after being sold by his kinsmen to slave merchants that were all around the Steppe, supplying Turkic slaves as soldiers (Ghilman) to the military Elite of the Muslim world of the time.[2]

He was taken to the great slave market of Bukhara, and later to Ghazni, which was the Western capital of the Ghurid dynasty, where he was purchased to the court of the Sultan, Muhammad Ghuri Sam, a notable Muslim ruler of the time. Earning some reputation in his court, he was quickly appointed personal attendant of the Sultan.[3]

Muhammad's deputy and former slave, Qutub-ud-din-Aybak, then Viceroy of Lahore, sought to procure the slave. Due to the Sultan's refusal to sell his slave to his nobles, it was decided that Iltutmish be taken to Delhi, and therat bought by Aibak, so that the Sultan's orders may not be violated in his own capital. Aibak bought Iltutmish and another slave (who would later perish) for the high price of 100,000 Tankas, the silver coin used in Muslim India.[4]

He rose quickly in Aibak's service, earned the title Amir Tamghach, married Aibak's daughter, and served in succession as the Governor of Tabarind, Gwalior and Baran. In recognition of his services during the campaign of Muhammad of Ghur against the Khokhars in 1205-06, he was, by the Sultan's order, manumitted.[5]Iltutmish was appointed Governor of Badaun in 1206 and was serving in this post when Aibak died in a polo accident. He was succeeded by his incompetent son called Aram Shah. Subsequently, a group of noblemen invited Iltutmish to stake his claim on the Indian dominions of the Ghurids.[6] He successfully captured the throne after killing his relative Aram Shah in 1211 and ruled as Sultan of Delhi till 1236. He was succeeded by his daughter Razia Sultan.

सुलतान इल्तुतमिश और सर्वखाप

सन 1211 ई. और 1236 ई में गुलाम वंश का सुलतान इल्तुतमिश दो बार सर्वखाप की सेना से हारा था. हारने के बाद उसे सर्वखाप की 8 शर्तों को स्वीकार करना पड़ा था. ये शर्तें थी:

  1. पंचायतो को अपने निर्णय स्वयं करने का अधिकार,
  2. पंचायत को सेना रखने का अधिकार,
  3. पंचायतो को पूर्ण स्वतंत्रता देना,
  4. हिन्दुओं को पूर्ण धार्मिक स्वतंत्रता देना ,
  5. जजिया कर की समाप्ति, और
  6. दरबार में पंचायत को प्रतिनिधित्व देना.

इससे स्पस्ट है कि 13 वीं सदी में सर्वखाप पंचायतें इस स्थिति में थी कि वे सरकार से अपनी बात मनवा लेती. पंचायत सेना भी इतनी शक्तिशाली थी कि शाही सेना को कई बार हराया था. [7]

External links

References

  1. Ghulam Husain Salim Zaidpuri, Riyaz us-Salatin (1778);
  2. Ghulam Husain Salim Zaidpuri, Riyaz us-Salatin (1778)
  3. Ghulam Husain Salim Zaidpuri, Riyaz us-Salatin (1778)
  4. Ghulam Husain Salim Zaidpuri, Riyaz us-Salatin (1778)
  5. Mehta, J.L. (1986), Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India, Vol. 1, Sterling Publishers. pp. 90–91
  6. Jackson, Peter (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-54329-0.,p.29
  7. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 19