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Sewari

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Location of Sewari in Pali District

Sewari (सेवाड़ी) is a village in Bali Tahsil of Pali district in Rajasthan.

Origin

Its ancient name was Samipati (समीपाटी).

History

III Sevadi Stone Inscription of Ashvaraja S.V. 1167 (1110 AD)

Text
1. ओं 0|| सं. 1167 चैत्र सु 1 महाराजाधिराजश्रीअश्वराजराज्‍ये| श्री-
कटुकराजयुवरा[ज्‍ये] समीपाटीयचैत्‍ये जगतौ श्री[ध]र्म्मनाथदेवसां नित्‍य-
पूर्जार्थ (|) महासाहणियपूत्अविपौत्रे[ण] उत्तिमराजपुत्रेण उप्‍पलराकेन (|) मांगट आंवल (||)
2. वि. सलखणजोगरादि कुटुंवसमं (|) पद्राडाग्रा[मे] (|) तथा मे[द्रं]चाग्रामे
तथा छेछडियामद्दड़ीग्रामे (||) [अ]रहटं अरहटं प्रति [द]त्त: जवहारक:
(|) एक: 1 || य: कोपि लोप(यि)धति (|) स गोस्त्रीव्रा[ह्म]णविनाश प्रापेनात्‍मा[नं]
3. एतत् ये (|) प्रतिपालयि[ष्यं]ति (|) तेस्‍मदीयधर्म्म[भा]ग्‍या: | सदा भविष्‍यंति || इति
मत्‍वा प्रतिपालनीयं || यस्‍य यस्‍य यदा भूमिस्‍तस्‍य तस्‍य तदा फलं |
वहुभिर्वसुधा [भु]क्‍ता राजभि: संगरादिभि: ||1|| छ ||
Sevadi Stone Inscription of Ashvaraja S.V. 1167 (1110 AD)[1]

This inscription is incised on the lintel of the door of a subsidiary shrine in the front corridor temple of Mahavira at Sewari, a village about 5 miles to the sout-east of Bali Pali. It contains 3 lines. The characters are Nagari. The sign for ḍ is worthy of note (e.g. in. Padraḍa, Chhechhaḍiya, and so forth), and occurs in the Nadol copper plate inscription of Kirtipala. Some of the letters are partially engraved. To take an instance, the left upper atroke of ma in Padraḍa-grame in L. 2 is missing, and the letter looks like na. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole record is in prose except the concluding benedictory verse. In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to note that the sign for v denotes both v and b. As regards lexicography, the following words may be noticed: jagati and maha-sihaniya in L. 1, and Java and Haraka in L. 2. Jagati is found in many inscriptions in the sense of f "the grounds". It corresponds, in my opinion, to the Hindi word jagah or jagya and the Marathi word jaga. Sahaniya most probably corresponds to the desi word sahani, meaning "master of stables." The same word occurs as a title of two Paramara Rajputs in an inscription incised on a jamb of the hall door of the Nlakantha-Mahadeva temple at Nana. Java and hiraka are also found in another inscription in the same temple at Sevadi. They occur as haraka and Java in No. XV below. Both are used in connection with an arahta (araghatta), i.e. a well with a wheel attached there to for drawing water. From this it appears that Java or Java must be taken in the sense of yava, barley-corn. Haraka seems to be the same as the Marathi word hara, a large basket of a particnlar form and of loose texture, often used in measuring corn. This receives confirmation from No. XV. The inscription is dated on the first of the bright half of Chaitra of the [Vikrama] year 1167, when Asvaraja was the Maharajadhiraja and Katukaraja the yuvaraja, or heir-apparent. It then records a grant by Uppalaraka, son of Uttimaraja and grandson of Puavi, the Great Master of Stables (maha-sahaniya), together with his family, the names of some of whose members are specified. The gift was made for the daily worship of Sri-Dnarmanathadeva in the temple of Samipati, and what was granted was barley-corn equal to one haraka from everyone of the wells (arahata) belonging to the villages of Padrada, Medramcha, Chhechhadiya and Maddadi.

