- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 Variants of name
- 3 History
- 4 I and II Sadadi and Nadol Inscriptions of Jojaladeva V.S. 1147 (1090 AD)
- 5 The Chahamanas of Nadol
- 6 Nadol Inscription of year V.S. 1233 (1176 AD)
- 7 Nadol fragmentary family grant of Chauhans
- 8 Population
- 9 Temples
- 10 Notable persons
- 11 Population
- 12 External links
- 13 References
Its ancient name was Nadwala (नड्वल) as mentioned by Panini (4.2.88). It has been mentioned as Naddula (नाड्डुल)/(नद्दूल) in many ancient Inscriptions. It is located at a distance of 15 km in north-west direction from Desuri where there is a tri-junction.This town finds mention in the history of Burdak clan.
Variants of name
- Nadwala (नड्वल) Panini (4.2.88)
- Naddudal (श्रीनद्दूल) (L-13....श्रीनद्दूल महास्थाने श्रीसंडेरक-गच्छे....Nadol Plates Of Alhanadeva V.S. 1218 (A.D. 1161))
- Naddula (नाड्डुल)
- Naddula (नद्दूल)
- Nadol नाडोल, दे. Nadwala नड्वल, (AS, p.491)
- Nadwala नड्वल = Nadaul नडौल (राज.) (AS, p.478) - नड्वल पाणिनि (4.2.88) में उल्लिखित है. वी.एस.अग्रवाल के अनुसार यह मारवाड़ का नाडौल है.
It is an ancient city. A Jain scroll which Colonel James Tod obtained from a Jain guru in Sanderao gives the earliest description of founding of the town. The scroll mentions that on the sack of Valabhi city in Gujarat, thirty thousand Jain families abandoned Valabhi and led by their priests found a retreat for themselves in Marwar, where they erected the towns of Sanderao, Bali and Nadol in 524 AD.
The town is a historic place, having history with the great Hindu king Prithviraj Chauhan. Near to the town, Juna Kheda is the place which is reserved by the archeology department. Father of Prithviraj Chauhan died at this place only during fighting to the Solankis.
Migration of Chauhans : In 1197 A.D the Chauhans of Nadol migrated under Kirtipala to Jalore after attack of Qutb-ud-din Aybak. Nadol was under Chauhans up to 1291 AD. The King Kalhana and Jayat Simha fought with Muhammad Gauri. Later Jayat Simha joined hand with Parmars of Abu against Qutb-ud-din Aybak. But they were defeated. Some records tell that rulers of the Mandor also related to Chauhans of Nadol.
|Sadadi and Nadol Inscriptions of Jojaladeva V.S. 1147 (1090 AD) |
The first of these inscriptions was found at Sadadi, and the second at Nadol, both in the Desuri District, Godvad Division, Jodhpur State. The former is engraved on a pillar in the temple of Jagesvara, but as all the materials of this temple are said to have been brought from ruins elsewhere, it is clear that the inscription did not originally belong to Sadadi. It contains 11 lines of writing. The second inscription is incised on a pillar in the temple of Somesvara, and bears 13 lines. The letters of the first are deeply cut, and, excepting two or three aksharas at the beginning of lines 8-10, the record is well preserved. The second is weather-worn and has not yielded satisfactory impressions. The whole of it, however, is intact. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and both the inscriptions are in prose.
In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to state that the letters b and v are both denoted by the sign for v. Of words unknown or rarely employed, we may note the following : (1) yātrā, (2) satka, (3) vaḍaharaka, (4) shulapāla, and (5) pramadākula. Yātrā is a festival which is held on different days for different gods. The word is frequently met with in the Bhinmal inscriptions. Satka, of course means " belonging to," and, though foreign to classical Sanskrit literature, is found in later inscriptions and in Jaina literature. Vaḍaharaka, I think, is the Sanskritised form of the Marwari word baḍero, meaning "an old man." The word Sulapala, which occurs only in No. II, is given in Monier-Williams' Dictionary to mean " the keeper of a brothel or frequenter of brothels," but the sense intended here seems to be that of " associates of courtezans, who accompany them on musical instruments while singing or dancing." Pramadvkula means obviously a host of courtesans, and is used in this sense also in the Bhinmal inscriptions. The contents of both the inscriptions are almost identical. They are dated on Wednesday, the second of the bright half of Vaisakha in the [Vikrama-] year 1147 and refer themselves to the reign of Jojaladeva, who, in No. I, is styled Maharaja and, in No. II, Maharajadhiraja. They lay down the order of the king with regard to the management of festivals in connection with all the gods, such as Lakshmanasvamin and others. The order is that when the festival of any particular god commences, the courtezans attached to the temples of the other gods must also put on their ornaments and best garments and attend with their Sulapalas to celebrate it by instrumental music, dancing, singing, and so forth. Jojaladeva goes even to the extent of conjuring his descendants and other princes to keep the festivals of all the gods going in this manner, and warns them by adding that he, who, at the time of a festival, attempts to abolish this practice, be he an ascetic, an old person, or a learned man, should be prevented from doing so by the reigning ruler. The inscription ends with a curse on those princes who will not maintain this practice.
In, the temple of Jagesvara at Sadadi, where No. I was engraved on a pillar, other inscriptions also are found, but incised on another pillar of exactly the same style. From them it is clear that the temple of Lakshmanasvamin was at Nadula, i.e. Nadol. Again, in order that the festival of one god may be celebrated by courtezans attached to other temples, all the temples must be in one and the same town, ie. in Nadol. The name of the god Lakshmanasvamin suggests that he was so called, after Lakshmana, the founder of the Marwar branch of the Chauhans.
- Vaḍaharaka (वडहरक) = Is it a variant of Vardak ?
