Sind River

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

For valley of this name see Sind Valley

Map of Jhelum River & its tributaries in Kashmir Valley
Sind River Map

Sind River (सिन्द नदी) or the Sindh River is a river in the Ganderbal district of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is a major tributary of the Jhelum River and is 108 km long.



The Sind River forms the Sind Valley. The source of the river lies in the Machoi Glacier at an elevation of 4800m, east of the Amarnath temple and south of the Zoji La.[1][2] It flows through Panjtarni (a camping site of Amarnath yatra) southwards up to Domail where it joins a tributary which doubles its flow from the Kolhoi Glacier. It then flows mostly westwards along the NH 1D and is fed by many glacial streams on its way to Ganderbal town. At Kichpora Preng it is fed by the Wangath river which flows down from the Gangabal Lake.

Major tributaries

The major tributaries of the river are: the Amarnath stream, Kolhoi Grar, Shitkadi Nallah, Gund Nallah, Surfraw Nallah and Wangath Nallah.

Surfraw Nallah is a big Nallah which joins the Sind river at Surfraw (Soraf raw). This Nallah is also known for its beauty and fish.[3] The Sind river is navigable from Ganderbal town onwards as the waterflow slows down. It joins the Jhelum River at Shadipora, 17 kilometres northwest of Srinagar. The river also passes through the famous alpine hill station Sonamarg where river rafting tournaments are organised annually by the Tourism Department of Jammu and Kashmir.

It is also the only river in Jammu and Kashmir on which three hydroelectric power plants are functional. The waters of the river are used for irrigation by way of different canals and for domestic use after going through water treatment plants.


The Sind Valley is situated within the jurisdiction of Kangan tehsil, of Ganderbal district. It is bordered by the Kashmir Valley in the west, Zojila in the east, Kishanganga in the north and the Lidder Valley in the south.[4] It has a length of 65 kilometres and reaches a maximum length of 9 kilometres at village Preng towards the north through a stream Wangath Nala which flows down from Gangabal Lake. At some places the width is less than 500 metres which gives only space to NH 1D, a National Highway which connects Ladakh and the Kashmir Valley. It is formed by the flow of the Sind River which flows down from east to west. The River originates from the inner Himalayas at Drass in Machoi Glacier[5][6] and runs through green forests of pine and fir and alpine meadows of Sonamarg. The Sind Valley contributes heavily to the economy of the State, through generation of hydroelectricity, provides fresh water supply to other districts and irrigation for agriculture. The Sind River flows through the entire valley passing several natural landmarks, tourist spots including Baltal, The meadow of gold, Gagangear, Naranag and Wayil.[7] The main towns in the valley are Gund, Mammer, Kangan, Wangath, Preng, Wussan and Manigam.

Historical Importance Of Sind Valley

Bordered by Kashmir Valley,Zojila Pass and Lidder Valley, Sind Valley is said to have been one of the important places in Jammu and Kashmir, which were part of the historic Silk Route. Located in the Ganderbal district, it is the place from where several religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam were spread in the Kashmir region. Formed by the flow of the Sind river, it extends upto 65 km in length and 1 km in width. Sind Valley was the one of the major bridges in the past which connected India to China and other central parts of Asia. It still connects Ladakh to the other parts of India. [8]

Tourism In Sind Valley

As Sind Valley is not popular amongst common tourists, the tourism is the region is at minimum level. However, it remains a weekend destination for several offbeat travellers. Due to the presence of grasslands, hilly terrains and scenic landscapes, the major things which can be done in the region of Sind Valley include trekking, camping, photography and hammocking. If you are looking to explore beyond the core region of Sind Valley, then you can also explore the beauty of Sonamarg, Gangabal Lake, Mount Harmukh and Naranag. [9]

सिन्द नदी

सिन्द नदी (Sind River, سندھ ندی‎) या सिन्ध नाला जम्मू व कश्मीर राज्य के गान्दरबल ज़िले में बहने वाली एक नदी है। यह 108 किमी लम्बी नदी झेलम नदी की एक मुख्य उपनदी है। ध्यान दें कि यह सिन्धु नदी से बिलकुल अलग है (हालांकि इसका पानी पहले झेलम में और अंत में उसी महान सिन्धु नदी में जा मिलता है)।[10]


  1. Lulu. Explore Kashmiri Pandits. p. 37–. ISBN 9780963479860.
  2. Kalhana (2001). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmi., 2001. p. 12–. ISBN 9781402173486.
  3. "Upper Sindht II, Water Resources Projects in Indus Basin". Archived from the original on 10 July 2015.
  4. Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Gautami Ganga -Himmat Bahadur. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002. p. 2872–. ISBN 9788177552669
  5. Lulu. Explore Kashmiri Pandits. p. 37–. ISBN 9780963479860.
  6. Kalhana (2001). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmi., 2001. p. 12–. ISBN 9781402173486.
  7. Chris Ackerley, Lawrence Jon Clipper (1984). A Companion to Under the Volcano. UBC Press, 1984. pp. 129, 130–. ISBN 9780774801997.
  10. The Valley of Kashmir, Sir Walter Roper Lawrence, pp. 18, H. Frowde, 1895, ... The Sind river, the most important of all the tributaries of the Jhelum, joins it at Shadipur, the place of marriage of the two rivers, and after passing through the Wular lake the Jhelum receives only one more tributary on its right bank before it reaches Baramula, the Pohru stream which drains the Lolab valley and enters the main river at Dubgam ..