Localities mentioned - Of the localities mentioned, Samipati is doubtless Sevadi, which is also pronounced as Semvadi. And Dharmanathadeva must be unquestionably the divinity installed in the cell, above the door of which the inscription is engraved. Chhechhadiya again must be Chhechhli, about 4 miles to the north of Sevadi. The rest are unidentifiable. :

IV Sewadi Stone Inscription of Katukaraja S.V. 1172 (1115 AD)

Text
1. ओं || स्वजन्मनि जनताया जाता परतोषकारिणी शांति: | विबुधपति विनुतचरण: स शांतिनामा जिनो जयति ||1 आसीदुग्रप्रतापाद्य: श्रीमदणहिलभूपति:|
2. येन प्रचंडद्दैडपराक्रम[जि]ता महो ||2 तत्‍पुत्र चाहामानानामन्‍वये नीति सद्वद्वं (ह:) जिंदराजाभिधो राजा सत्‍यसौ(शौ)र्यसमाश्रय: || 3 तत्‍त[नू]ज स्‍ततो जात: प्रतापक्रांतभूतल: (|*) अ[श्व]राज: श्रियाधारो [भू]-
3. [प]तिर्भूभृतां वर: ||4 तत: कटुकराजेति त[त्‍पु]त्रो धरणीतले | जज्ञे स त्‍याग सौभाग्‍यविख्‍यात: पुन्‍यविस्‍मित: ||5 तद्भुकौ पत्‍तनं र[म्‍यं] शमीपाटीतिनाम[क] तत्रास्ति वीरनाथस्‍य चैत्‍यं स्वर्ग्‍गसमोपं ||6
4. इसआसीत् वि[शु]द्धात्‍मा यशोदेवो बालाधिप: | राज्ञां महाजनस्‍यापि सभायाम ग्रणोस्थित:|| 7 श्रीषंडेरकसद्गच्‍छे बंधूनां सुह्र[दां] सतां | नित्‍योपकुर्व्‍वता येन न श्रांतं समचेतसा ||8
5. तत्‍मुतो बाहङो जातो नराधिपजन[प्रिय:] विश्‍वकर्म्मेव सर्व्‍वत्र प्रसिद्वो विदुषां मत: ||9 तत्‍पुत्र (प्र)थितौ लोके जैनधर्म्मपरायण: | उत्‍पन्‍न [थ]ल्लको राज्ञ: प्रसादगुणमंदिरं ||10
6. दयादाक्षिन्‍यगांभीर्यषुवुद्धिचिहानसंयुत: | श्रीमत्‍क[टु]कराजेन तस्‍य दानं (कृतं) शुभं ||11 माघे त्र्यंवकसंप्राप्तौ वितिर्थं प्रतिवर्षकं | द्रम्‍माष्‍टंक प्रमाणेन थल्‍लका-
7. य प्रमोदत: || 12 पूर्जा[र्घ्यं) शांतिनाथस्‍य यशोदेवस्‍य ख[त्त]के | प्रर्वद्धयतु चंद्रार्क्कं यावदादानमु[ज्‍व]लं ||13 पितामहे[न] तस्‍येदं शमीपाट्यां जिनालये | कारितं शांतिना-
8. यस्‍य बिंबं जनमनोहरं || 14 धर्म्मेण लिप्‍यते राजा पथ्‍वीं भुनक्त्ति यो यदा ब्रहाहत्‍यासहश्रेण पातकेन विलोपये[न्] ||15 संवत् 1172
Sewadi Stone Inscription of Katukaraja S.V. 1172 (1115 AD)[2]

The inscription is incised on the lintel of the door of another cell in the front corridor of the temple of Mahavira at Sevadi. It is highly weather-worn and cannot consequently be easily deciphered. It was again bedaubed with red-lead, when I was there, I do not know for what purpose. An estampage taken of it with my own hands has, however, enabled me to read almost the whole of it with certainty. It consists of 8 lines. The characters are Nagari. The sign for b occurs in the inscription, e.g. in vibudha-pati in L.1, bal-adhipah in L.4, and so forth. The language is Sanskrit, and., excepting the opening Om and the date at the end, the whole of the inscription is in verse. The verses are numbered and are 15 in all.