The Chahamanas of Nadol
Reference - Epigraphia Indica Vol.IX By Kielhorn, pp.62-83
Page-62 - Of the Chahamanas of Shakambhari we possess two long inscriptions. One of them is the Harsha inscription of Vigraharaja, edited by me in Ep, Ind. VoL II, p. 116 ff. It is dated in the [Vikrama] year 1030, corresponding to about A.D. 973, and gives the genealogy of the Chahamanas from Guvaka I, 'who attained to pre-eminence as a hero in the assembly of the glorious Nagavaloka, the foremost of Kings,' to Vigraharaja. The other is the difficult Bijoli (Bijaoli, Bijolia, Bijholi) rock inscription of the reign of Somevara, which has been uncritically edited in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. Vol. LV. Part I. p. 40 ff. This inscription is dated in the vikrama year 1226, corresponding to A.D. 1170, and gives a long genealogy, commencing with Samanta, the reputed founder of the family, and ending with Someshvara. Between these, two longer records, and subsequently to the second, we have a few shorter inscriptions of the same family, notably the Delhi Siwalik pillar inscriptions of Visaladeva-Vigraharaja of A.D. 1114, and two short inscriptions on the defeat of the Chandella Paramardideva by the Chahamana Prithviraja II., of the [Vikrama] year 1239=A.D. 1182. The latest available date for this family is the [Vikrama] year 1244= A.D. 1187.
From this Sakambhari family there branched off, some fame in the first half of the 10th century A.D., another line of Chahamanas (or Chahumanas), which, was founded by the Sakambhari prince Lakshmana, and which for a long time had its seat of government at Naddula, the modern Nadol. To this branch of the family there is assigned in my Northern List only a single inscription, No. 141, the Nadol Copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Alhaṇadeva of A.D. 1161. But there belong to it also other inscriptions of the List, inscriptions of chiefs whose connection with the family was not known
Page-63 - when I compiled the list. My object in writing this paper is, to give the genealogy of these Chahamanas of Nadulla, so far as the documents which lately have come to my knowledge enable me to do so. For this purpose I shall give the texts of three inscriptions which the kindness of Dr. Fleet and Mr. Graurishankar Hirachand Ojha allows me to edit, and an account of the contents of some Mount Abu inscriptions, based on excellent impressions for which we have to thank Mr. Cousens.
A. Nadol Plates Of Alhanadeva V.S. 1218 (A.D. 1161)
These plates were obtained by Colonel Tod, 1 in October 1819, at Nadol and presented to the Royal Asiatic Society. An account of their contents was given by him in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I. p. 804 ; and the inscription which they contain was edited, in a rather slovenly manner, by Rao Bahadur H. H. Dhruva, in Journ. Bombay As. Soc. Vol. XIX. p. 26 ff. I re-edit it from an excellent photolithograph, prepared under the superintendence of, and kindly placed at my disposal by, Dr. Fleet.
These are two plates, each of which measures about 8-1/8" broad by 6-1,2 " high. The first plate is inscribed on one side only, and the second on both sides. The edges of the inner sides of them are fashioned slightly thicker, so as to protect the writing, and the inscription is in a state of perfect preservation. Both plates contain a hole for a ring, but the ring and any seal that may have been attached to it have not been preserved. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the greater part of the text is in verse. In respect of orthography it will suffice to state that the letters b and v are both denoted by the sign, for v, and that the dental sibilant is often used for the palatal. The text contains considerable number of clerical mistakes, most of which can be easily corrected. Other mistakes are shown by the metre to be due to the author himself, who possessed no accurate knowledge of Sanskrit.
The inscription records a donation by the Maharaja Alnaṇadeva of Naddula. According to lines 18-23, this chief, on Sunday, the 14th tithi (described as mahachaturdasi-parvan) of the bright half of Sravana in the year 1218, after worshipping the Sun and Isana (Siva) and making gifts to Brahmans and gurus, granted to (the Jaina temple of) Mahaviradeva in the Saṇḍeraka gachchha (L-13....श्रीनद्दूल महास्थाने श्रीसंडेरक-गच्छे....)(In Mount Abu inscriptions this gachchha, is also called Saṇḍera-gachchha and Saṇḍeraka-gachchha. The town of Saṇḍera (संडेर) at the holy place (mahasthana) of Naddula, a monthly sum of five drammas, (to be paid) from the custom-house (sulka-mandapika) in the grounds Naddula.
Page:64 - The inscription, after the words "Om, adoration to the Omniscient,' opens with a verse in which the holy Mahaviradeva, ' the youngest of the Jinas,' is desired to bestow welfare. It then, (in verses 2-7) gives the following- genealogy of the grantor.-
In the Chahamana race there was first at Naddula the king Lakshmana. His son was Sohiya, and his son Baliraja. After him came his paternal uncle Vigrahapala. His son was Mahendra, his son Aṇahilla, and his son Bālaprasāda. His brother was Jendraraja, and his son Prithivipaia. His brother was Jojalla, and his younger brother Āsāraja, whose son was Alhaṇadeva. Nothing of historical importance is said about any of these chiefs.
According to lines 33-38, the duta of this grant was the minister, appointed to the secretaryship (shrikarana) Lakshamidhara, the son of Dharaṇigga, o the Pragvaṭa race ; and the grant was composed and written, by Shridhara, the son of Vāsala ( Visala ?), who was the son of Manoratha, of the family of the Naigamas. The inscription ends with the words 'this is the own hand (i.e. sign-manual) of the Maharaja, the illustrious Alhanadeva.'
Naddula of course is the modern Nadol where the plates were obtained, and where the temple of Mahavira to which, the grant was made apparently still exists. The date of the grant, for the expired Chaitrādi Vikrama year 1218, regularly corresponds to Sunday, the 6th August A.D. 1161, when the 14th tithi of the bright half of Sravana ended after mean sunrise.
B. Nadol Plates of the Rajaputra Kirtipala V.S. 1218 (A.D. 1160)
Page:66 - Mr Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha of Udaipur in Rajputana has informed me that these plates also were obtained, in the course of last year, at Nadol, My account of them is mainly based on two good rubbing, kindly supplied to me by Mr. Ojha.
Page-67: These also are two plates, each of which measures about 9-1/2" broad by 6-1/2" high. The first plate is inscribed on one side only, and the second on both sides. The writing on them is in a state of perfect preservation. Each plate contains a hole for a ring; I do not know whether the ring and any seal that may have been attached to it hare been preserved. The characters are Nagari, and the language is Sanskrit. The text contains eight verses of chiefly genealogical matter, three of the ordinary imprecatory verses, and one verse giving the writer's name ; the rest is in prose, -which in one or two places is grammatically incorrect. As regards orthography, the letter v is used for both b and v, except in -labdhajanma, L. 3 ; the dental sibilant is used for the palatal in Mahesvaram, L. 22.
