Parmar

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Parmar (परमार)[1] Parmara (परमार) Pramar (प्रमार)[2] is gotra of Jats. They were the neighbours of Aparantas (अपरान्त) in Suparak (सूपारक). Paranta later changed to Parmar or Pramar. [3] They are found in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[4] Parmar is a Gotra of the Anjana Jats in Gujarat.

In Rigveda

Bhim Singh Dahiya has identified Paramara (परमर) mentioned in Rigveda (RV 10/27/20) with the the Parmar Jats today.

एतौ मे गावौ परमरस्य युक्तौ मो षु पर सेधीर्मुहुरिन्ममन्धि |
आपश्चिदस्य वि नशन्त्यर्थं सूरश्च मर्कौपरो बभूवान || (RV 10/27/20)
etau me ghāvau pramarasya yuktau mo ṣu pra sedhīrmuhurinmamandhi |
āpaścidasya vi naśantyarthaṃ sūraśca markauparo babhūvān (RV 10/27/20)

Descendants of Taxak

The ancient inscriptions in the Pali Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan of the race of Taxak or Tak, relating to the tribe Mori and Parmara are their descendants. Taxak Mori was the lord of Chittor from very early period. [5][6]

The Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD), destroyed by Yashodharman, was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. The Taxak Mori as being lords of Chittor from very early period and few generations after the Guhilots supplanted the Moris, this palladium of Hindu liberty was assailed by the arms of Islam. (725-35) we find amongst the numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event as its chieftain was one of the most conspicuous leaders in the array of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir." [7]

James Tod on Pramaras

James Todd[8] writes that The Pramara, though not, as his name implies, the ' chief warrior,' was the most potent of the Agnikulas. He sent forth thirty-five sakha, or branches, several of whom enjoyed extensive sovereignties. ' The world is the Pramar's,' is an ancient saying, denoting their extensive sway ; and the Naukot1 Marusthali signified the nine divisions into which the country, from the Sutlej to the ocean, was partitioned amongst them.

Maheswar, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Chandrabhaga, Chitor, Abu, Chandravati, Mhau Maidana, Parmavati, Umarkot, Bakhar, Lodorva, and Patan are the most conspicuous of the capitals they conquered or founded.

Though the Pramara family never equalled in wealth the famed Solanki princes of Anhilwara, or shone with such lustre as the Chauhan, it attained a wider range and an earlier consolidation of dominion than either, and far excelled in all, the Parihara, the last and least of the Agnikulas, which it long held tributary.

Maheswar, the ancient seat of the Haihaya kings, appears to have been the first seat of government of the Pramaras. They subsequently founded Dharanagar, and Mandu on the crest of the Vindhya hills ; and to them is even attributed the city of Ujjain, the first meridian of the Hindus, and the seat of Vikrama.

There are numerous records of the family, fixing eras in their history of more modern times ; and it is to be hoped that the interpretation of yet undeciphered inscriptions may carry us back beyond the seventh century.

The era2 of Bhoj, the son of Munja, has been satisfactorily settled ; and an [92] inscription3 in the nail-headed character, carries it back a step further,4 and elicits an historical fact of infinite value, giving the date of the last prince of the Pramaras of Chitor, and the consequent accession of the Guhilots.


1 It extended from the Indus almost to the Jumna, occupying all the sandy regions, Naukot, Arbuda or Abu, Dhat, Mandodri,Kheralu, Parkar, Lodorva, and Pugal.
2 See Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. p. 227. [Raja Munja of Malwa reigned A.D. 974-995. The famous Bhoja, his nephew, not his son, 1018-60 (Smith, EHI, 395).]
3 Which will be given in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society.
4 S. 770, or A.D. 714.

[p.110]: The Nerbudda was no limit to the power of the Pramaras. About the very period of the foregoing inscription, Ram Pramar held his court in Telingana, and is invested by the Chauhan Bard, Chand, with the dignity of paramount sovereign of India, and head of a splendid feudal1 association, whose members became independent on his death. The Bard makes this a voluntary act of the Pramaras ; but coupled with the Guhilots' violent acquisition of Chitor, we may suppose the successor of Ram was unable to maintain such supremacy.

While Hindu literature survives the name of Bhoj Pramara and ' the nine gems ' of his court cannot perish ; though it is difficult to say which of the three2 princes of this name is particularly alluded to, as they all appear to have been patrons of science.

Chandragupta, the supposed opponent of Alexander, was a Maurya, and in the sacred genealogies is declared of the race of Takshak. The ancient inscriptions of the Pramars, of which the Maurya is a principal branch, declare it of the race of Tasta and Takshak, as does that now given from the seat of their power, Chitor.3

Salivahana, the conqueror of Vikramaditya, was a Takshak, and his era set aside that of the Tuar in the Deccan.