One solecism occurs in sriy-adhara in L. 2. In respect of orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the occasional use of the letter v both for v and b and (2) the substitution of n for ṇ in conjunct consonants, e.g. in punyavismitah L.3, vitirnnam, L.6, and so forth. As regards lexicography, attention may be drawn to the word Khattaka occurring in L.7. I came across the same -word in an inscription in a shrine of the Jaina temple at Pali, the principal town of the district of the same name, Jodhpur State. This word occurs also in the Abu inscriptions, e.g. it is used in L.40 of Inscription No. I. (above, Vol. VIII, p. 213), where the meaning of 'niche' appears to be all but certain. This sense fits here exactly. In line 3 again, is the word bhukti, which does not here simply denote a territorial division as elsewhere, but rather a province or a group of villages enjoyed aa jagir. Lastly, the carious expression Maghe Tryamva(ba)ka-sampraptau in L.6 also deserves to be noticed in this connection. It literally means "in Magha on the arrival of Tryambaka (Siva), and I am all but certain that it denotes what is popularly kuown ay the Siva-ratri, the 14th of the dark half of Magha.

The inscription opens with an invocation of Shntinatha, the sixteenth Tirthankara. Verse 2 gives the name of Anahila, and his son named Jimda is mentioned in the verse following as proficient in polity and as belonging to the Chahamana dynasty. His son was Ashvaraja, and the son of the latter was Katukaraja (vv. 4-5). In verse 6 we are told that in his bhukti, i.e. the province enjoyed by him, was the town named Samipati (Sevadi), and at this place there was a temple of Viranatha (Mahavira), bearing comparison with paradise. From verse 7 onwards we are introduced to a different line of descent. In this verse we are informed that there was one Yasodeva, leader of the army (bal-adhipa), of pure soul, and foremost in the assemblies of kings and mahajanas (banias). The next verse says that he, of equable mind, was never flagging in conferring favours on the relatives, friends, and virtuous people of the Shanderaka gackchha. His son was Bahada, who was well known amongst the learned like Visvakarma (verse 9), and the son of Bahada was Thallaka, who was devoted to the Jaina religion and was an object of the king's favour (verse 10) . To Thallaka an annual benefaction of eight drammas was made by Katukaraja on the Siva-ratri day in the month of Magha (vv. 11-12). Verse 13 expresses a wish for the continuance of the gift so long as the sun and the moon last made for the worship of Shaninatha in the Khattaka of Yasodeva. In the next verse we are told that the image of Shantinatha in the temple of Jina in Samipati was caused to be made by his grandfather. The last is an imprecatory verse, threatening with punishment those who would resume the grant. The inscription ends with the mere date Samvat 1172, corresponding to A.D.1115. It will be seen from the above account that the grantor was Katukaraja, son of Asraraja. But he does not appear to have been a ruler at the time. For in none of the verses is he spoken of as king, and in verse 6 we are informed, as we have seen, that Samipati (Sevadi) was in his bhukti. Here neither the word rajya which would have suited the metre, nor any other term synonymous with it is used. This shows that even in A.D. 1115, the date of the inscription, he was a yuvaraja enjoying some villages as jagir. Shamderaka-sad-gachchha is no doubt the same as the Samderaka gachchha of the Nadol plates of Alhanadeva dated V.E. 1218, and the Sandera or Shanderaka gachchha, of the Mount Abu inscriptions. Sandera or Shanderaka is to be identified with the present Sanderao, 10 miles north-west of Bali, the principal town of the district of the same name, Godvad Division. The name occurs also in an inscription in the temple of Mahavira at that place (below No. XVI). It is one of the many instances in which the Jaina gachchhas are called after the names of places in Marwar.

VI Sevadi Stone Inscription of Katukadeva S.V. 31 (1143 AD)

Text
1. सं. 31 भादद [सु]दि 11 Sद्येह श्रीन[डू]ले |
2. -[हा]राजाधिराजश्रीकटुदेवविजयोद[यो]त-
3. --[ज]यतसीहयुवराजभुज्‍यमानसमीपाट्यां श्रीम-
4. --रपा[ल] समस्‍तमुद्राव्‍यापारा[न्] परिप[धयन्]
5. [श्री]से[आ]भटसमस्‍तमहाजनप्रभृती[न] | [त]-
6. --[व]र: सिंधुराज - - | तस्मिन् काले प्रव[र्त]माने
7. लि[षि]ति च पूर्व्‍वधर्म्मशासन यतु - - - घाणक प्र-
8. [ति] सूण सर्व्‍वप्रमाण श्‍या-हलखेटलनिषे[ध:] एत-
9. प्रतिपालयंति [स]आत्‍मानं पुण्‍येन लिप्यते ज
10. कोपि लोप[य]स्‍याति स ब्रह्महत्‍यापापेन गृहाते || मंगलं
11. महाश्री ||
VI Sevadi Stone Inscription of Katukadeva S.V. 31 (1143 AD)[3]