The inscription records a grant by the Rājaputra (or King's son) Kirtipala, a son of Alhanadva of Naddula. After the words Om svasti, it invokes the blessing of the gods Brahman, Sridhara (Vishnu), and Samkara (Siva), ' who, always free from passion, are famous in the world as Jinas' (or Jaina Arhats). It then (in verses 2-8) gives the following genealogy :
In the town of Sakambhari there was formerly, in the Chahamana lineage, the king Vakpatiraja. His son was Lakshmana, who was king at Naddula; and his son was Sobhita. From him sprang Baliraja, and after him there ruled his paternal uncle Vigrahapala. Vigrahapala's son was Mahendra, his son Anahilla, and his son Jendraraja, from whom sprang Asaraja. His son was Alhaṇa, the lord of Naddula, who defeated the Saurashtrikas. This king married Annalladevi, a daughter of Aṇahula of the Rashṭrauḍa race, who bore to him three sons- Kelhana, Gajasimha, and Kirtipala. Of these, Kelhana, the eldest son, was made Kumara (or heir-apparent) and given a share in the government.
According to L.17 ff. the Rājakula Alhanadeva and the Kumāra Kelhanadeva were pleased to give to the Rājaputra Kirtipala twelve villages appertaining to Naddulai And then, on Monday, the 5th of the dark half of Sravana of the year 1218, the Rājaputra Kirtipala, after bathing etc. at Naddula and worshipping the Sun and Mahesvara (Siva), granted a yearly sum of two drammas from each of the twelve villages of Naddulai to (the temple of) the Jina Mahavira at the village of Naddulai, and ordered this money to be paid in the month of Bhadrapada of every year, commencing with the year then current.
12 villages - The twelve villages to which this order referred were 1.Naddulaigrama, 2.Sujera, 3.Ḍariji, 4.Kavilāḍa, 5.Sonāṇam, 6. Morakarā, 7. Haravandam, 8. Māḍada, 9. Kaṇasuvam, 10. Devasuri, 11. Nāḍaḍa, and 12. Mauvaḍi.
So far as I can judge, the village of Naddulai mentioned in the above is different from (the mahāsthāna) Naddula, and the words Naddulāi-pratibaddha in line 18 appear clearly to show that Naddulai not merely was the name of a village, but also denoted the district to which the twelve villages given to Kirtipala belonged. On the map of the Rajputana Agency I find Page-68 - south-east of Nadol, Desuri, which most probably is the Devasuri of this inscription ; of the other villages I can find no traces on the map,
After the imprecatory verses the inscription (in lines 33 and 34) has the words this is the own hand (i.e. sign-manual) of the Maharajaputra (or Maharaja's son), the illustrious Kirtipala', and the statement that this grant was "written by Subhamkara, the son of Damodara and grandson of the Kāyastha Sodha of the Naigama lineage.
The possible equivalents of the date, for the prnimanta and Amanta month Sravana, would be for the amānta month Sravana of the current Chaitrddi Vikrama year 1218, and therefore apparently corresponds to Monday, the 25th July A.D. 1160.
C. Sunda hill Inscription of Chachigadeva of V.S.1319 (A.D. 1262)
[Page-70] This inscription is on two stones which -were found on the Sunda Hill, about 10 miles north of Jashwantpura in the Jaswantapura district of the Jodhpur State of Rajputana. I edit it from rubbings, kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha.
The first stone contains 26 lines of writing -which covers a space of 3' 3" broad by 1' 7-1/2" high, the second 24 lines which cover a space of 2' 10" broad by 1' 5" high. The inscription was carefully written by Nāmvasimha, a son of the physician Vijayapala, and well engraved by Jisaravi, a son of the sutradhāra Jisapala, and is in a state of perfect preservation. The characters are Nagari, and the language is Sanskrit. Excepting two prose passages at the bottom of either stone which record the names of the author, the writer and the engraver, the date samvat 1319 in line 48, and another prose passage, numbered as a verse, in lines 35 and 36, the text is in verse, the total number of verses (including, the prose passage counted as a verse) being 59. As regards orthography, the sign for v denotes both v and b. The language is generally correct and plain, but there are one or two passages about the exact meaning of which I am still doubtful. I especially do not understand verse 12, which seems to allude to some legend unknown to me, in which the creator weighs the sun and the moon, apparently using the Ganges as a balance, Moreover, I am not sure about the meanings of the word Shrikari (Kari ?), which occurs in verses 19 and 59, and gupyadguru in verses 15, 26, and 27. To judge from the context in verse 59 (Shrikari-sapta kavādi-), the former 9 may denote some kind of musical instrument and as a gupyadguru must be
Page-71 - something on which a golden kumbha and a golden kalasa can be placed, the word perhaps denotes a temple generally or a particular temple. Of rare words or words employed in an unusual way we may note keli, 'the earth,' in verse 6, bhusphoṭa, ' a mushroom,' in verse 16, the feminine yugali, 'a pair,' in verse 18, and tāmbuliya, ' an areca-nut,' in verse 21 ; bandhu and bandhava denote ' a brother' in verses 24, 26, and 20 ; and a cousin is described as pitrivyajatayā bandhava, i.e. ' a brother in consequence of being born from a paternal uncle,' in verse 9.
The inscription in the prose passage at the bottom of the first stone and in verse 59 is styled a prshasti. It was composed by the (Jaina) suri Jayamangala (Jayamangalacharya), who belonged to the Brihad-gachchha and was a disciple of Ramachandra, himself a disciple of Devacharya. And its primary object is to glorify the Chahamana chief Chachiigadeva, during whose reign it was composed, and for whom it furnishes a date in the month of Vaisakha of the [Vikrama] year 1310, falling in about A.D. 1262. Fortunately, the author has used the occasion to give a eulogistic account of the Chahamanas of Naddula generally, which is of considerable interest.