Not one remnant of independence exists to mark the greatness of the Pramaras : ruins are the sole records of their power. The


1 " When the Pramar of Tilang took sanctuary with Har, to the thirty-six tribes he made gifts of land. To Kehar he gave Katehr, to Rae Pahar the coast of Sind, to the heroes of the shell the forest lands. Ram Pramar of Tilang, the Chakravartin lord of Ujjain, made the gift. He bestowed Delhi on the Tuars, and Patan on the Chawaras ; Sambhar on the Chauhans, and Kanauj on the Kamdhuj ; Mardes on the Parihar, Sorath on the Jadon, the Deccan on Jawala, and Cutch on the Charan (Poems of Chand). [This is an invention of the courtly bard.]
2 The inscription gives S. 1100 (A.D. 1044) for the third Bhoj : and this date agrees with the period assigned to this prince in an ancient Chronogrammatic Catalogue of reigns embracing all the Princes of the name of Bhoj, which may therefore be considered authentic. This authority assigns S. 631 and 721 (or A.D. 575 and 665) to the first and second Bhoj.
3 Herbert has a curious story of Chitor being called Taxila ; thence the story of the Ranas being sons of Porus. I have an inscription from a temple on the Chambal, within the ancient limits of Mewar, which mentions Taksha-silanagara, ' the stone fort of the Tak,' but I cannot apply it. The city of Toda (Tonk, or properly Tanka) is called in the Chauhan chronicles, Takatpur.[Takshasila, the Taxila of the Greeks, the name meaning ' the hewn rock,' or more probably, ' the rock of Taksha,' the Naga king, is the modern Shahderi in the Rawalpindi District, Panjab (IGI, xxii. 200 f.).]

[p. 111]:

prince of Dhat,1 in the Indian [93] desert, is the last phantom of royalty of the race ; and the descendant of the prince who protected Humayun, when driven from the throne of Timur, in whose capital, Umarkot, the great Akbar was born, is at the foot of fortune's ladder ; his throne in the desert, the footstool of the Baloch, on whose bounty he is dependent for support.

Among the thirty-five sakha of the Pramaras the Vihal was eminent, the princes of which line appear to have been lords of Chandravati, at the foot of the Aravalli. The Rao of Bijolia, one of the sixteen superior nobles of the Rana's court, is a Pramara of the ancient stock of Dhar, and perhaps its most respectable representative.

Thirty-Five Sakha of the Pramaras

  1. Mori [or Mauryn]. — Of which was Chandragupta, and the princes of Chitor prior to the Guhilot.
  2. Sodha. — Sogdoi of Alexander, the princes of Dhat in the Indian desert.
  3. Sankhla. — Chiefs of Pugal, and in Marwar.
  4. Khair. — Capital Khairalu.
  5. Umra and Sumra. — Anciently in the desert, now Muhammadans.
  6. Vihal, or Bihal. — Princes of Chandravati.
  7. Mepawat. — Present chief of Bijolia in Mewar.
  8. Balhar. — Northern desert.
  9. Kaba. — Celebrated in Saurashtra in ancient times, a few yet in Sirohi.
  10. Umata. — The princes of Umatwara in Malwa, there established for twelve generations. Umatwara is the largest tract left to the Pramaras. Since the war in 1817, being under the British interference, they cannot be called independent.
  11. Rehar - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.
  12. Dhunda - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.
  13. Sorathia - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.
  14. Harer2 - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.

1 Of the Sodha tribe, a grand division of the Pramaras, and who held all the desert regions in remote times. Their subdivisions, Umra and Sumra, gave the names to Umarkot and Umrasumra, in which was the insular Bakhar, on the Indus : so that we do not misapply etymology, when we say in Sodha we have the Sogdoi of Alexander. "
2 [For a different list see Census Report Rajputana, 1911, i. 255.]


[p.112]: Besides others unknown ; as Chaonda, Khejar, Sagra, Barkota, Puni, Sampal, Bhiba, Kalpusar, Kalmoh, Kohila, Papa, Kahoria, Dhand, Deba, Barhar, Jipra, Posra, Dhunta, Rikamva, and Taika. Many of these are proselytes to Islamism, and several beyond the Indus [94].

Origin of Panwar

Dr Atal Singh Khokhar [9] says that the Banswara inscription of Parmara king Bhoja indicates that his ancestor Siyaka, Siyaka’s son Vakpatiraja, Vakpatiraja’s son Sindhuraja, his son Bhojdeo came from Kasala in east Sudan to Gagar river in Nigeria and from there to Dor in Israel where he became ruler. Bhoja settled his followers at Bataneaea Assyria province’s Damiscus, Dara’s area and made Dara his capital. From there he came to Maharashtra and conquered Konkan area. He had defeated raja Keshideo of Shilahar vansha with the help of Rajendra Chol. [10]