This inscription also was found at Sevadi, near a house in front of the Jaina temple of Mahavira. It is what is called there a surabhi stone, i.e. a stone which is surmounted with the sculpture of a cow and her calf and with the sun and the moon on each side. Inscription is mutilated in several places, and the letters have become very much worn. The inscription is of no importance except for what is contained in the first three lines, about the reading of which there remains no donbt. They give the date Sam 31 Bhada[va]da [su]di 11, and state that Katudeva was at that time Maharajadhiraja and reigning at Nadula (Nadol) aud that Samipati was being enjoyed by (his son) Jayatasiha, the Yuvaraja, or heir-apparent. This Katudeva is the same as the Katukaraja of Nos. III. and IV., above, and, as we know that he was the Yuvaraja from V.E. 1167 to 1172, the only era, to which we can refer the year 31, the date of this inscription, is that started by the Chalukya sovereign Siddharaja- Jayasimha, commonly known as Simha-Samvat. It then becomes equivalent to V.E. 1200 or A.D. 1143. That the province of Gadvad was included in the dominions of Siddharaja-Jayasimha is proved by the preceding inscription. It is, therefore, not at all improbable the year 31 of our record belongs to the Simha era.

सेवाड़ी का लेख 1115 ई.

सेवाड़ी का लेख 1115 ई. - यह लेख सेवाड़ी स्थित महावीर के मन्दिर का है[4]. इसका संवत ११७२ है. लेख में इस शाखा के चौहानों का जैसे अणहिल, जिंदराज, अश्वराज और कटुकराज का नमोल्लेख है. जिंदल को कुशल राजनीतिज्ञ सम्बोधित किया गया है. सेवाड़ी जिसका नाम शमीपाटी दिया है उस समय समृद्ध पत्तन (नगर) था. इस लेख में यशोदेव बलाधिप (सेनाध्यक्ष) का उल्लेख है जिसे स्थानीय नागरिकों और राज्य का विश्वास प्राप्त था. यहां बाहड़ का भी उल्लेख है जिसको शिल्पशास्त्र का अच्छा ज्ञान था. उसका पुत्र थल्लक था. इसी के पितामह ने शांतिनाथ की प्रतिमा का निर्माण किया था. ऐसा प्रतीत होता है कि इन शिल्पियों का परिवार वंश परम्परा से शिल्पशास्त्र के अच्छे ज्ञाता माने जाते थे और उन्हें चौहानों का अश्रय प्राप्त था.