Verses 1-3 pray the moon on Sambhu's (i.e. Siva's) forehead and (Siva's consort) Parvati or Chandika to grant continuous good fortune and happiness. Verse 4 -then records that formerly there was the hero Chahamana, a source of joy to the great Rishi Vatsa. In his lineage there were :
- (1.) The lord of Naddula, king Lakshmana, who was a Sakambhari prince (vv. 5 and 6).
- (2.) His son Sobhita (v. 7; the Sohiya and Sobhita of A. andB.). He took away the glory of the lord (or lords) of the mountain Arbuda. 6
- (3.) His son Baliraja (vv. 7 and 8). He defeated an army of Munjaraja, i.e. the Paramara Vakpatiraja II. Amoghavarsha of Malava, for whom we possess dates from A.D. 974 to 993.
- (4.) His paternal uncle's son Mahindu (v. 9). He is the Mahendra of A. and B., the son of Vigrahapala whose name is here omitted. He most probably is identical with the Mahendra or Mahindra (?) mentioned under No. 53 of my Northern list as a contemporary of the Rashtrakuta Dhavala of Hastikundi, whose inscription is dated in A.D. 997.
- (5.) His son Asvapala (vv. 10 and 11 ; omitted in A. and B.).
- (6.) His son Ahila (vv. 12 and 13 ; likewise omitted in A. and B.). He defeated an army of the Gurjara king Bhima, i.e. the Chaulukya Bhimadeva I, of Anahilapataka.
- (7.) His paternal uncle Anahilla (vv. 14-17 ; in A. and B. described as the son of Mahendra). He also defeated the king Bhima (Bhimadeva I.) ; took Sakambhari ; and slew
- [Page-72] (or defeated) Sādha, a general of the Malava king Bhoja (i.e. the Paramara Bhojadeva), and the Turushka.
- (8.) His son Bālaprasāda (vv. 18 and 19; omitted in B.). He forced the king Bhima (Bhimadeva I.) to release from prison a king named Krishnadeva. This Krishuadeva most probably is the Paramara Krishnaraja (the son of Dhaudhuka and grandson of (?) Devarāja), of whom we have two inscriptions at Bhinmal (Srimala), dated in A.D. 1060 and 1067 (Nos. 689 and 690 of my Northern List).
- (9.) His brother Jinduraja (vv. 20 and 21; the Jendrarāja of A. and B.). He fought victoriously at Saṇndḍera (the modern Sanderao in the Jodhpur State, south-west of Nadol).
- (10.) His son Prithvipala (vv. 22 and 23 ; omitted in B.). He defeated an army of the Gurjara king Karna, -i.e. Bhimadeva's son and successor Karna Trailokyamalla.
- (11.) His brother Yojaka (vv. 24 and 25 ; the Jojalla of A., omitted in B.). He by force occupied Anahillapura (Anahilapataka).
- (12.) His brother Āśārāja (vv. 26-30 ; in B. described as the son of Jendrarāja). He pleased Siddhadhiraja, i.e. Karna' s son and successor Jayasimha Siddharaja, by the assistance which he rendered to him in the country of Malava, but afterwards apparently was on hostile terms with him. With the account of Asaraja ends that part of the inscription which is on the first stone. The part on the second stone (after a symbol for Om) begins, as if it were an indeiedent inscription, with a verse (v. 31) praying for the blessing of Sambhu (Siva), ' the crest of the Sugandhadri i.e. the mountain, Sugandha, which clearly is the Sundha Hill where the inscription was found. The author then continues the genealogy by stating that Asārāja'a son was -
- (13.) Ahlādana (vv. 32 and 33 ; the Alhanadeva of A. and B.), His assistance was sought by the Gurjara King, and his army put down disturbances in the mountainous part of Surashtra (girau Saurāshtri). He built a Siva temple at Naddula. We have seen above that the two inscriptions A. and B., which are of this chief's reign, are dated in A.D. 1161 and 1160. Before that time, he is mentioned (together with his son Kelhana), apparently as a feudatory of the Chaulukya Kumarapala, in the Keradu fragmentary inscription of Kumarapala's reign which is dated in A.D. 1153 (No. 183 of my Northern List).
- (14.) His son Kelhana (v. 34). He defeated the southern king Bhilima, and after destroying the Turushka erected a golden torana, ' like a diadem for the abode of the holy Somesa.' For the Mahārājādhirdja Kelhana I have given above, p. 68, note 1, a date ie A.D. 1165. The southern king Bhilima, whom he is said to have defeated, must have been the Devagiri-Yadava Bhillama, whose Gadag inscription is dated in A.D. 1191 (No. 334 of my southern List).
- (15.) His brother Kirtipala (vv. 35 and 36). He defeated a Kirātakuta chief named Asala, and at Kasahrada routed an army of the Turushka. As ruler of the kingdom of Naddula he took up his residence at Javalipura. Of the places here mentioned Kirātakuta is Kiradu, according to, Bhavnagar Inscr. p. 172, 3 'a small village near Hathamo under Barmer'. Javalipura, to which Kirtipala transferred his residence, is the
- [Page-73] town of Jalor in the same State. A place named Kasahrada has been identified by the late Prof. Buhler with Kasandra or Kasandhra, a village with about 400 inhabitants on the road from Dholka to Palitana,in Long. 72-11', Lat. 22- 19'; but the Kasahrada of this inscription may be a different place nearer Nadol. According to verse 41 Kirtipala's daughter Rudaladevi built two temples of Siva at Javalipura.
- (16.) His son Samarasirhha (vv. 37-40). He built extensive ramparts on the Kanakāchala (or 'gold hill') and founded the town of Samarapura. This town I am unable to identify. Kanakāchala according to Mr. Ojha is the name of the fort of Jalor which, he informs me, is locally known as 'Sonalgarh,' and the Sauvarna-giri of Javalipura I find actually mentioned in an inscription on Mount Abu. In an inscription of the [Vikrama] year 1221, from which Mr. Ojha has sent me a quotation, it is called Kānchana-gadha. Samarasimha clearly is the Chāhu[māna]-rāna[ka]--Samarasiha, whose daughter Liadevi was the (or a) queen of the Chaulukya Bhimadeva II.