Dr Atal Singh Khokhar considers Panwar vansha of the Agnikula origin came from Azean sea. His ancestors were Mahamah Dhumji Domitius, in which Nero was the last Emperor, of Ahanobarbaraka Suryavansha. Dumji migrated from Dhan to south and founded rule, whose fifth son was Putraja, after the death of whom Aditya Panwar was nominated to the throne who was founder of Panwar vansha. The Panwar is developed from Puhar meaning fire. Puhari was a Kushan vansha of which Kujula Kadphises founded Kushan rule in India in 48 AD. This rule continued upto 248 AD. [11]. According to ‘Panwar Darpan’ prior to Vikramaditya was king Dharagiri who founded Dara (Dharagiri) near Damiscus who were Malav descends. [12] James Todd has written that Parmaras (Panwar) rulers of Arbud (Abu) were Jat (vansha). [13]


Vasantgadh Inscription of Purnapala V.S 1099 (1042 AD) provides genealogy of Dhandhuka in Verse 3: that through the anger of (the sage) Vasishtha there was produced a youth, or prince (kumara) from whom the Pramara (or Paramara) family took its origin. In his lineage there was Utpalaraja (उत्पलराज); from him sprang Aranyaraja (अरण्यराज ), and from him Adbhutakrishnaraja. His son (or, if a name should have been lost at the commencement of line 4, his son's son.) was Mahipala (महिपाल), and from him sprang Dhandhuka (धन्धुक ). To Dhandhuka there was born from his wife Amritadevi Purnapala (अमृतादेवी पूर्णपल ), who ruled the Arbuda territory. In his reign, his younger sister Lahini was married by king Vigraha (Vigraharaja).

List of Kings of Paramara dynasty of Malwa (c. 800–c. 1305)

प्रमार:ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[14] ने लिखा है.... परमार - प्रमार हुमायूं के समय में उमरकोट में परमार राजा राज करते थे। हुमायूं की जीवनी के लेखक ने उसे जाट लिखा है। कर्नल टॉड आबू के परमार राजा को भी जाट (जित) लिखते हैं।

पंवार जाट गोत्र का इतिहास

भलेराम बेनीवाल [15] के अनुसार पंवार चन्द्रवंशी गोत्र है। इसकी उतपति पुरू राजा से मानी गई है। इसक प्रथम राज्य मालवा में माना गया है तथा राजा भोज इस कुल के सर्वाधिक प्रसिद्ध राजा हुये हैं।कुछ इतिहासकार जगदेव पंवार को महत्वपूर्ण मानते हैं। इसने ५० वर्ष तक राज्य किया था।पुरू वंश के जाट पुरूवाल, पोरसवालपौड़िया कहलाये. इस वंश के कुछ लोग राजपूत संघ में मिलगये और राजपूत कहलाने लगे. ये बाद में कुछ मुसलमान भी बन गये. पंवार वंश का आरम्भ ईशा पूर्व माना गया है. राजा भोज का मालवा में शासन रहा. वह बहुत दानी और प्राक्रमी थे। इस वंश का मालवा में ५०० वर्ष तक राज्य रहा। पंवार गोत्र का पहला महान राजा मुंज देव को माना गया है।कुछ इतिहासकार इस गोत्र का इलाका खैबर घाटी को मानते हैं। कर्नल टाड उमरकोट को राजपूतों का राज्य मानते हैं जबकि जनरल कनिंघम हुमायूंनामा के लेखक के हवाले से उमरकोट को पंवार जाटों का राज्य लिखते हैं.

डॉ मोहन लाल गुप्ता [16] प्रबंध चिंतामणी के हवाले से लिखते हैं कि परमार राजा सीयक द्वितीय के कोइ पुत्र न था।एक दिन उसे एक बालक मु्ंज घास पर पड़ा मिला।राजा बालक को महल ले आया तथा उसका लालन-पालन पुत्र की भांति किया।मुंज घास पर मिलने के कारण उसका नाम मुंज रखा गया।मुंज को गोद लिये जाने के बाद राजा सीयक की रानी ने सिंधुराज नामक पुत्र को जन्म दिया।किन्तु सीयक मुंज को इतना प्रेम करता था कि उसने मुंज को ही अपना उत्तराधिकारी बनाया।

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam district with population of this gotra are:


Ratlam 1,

Reference

  1. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.48,s.n. 1455
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. प-29
  3. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 263
  4. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp. 107-112
  5. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p.126
  6. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.171
  7. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.148
  8. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.109-112
  9. Dr Atal Singh Khokhar :“Jaton ki utpati evam vistar", Jaypal Agencies, Agra, 2002, pp.219-220
  10. Vyas, Rajshekhar: Samvat pravartak samrat Vikrmaditya, page 733
  11. Early History of India page 220
  12. Jayaswal, Prashant Kumar: Shaka kalin Bharata page 5
  13. Encyclopedia of Archives (Ghos Memorial) Volume 11 page 733
  14. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Shashtham Parichhed, p.127
  15. भलेराम बेनीवाल:जाट यौद्धाओं का इतिहास, पृ. ७११
  16. डॉ मोहन लाल गुप्ता: राजस्थान ज्ञानकोष, 2008, ISBN 81-86103-05-8 , p. 235

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