सेवाड़ी तीर्थ

सेवाड़ी तीर्थ अतिप्राचीन है। यहां जैन मंदिर में उत्कीर्ण लेखों से ज्ञात होता है कि यह कभी बड़ा नगर था और उसको श्वेतपाटी, शतवाटिका, सीमापाटी व सिव्वाड़ी के नाम से पुकारा जाता रहा है। सेवाड़ी की प्राचीनता के संबंध में यहां के वि.सं. ११६७ व ११७२ के लेख हैं जो मंदिर में इसके पुरातन इतिहास को संजोये हुए हैं। यहां दो जैन मंदिर है जिसमें गांव के बीच वाला मंदिर प्राचीन है तथा दूसरा मंदिर गांव के बाहर है जो नया बना हुआ है। प्राचीन मंदिर में शान्तिनाथ भगवान की पद्मासनस्थ श्वेतवर्ण की आकर्षक प्रतिमा प्रतिष्ठित है लेकिन वि.सं. ११७२ के लेख में यहां मूलनायक श्री महावीर भगवान रहने के उल्लेख है लेकिन सं. २०१४ में जीर्णोद्धार के समय श्री शान्तिनाथ भगवान की प्रतिमा प्रतिष्ठित की गई है और प्राचीन प्रतिमा को बाहर स्थापित किया गया है। मंदिर के मूलनायक को बदलने के पीछे भी कुछ कारण अवश्य रहे होंगे जिसके बारे में कहा जाता है कि किसी जैनाचार्य ने कहा कि यहां मंदिर में शान्तिनाथ भगवान की प्रतिमा स्थापित करने से सेवाड़ी के श्रावको में समृद्धी आयेगी इसलिए जीर्णोद्धार के समय मूलनायक की प्रतिमा भगवान महावीर के स्थान पर शान्तिनाथ भगवान की प्रतिष्ठा करवाई गई। कहते हैं उसके बाद सेवाड़ी के श्रावक काफी समृद्ध हुए हैं। इस मंदिर की सभी प्रतिमाएं तेरहवीं शताब्दी की प्रतीत होती है जिनमें से अनेक पर कोई लेख नहीं है परन्तु संडेरकगच्छीय आचार्य श्री यशोभद्रसूरीश्वर जी की परम्परा के श्री गुणरत्नसूरी जी की प्रतिमा कलापूर्ण होने के कारण विशेष दर्शनीय है जिसपर वि.सं. १२४४ का लेख उत्कीर्ण है। बावन जिनालय वाले इस प्राचीन मंदिर की देवकुलिकाओं में अनेक देवताओ की प्राचीन मूर्तियां स्थापित है लेकिन मंदिर के मूल गंभारे के द्वार पर १६ विद्यादेवियों की मूर्तियां और यक्ष कुबेर की मूर्तियों में प्राचीन कला के स्पष्ट दर्शन होते हैं। एक शिलालेख के अनुसार चौहान राजा कटुकराज के सेनापति यशोदेव द्वारा इस जिनालय के एक गोखले में शान्तिनाथ भगवान की प्रतिमा प्रतिष्ठित करवाये जाने का उल्लेख है। सेवाड़ी एक जमाने में समृद्धशाली नगर था जिसका अनुमान इससे भी लगाया जा सकता है कि वर्तमान गांव के आसपास अनेक पुरातत्व सामग्री खुदाई में मिलती रहती है, ऐसी की कुछ प्राचीन प्रतिमाएं जैन मंदिर में पीछे की ओर देरियों के बाहर लगाई गई है।

लेकिन एक सरस्वति की दुर्लभ प्रतिमा भी बड़ी आकर्षक है। परन्तु गंभारे में गजलक्ष्मी की प्रतिमा अपने आपमें अनुठी है। कहते हैं कि सेवाड़ी नगर में कभी एक सौ बावड़यां थी आज भी यहां जेतल नामकी विशाल एवं कलापूर्ण बावड़ी विद्यमान है। सेवाड़ी तीर्थ से संबंधित एक प्राचीन ताम्रपत्र में समीपाटी के अनिल विहार में भगवान पार्श्वनाथ के मंदिर का होना अंकित है इस मंदिर की खोज के अन्तर्गत सेवाड़ी से कुछ दूर जंगल में यहां के प्राचीन दुर्ग अटेरगढ़ के भग्नावशेष प्राप्त हुए हैं, यहां उत्खनन का कार्य करवाया जाय तो सेवाड़ी के प्रचीन इतिहास के साक्ष्य उपलब्ध हो सकते हैं। गांव के बाहर पश्चिम में एक प्राचीन बावड़ी के पास दूसरा जैन मंदिर है जो नया ही बना हुआ है। इसमें वासुपूज्य भगवान की प्रतिमा मूलनायक है। इस मंदिर की प्रतिष्ठा सं. १९८२ में यति प्रतापरत्न जी द्वारा की गई थी। कहते हैं कि यति जी बड़े चमत्कारी थे इनके उपाश्रय में सुनहरी चित्रकारी से अनेक यंत्र तथा भगवान की विभिन्न लीलीएं चित्रित थी वह प्राचीन उपाश्रय अब ध्वंस हो गया है। नये मंदिर में शत्रुन्जय व गिरनार की रचना के अतिरिक्त एक संवतसरण में चतुर्मुख प्रतिमाएं विराजमान है।

ठहरने की व्यवस्था

सेवाड़ी में यात्रियों के ठहरने के लिए धर्मशाला व आयम्बलशाला की सुव्यवस्था है। सेवाड़ी पहुंचने के लिए फालना रेल्वे स्टेशन से बाली होते हुए पहुंचा जा सकता है। फालना से सेवाड़ी की दूरी २० किलोमीटर है।


Notes by Wiki editor -

Rajasthan.

Notable persons

External links

References


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