- (17.) His son Udayasimha (vv. 42-46). According to the prose passage in lines 35 and 36 he ruled 'the glorious Naddula, the glorious Javalipura, Madavyapura, Vagbhatameru, Surāchanḍa, Rāṭahrada, Kheḍa, Rāmasainya, Shrimala, Ratnapura, Satyapura, and other places.' With the exception of Mandavyapura and Ratahrada the places here enumerated are easily found on the map of the Rajputana Agency (in Marwar) under the names Nadol, Jalor, Barmer, Surachand, Kher (between Tilwara and Balotra), Ramsen, Bhinmal, Ratanpura and Sanchor. Mandavyapura is Mandor, according to the Rājputāna Gazetteer three miles from Jodhpur ; Ratahrada (?) I cannot identify. (Note: Radadhara in Malani, Barmer) Udayasimha's queen was Prahlādanadevi, who bore to him two sons Chāchigadeva and Chamundaraja. Regarding his exploits, the inscription states in a general way that he curbed the pride of the Turushka, was not to be conquered by the Gurjara kings, and put an end to the Sindhu king. He was a scholar conversant with the great works of Bharata and others, and built two Siva temples at Juvalipura. Udayasimha clearly is identical with the Mahāraja-dhirāja Udayasimhadeva of whose reign we have three inscriptions at Bhinmal (Nos. 697-699 of my Northern List) dated in the [Vikrama] years 1262, 1274 and 1305, corresponding to about A.D. 1205, A.D. 1218, and about A.D. 1248 ; and also with the Mahārājakula Udayasimhadeva, for whom I have given a date, falling in A.D. 1249, in Ind. Ant. āol. XIX. p. 175, No. 115. He was succeeded by-
- (18.) His son Chachigadeva (vv. 47-57). He in verse 50 is described as 'destroying the roaring Gurjara lord Virama, hating the enemy Salya, taking exquisite delight in felling the shaking (or leaping) Pātuka, depriving of his colour Sanga, and a thunderbolt to the mountain the furious Nahara. As will be seen from this translation, the words Salya, Pātuka and Sanga, of the original must in, my opinion, like Virama and Nahara', be taken as proper names ; but of the five persons enumerated I can identify only the first. Being described as 'Gurjara lord, Virama appears clearly to be the Vaghela Viramadeva, the son of Viradhavala and elder brother of Visaladeva, who is reported to have been the son-in-law of Udayasimha of Javalipura, and
- [Page-74] would therefore have been the own brother-in-law of Chachigadeva. The following verses treat of the same chief's works of piety. At Srimāla he remitted certain taxes, and at Ramasainya he granted funds for the worship of (the god) Vigrahaditya, and placed a golden cupola (kumbha) and a flag-staff (dhvaja) on the temple of (the god) Aparajitesa to whom at the same time he
gave a silver girdle (mekhalā). For the same temple he provided a hall (shāla) with a car (ratha) richly decked with precious stones. Chachigadeva visited the Sugandhadri, worshipped there the goddess Chamunda, known by the name Aghaṭesvari, and at her temple established a mandapa which was consecrated by the Brāhmans on the akshaya-tritiyā of the month Vaisakha of the [Vikrama] year 1319.
I have already stated that the inscription thus for the reign of Chachigadeva yields a date in about A.D. 1262. Two other dates, of She [Vikrama] years 1333 and 1334, falling in about A.D. 1276 and 1277, are furnished for him by the two Bhinmal inscriptions Nos. 702 and 703 of my Northern List, where he is described as the Maharājakula Chachiga or Chachigadeva.
I may add that Chachigadeva is mentioned, under the name Chacha, in line 8 of the Jodhpur inscription of Rupadevi, published by me above, VoL IV. p. 312 ff. In my text of that inscription I have given the name as Chāva, and a renewed examination of the impressions enables me to affirm that either this is the actual reading, or that at any rate the name would be so read in the impressions by any one not acquainted with what we have learnt now from the Sundha Hill inscription. Knowing what I do now, I have no doubt that the intended reading IB Chacha. This Chacha is called a Chahamana in Bupadevi's inscription and described as the son of Udayasimha and grandson of Samarasimha, which exactly fits our Chachigadeva. The inscription supplies the additional information that Chacha's wife was Lakshmidevi, and that this lady bore to him Rupadevi, who became the wife of a king Tejasimha (to whom she bore a son named Kshetrasimha) and founded a well or tank in A.D. 1284, in the reign of the Maharājakula Samyantasimhadeva.
[Page-80] Then there came Lakshmana, who by his irresistible valour acquired part of the earth.' In the mutilated verse 12, which together -with verse 11 treats of this chief, the word Naddula is distinctly legible, as well as Shakambhari; and it is certain that Lakshmana is described in the verse as king of Naddula, and highly probable that he is spoken of as Shakambharimāṇikya, 'the jewel of Sakambhari.' After him, verse 13 mentions 'his son' Baliraja, and Baliraja's ' son,' whose name I read as Sohi, regarding this to be another form of the name Sohiya (Sobhita, Shobhita,) of the preceding inscriptions. According to the latter, Sohiya was Lakshmana's son, and his son again -was Baliraja ; the author of the present inscription has erroneously transposed the two names. Verses 14-18 then enumerate Mahindu, Jinduraja, Asarja, Alhana, Kirtipala and Samarasimha. From what we know already from the other inscriptions, this is the line, from father to son, of the Chahamanas of Naddula from Mahindu to Samarasimha, except that, between Mahindu and Jinduraja, Anahilla, the son of the former and father of the latter, has been omitted. So far our inscription tells us nothing of importance that is new.
Samarasimha, according to verse 19, had two sons, of whom the one called Udayasimha, who also is already known to us from bhe inscription C., succeeded him in the government, Udayasimha's elder brother was Mānavasimha (v. 20) ; his son was Pratāpa (v. 21), and his son Vijaḍa, also named Daśasyandana (v. 22). This chief married Nāmalladevi (v. 23), who bore to him four sons Lāvanyakarna, Lundha, Lakshmana, and Luṇavarman (v. 24), of whom the eldest became the ruling chief. When Lavanyakarna died, he was succeeded by the next brother, whose name in verse 26 ia clearly Luṇtigadeva, in verse 28 Luntiga, in verse 30 Luṇḍāgara, and in the prose passage in line 29 Lunṭagara. Luntiga conquered and ruled all countries, particularly Chandravati and the divine territory of Arbuda (Arbuda-divya- desam, v. 27). On ihe mountain Arbuda he set up images of himself and his queen, and carried out repairs at the temple of Achaleshvara. As a grant to the temple, he moreover gave the village of Heṭhñji fl (v. 33) for the perpetual worship of the god.
From the prose passage which follows, and which is more or less illegible, we learn that in the year 1377, on Monday, the 8th of the bright half of Vaisakha, in, the Kshaya-Samvatsara, Luntiga, described as the Mahārājakula, the glorious Luntagara, resided at [Vu ?]huṇḍha which belonged to Chandravati. This date regularly corresponds, for the expired Kārttikādi
[Page-81] Vikrama year 1377, to Monday, the 6th April A.D. 1321, when the 8th tithi of the bright half of Vaishakha ended 17 h. 13 m. after mean sunrise j the day did fall in the Jovian year Kshaya, which according to the northern mean-sign system lasted from the 30th May A.D. 1320 to the 26th May A.D. 1321.
Of the localities mentioned, in addition to the well-known Arbuda or Mount Abu, Chandravati according to the Rajputana Gazetteer, Vol. HE. p. 126, is a large place (now in ruins) on the Banas river near the south-east border of the Sirohi State. There can be no doubt that it was taken by Luntiga from -the Paramaras. Hethunji is the small village of Hetamji on Mount Abu. Vuhundha (?) if this is really the name I am unable io identify.
On Mount Abu there are at least two other inscriptions, of no great extent and partly illegible, of the reign of Luntigadeva, described as the Mahārjākula, the glorious Lundhaka Lundha(?). One is dated on Wednesday, the 8th of the dark half of chaitra in the (Vikrama] year 1372, corresponding, so far as I can see, to Wednesday, the 17th. March A.D, 1316 ; the other on some specified day, which I cannot make out with certainty, in the [Vikrama] year 1373. And there is a third, partly effaced inscription, which also mentions the Mahārājakula, the glorious Lundhaka or Lundhaka, and speaks of the glorious Nāmaladevi, who clearly is the Namalladevi of the present inscription, the mother of Luntigadeva, I am not at present prepared to give a fuller account of these three inscriptions.
But I may add here that another account of some of the later Chahamanas is found in an inscription, which is on a stone at a temple the Vimala-vasahikā, ordinarily but wrongly called Vimala Sah's or Shah's temple which was founded on Mount Abu, according to the inscription itself in the Vikrama year 1088, by a certain Vimala, ' an ornament of the Pragvata race,' after he had been appointed dandapati at Arbuda by the (Chaulukya) king Bhimadeva (I.). This inscription in lines 9-15 (verses 14-22) gives th*e following rājdvali :
There was a hero, Asaraja by name, a moon to the lotus-flower the Chahuvāma family, who was king of the town of Nadulla (v, 14). Then there came Samarasimaha ; and his son was Mahanasimhabhata (v. 15). Then came Pratapamalla ; and of him was born Viada, who ruled the Marusthali-mandala (v. 16). He had three sons, the first of whom was the king Luniga (v. 17). After him the text mentions Lundha (v. 18) and Lumbha (v, 19), without distinctly saying that they were his younger brothers; It then records the conquest Of Arbuda (v. 20) ; says further that Luniga's son was Tejasimha (v. 21) ; and after him eulogizes Tihuṇaka, to whom it wishes long life (v. 22).
The mutilated verse 23 appears to say that the glorious Lumbhaka, together with Tejasimha and Tihuna, in right manner carried on the government of the mountain Arbuda;
Genealogy of Chauhans of Nadol
Page-83: and the rest of the inscription treats of a private family, two members of which made repairs of the temple. The date given in verse 41 is Monday, the 9th of the dark half of Jyeshtha of the [Vikrama] year 1378. It corresponds to Monday, the 10th May A.D. 1322.
As regards the genealogy given in this inscription, it is curious, 'but of no historical importance, that it commences With Asaraja 1 (Āsaraja,; Asharaja), who was neither thee founder of the family nor the father of Samarasimaha who is here mentioned immediately after him. Instead of the name Manavasimha of Luntigadeva's inscription this account has Mahanasimha which must be regarded as another name of the same person; and while according to the former Vijada had four sons, according to this genealogy he had only three Luniga, Lundha and Lumbha. Of these, Luniga undoubtedly is identical with the Lavanyakarna of the other inscription, and Lundha with Luntiga (Lundha), while Lumbha (Lumbhaka) most probably is another name of Lunavarman. What is new to us and of some importance, is, that by the account here given Tejasimha, who is known to us from other inscriptions, was a son of Luniga. According to No. 261 of my Northern List Tejasimha was ruling in the [Vikrama] year 1387, corresponding to A.D. 1331 ; and there is an unpublished Mount Abu inscription of his of the [Vikrama] year 1393, corresponding to A.D, 1336. What -was the exact relation of Tihunaka (Tihuna) to Tejasimha, does not appear from the Vimala temple inscription; but the matter very probably is cleared up by a statement in an inscription (No. 265 of my Northern list) of Tejasimha's son Kānhadadeva, who was reigning at Chandravati in the Vikrama year 1394, corresponding to A.D. 1338, That inscription in lines 11-14 records four separate grants of villages by the Chāhumanajñātiya-rāja-sri-Tejasimha the <devaḍā-sri-tihinaka the raja-sri=kanhadadeva and the Chaumanaraja(!)tiya-raja-sriSamantasmha. Here Tihunaka is placed between Tejasimha and his ; son Kanhadadeva, who both are distinguished from him by their title of rājan. This and the order in which Tihunaka is mentioned in Vimala temple inscriptdoh render it probable that he was Tejasimha's younger brother. And thir may possibly be the meaning of the ; word devaḍā prefixed. to his name a word which seems etymologically connected with the Sanskrit devri, devara used in the specific sense, of 'husband's younger broffler.'
In the Table on page 83 I have placed all the chiefs mentioned in in above in their genealogical order, and have given, the dates known from: inscriptions either for themselves or for the kings and chiefs with whom they are said to have come in-contact The table will show that Lakshmana, the founder: of the family, must be placed in about A.D. 926-930, and that therefore he very probably was a son of that Vākpatirāj of of Shakambhari, who was the grandfather of the Vigraharaja of the Harsha inscription who lived in A.D. 973. My genealogical Table of the family is not quite complete. I do not, know yet how to place Maharajakula Samvatasimha (?) or Samyantasimha, who is mentioned in No. 704-707 of my Northern List with dates from about A.D.-1282 to A.D, 1289, and if this should be a different chief the Raja Sāmatsimha mentioned in Kanhadadeva's inscription of AD 1388.
Notes by Wiki editor
- Shrikari- the word Shrikari (Kari ?), which occurs in verses 19 and 59. To judge from the context in verse 59 (Shrikari-sapta kavādi-). Author could not understand its meaning but our view is that it refers to Sikar = Shrikari or Shrikara, the sansktitized name. Also it is related with Kara, name of Shiva.
- Nagavaloka (नागावलोक) - Epigraphia Indica Vol.IX By Kielhorn, pp.62 we find that "Guvaka I, 'who attained to pre-eminence as a hero in the assembly of the glorious Nagavaloka, the foremost of Kings,' to Vigraharaja." This shows there origin from Nagavanshis. Thakur Deshraj mentions that in the ninth century one of their illustrious king named Nagavaloka ruled on the lands of Medpat. He ruled in democratic way through a system a council (rajasabha) and his capital was at Bijolia. The council used to award titles. A Chauhan chieftain named Guyak was awarded the title of 'Veer.
- Chaba (चाबा) - Epigraphia Indica Vol.IX By Kielhorn, p. 74 writes that Chachigadeva is mentioned, under the name Chacha, in line 8 of the Jodhpur inscription of Rupadevi, published by me above, VoL IV. p. 312 ff. In my text of that inscription I have given the name as Chāva. This gives some hint about Chaba Jat Gotra.
- संडाऊ - नाडोल में अल्हणदेव के विक्रम संवत 1218 (A.D. 1161) के शिलालेख की पंक्ति 22 में नद्दूल-महास्थान और संडेरक-गच्छ का उल्लेख (L-22....श्रीनद्दूल महास्थाने श्रीसंडेरक-गच्छे....) संभवत: सरणाऊ या संडाऊ के परिपेक्ष्य में हुआ प्रतीत होता है क्योंकि हर्ष के पास चौहनों द्वारा संडाऊ पहले बसाया जा चुका था तथा बुरडक की राजधानी थी. संडेरक-गच्छ शब्द के प्रयोग से नाडोल के चौहानों ने सरणाऊ से जाकर नाडोल को महाथान बनाया गया प्रतीत होता है.
Nadol Inscription of year V.S. 1233 (1176 AD)
|Nadol Inscription of year V.S. 1233 (1176 AD)|
डॉ. गोपीनाथ शर्मा लिखते हैं कि यह लेख कल्हण के राज्य में नाणक भोक्ता राजपुत्र लषण आदि परिवार द्वारा प्रत्येक रहट से पैदावार का कुछ भाग शांतिनाथ की यात्रा निमित्त अनुदान दिया, ये ग्राम पंचकुल समक्ष दिया गया. इससे पंचकुल जैसी संस्था की विशेषता का परिचय मिलाता है. इसका मूल पाठ इस प्रकार है:
Nadol fragmentary family grant of Chauhans
नाडौल के चौहानो का एक खण्डित ताम्राभिलेख
केवल पहला ताम्रपत्र (दूसरा प्राप्त नहीं है)
- 1. ऊँ स्वस्ति || ऊँ नमो विघ्नेश्वराय |
- वंदित त्रिपथगास्त्रोत पवित्रीकृत...
- प्रालेयांशुकला [स] कंदलवती स्कंधे फणीद्रं सदा |
- निशेषीकृत सारिद-
- 2. र्पदलनं पाणौ पिनांक धनु:
- ...घ्रियुगलो देवो हर: श्रेयसे ||
- ब्रहा ब्रहाज्ञानं भवतां भगवान् सर्ग्गकृद्राट् |
- यस्य चतुराननेभ्यश्चत्वा-
- 3. रो....... ता वेदा: ||
- हरिर्हरतु ........... यस्य स्मरण....
- ........ भास्पंद भवति ||
- वंशेस्त्यत्र धरातलस्य सकलस्यास्य परो-
- 4. क्षालय:
- पत्रालीभिरवेष्टित: कलरव: पर्वप्रधानो महान् |
- अ[--] सरलो द्विजै: परिवृतो यश्चोन्नत: सर्वदा
- श्रीमाणिक्य-सुचाहमानजकोना ....
- 5. --आसी--गुणाविन्त: सुचरित: सत्यप्रघान: शुचि:
- शांत: शंभुरत: शशांकसदृश: श्रीश्लिष्टदेशवर:
- विख्यातो वसुधातलैकवसुदो वि [ज्ञा]...
- 6. ......... श्री लक्ष्मणोस्यां क्षितौ |
- स्थानेस्मिन् प्रवरे कलांकविकलश्रीबालखिल्यात्मके
- नाडूले द्विजपुंगवै: श्रुतिपरै: संसे-
- 7. वित: सर्वत:|
- येनेदं चित ... लोपलमलं नाम्ना निजेनांकितं
- नानारूपकरूपरंजितजनं हर्म्यं हरे: कारितम् ||
- तस्मादाविरभूदनंतमहिमा प्राज्यप्रतापान्वित:
- 8. पुत्र: शोभितसंज्ञित: शुभमति: संशोभित: सदगुणै: |
- संख्येसख्यपराक्रमरतो वैरीभपंचाननो
- नानानागमदप्रवाहसलिलै: संसित्तभू-
- 9. मण्डल: ||
- तस्माद् बभूव नृपतिर्बलिराजसंज्ञ:
- भूरिप्रभावसहितो रणकृत्यविज्ञ:|
- यस्यारिभि: प्रियतमैरपि पीलुसेवा-
- सुश्रीफलादनपरैर्विहिता सदै-
- 10. व ||
- तस्माद्विग्रहपालसंज्ञ-नृपतिर्जज्ञे जनेस्मिन् जयी
- नानाविग्रहकर्मलब्धमहिमा त्यागैकधाराधर: |
- यातैर्यस्य समुत्थितेन रजसा तन्मण्डलं भास्यते
- 11. मेघेनैव जलान्वितेन पिहिते न ज्ञायते कुत्रचित् ||
- यो नित्यं विवु (बु) घाश्रितो गुरूरतो नागेन्द्रगामी च य:
- 12. प्राप्तं येन महास्पदं सुरभवं मुख्यैर्मखैर्निर्मितै: |
- सो ... त्र महेन्द्रतुल्यनृपतिर्नाम्ना महेन्द्रोभवत्
- तस्याभूदणहिल्लेदेवनृपति: क्षत्र ...... ण्णवै ||
- 13. ल ....................
- संग्रामांगणमंडनो निजकुलव्योमार्क वि (बि) म्वो (म्बो) दय:
- भीमा भीमनियोजित गजवरा येन प्रतिष्ठानके
- हत्वा तद्रथिकान् कुतूहलवशाद् भग्ना विप़च्छा:
- 14. कृता: |
- हत्वा सीमाघिपान् संख्ये तेषां ग्रामान् प्रगृह्य च
- देश: सप्तशतो येन सप्तसाहस्रिक: कृत: ||
- बालप्रसाद इत्युक्तो बालार्काभोत्र तत्सुत:
- ह्यभूद् वा (बा) ल्ये-
- 15. पि भूपाला
- येन ............ विनिर्जिता ||
- तस्यानुजौ जने जेता जेंद्रराजो यतोभवत् ||
- जगत्यां जगतीपाल: पालिताशेषमण्डल: ||
- संप्राप्ते भीम-सैन्य-जलघौ ग्रा-
- 16. मेत्र संडरेके
- नानावाद्य-राश्वस .... निस्त्रिंशमालाकुले |
- प्रो [न्मत] द्विप [रोघि] वीर्यसहिते प्रासोर्मिमालाधरे कोपाग्रेण विचित्रशस्त्रनि [क] रे .....
- 17. पृथुवत् पृथिवीपालस्तत्पुत्र: पृथुलोचन: पृथिव्यां
- पार्थिवो जज्ञे पार्थतुल्यपराक्रम: ||
- त्यक्त्वा पुत्रकलत्रमातृ विभवान् लज्जां तथा दूरतो
- नष्टा मंडिलिक [प्र] जा
- 18. प्रति दिशं काम्मेण संप्रेषिता: ||
- तस्मिन् रोहडवापिको [त्थ] समरे यत्प्रासपृष्ठाहता:
- सर्वे रक्तपरिप्लुता भयपरा: प्रापु: स्थितिं न क्वचित् ||
- तत्यानुजो जयी जज्ञे रा-
- 19. जा राजीवलोचन:
- जोजकाख्यो महाभिख्यस्ततो विनततथ्यभाक् ||
- आसराजो महाराजस्तस्यानुजोsभवत्
- भवभूधरशंभूनां भूरिश्क्तिसमन्वित: || परा: पर
- 20. मदु:.... गा: प्रमदोत्कटा यस्य
- द्वारे प्रदृश्यंते श्रंखला [स्ख] लिता हया: ||
- शौचं पाशुपतं दयां जि [नवंरा] दानं सदा यज्विन:
- भक्ति भागवतां....
- 21. मता: कौला: गौरवम् |
- एवं दर्शनषट्कजव्रतधरा एतान् गुणान् कृत्स्नश:
- मन्ये यस्य महात्मन: क्षितिभृत:... सदा शिक्षिता: ||
- बालेनापि सतात्र येन-
- 22. समरे .....||
- पृथ्वीपालमहपतिर्गजगतौ रूद्व: परै स्वैर्विना
- स्तोकेनापि बलेन शक्तिवशतो हत्वा तुरूष्कोत्करान् |
- स्कँदेनेव गणेश्वरो दनु-
- 23. जै: सँवेष्टित: सर्वत: ||
- दायादापहृतँ च दुर्गमतुलँ माण्डव्यसंज्ञँ पुरँ
- य: श्रुत्वा बलसंयुत: प्रकुपित: गत्वा..... च |
- नाना शस्त्रधरै: नरै: परितँ
- 24. ..................................
- त्प्राकारमुपेत्य योधनिकरान् हत्वा तु चक्रे वसे (शे) ||
- लोकाज्ञाततलँ सनिर्मलजलँ कल्लोलमालाकुलँ
- नान प (क्षि)-
- 25. धरँ प्रभूत सह.... मँडूककर्माकरँ |
- वृक्षालिसदनँ स्वनामकथनँ तृष्णार्तिनिर्णाशनँ
- येनास्मिन् विततँ तडागमुचितँ पाश्चात्याभोग कृतम् ||
Source - "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 213-216
According to Census 2001, Nadol has a population of 9,020, where male are 4,437 and female are 4,583.
Ashapura Mataji temple and Shri Nadol Tirth are big attractions for pilgrims.
Its principal Jina temple in ancient time was dedicated to Mahvira but at present principal deity of this tirtha is Padmaprabha, though old temple of Neminatha still stands. Nadol is called Mahasthana in 12th century epigraph.
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.478
- James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, Annals of Mewar,p.254
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.26-28
- Author considers the Saṇḍerao town in Pali district as mentioned below in C., line 16 as Saṇḍera. But it is probably the Sarnau mentioned in Burdak history which may be identified as Saṇḍera of this inscription
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat itihas, 1992, p. 594
- Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VII, p. 119-125
- डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.96
- राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्तोत्र, प. 96
- Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5530
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