Sind Valley

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

For river of this name see Sind River

The Sindh Valley is at the base of the Zojila Pass

Sind Valley is a Himalayan sub-valley of the Kashmir Valley in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Sindh Valley, is a valley within a mountain range situated to the north of Srinagar, Kashmir.[1] Sind Valley was the chief trade route between Kashmir and Central Asia. The Sind Valley had a strategic importance on the ancient Silk Road.


The valley begin from Gandarbal and ends near Baltal at the base of the Zojila Pass. The entrance of the Sind Valley lies 33 km northeast of Srinagar the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a 65 km long gorge valley[1] with an average width of 1 km.


The Sind Valley is situated within the jurisdiction of Kangan tehsil, of Ganderbal district. It is bordered by the Kashmir Valley in the west, Zojila in the east, Kishanganga in the north and the Lidder Valley in the south.[2] It has a length of 65 kilometres and reaches a maximum length of 9 kilometres at village Preng towards the north through a stream Wangath Nala which flows down from Gangabal Lake. At some places the width is less than 500 metres which gives only space to NH 1D, a National Highway which connects Ladakh and the Kashmir Valley. It is formed by the flow of the Sind River which flows down from east to west. The River originates from the inner Himalayas at Drass in Machoi Glacier[3][4] and runs through green forests of pine and fir and alpine meadows of Sonamarg. The Sind Valley contributes heavily to the economy of the State, through generation of hydroelectricity, provides fresh water supply to other districts and irrigation for agriculture. The Sind River flows through the entire valley passing several natural landmarks, tourist spots including Baltal, The meadow of gold, Gagangear, Naranag and Wayil.[5]

The main towns in the valley are Gund, Mammer, Kangan, Wangath, Preng, Wussan and Manigam.


The Sind Valley had a strategic importance on the ancient Silk Road. It worked as a bridge between India, China and Central Asia along with Srinagar-Skardu Route.[6]First Hinduism and Buddhism[7] and then Islam spread in Kashmir through this route. The Sind Valley still connects Ladakh with the rest of India through a National Highway NH 1D, though it remains closed during winter due to heavy snowfall at Zojila.[8]

Jat History

N. Singh wrote: "The Scythians appear to originate from Central Asia. They reached Punjab between 50 B.C. and A.D. 50. It seems probable that the Scythian ancestors of the Jats entered the Sind Valley between 100 B.C. and A.D. 100."[9] The Sind Valley is situated within the jurisdiction of Kangan tehsil, of Ganderbal district.


  1. [1]
  2. Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Gautami Ganga -Himmat Bahadur. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002. p. 2872–. ISBN 9788177552669
  3. Lulu. Explore Kashmiri Pandits. p. 37–. ISBN 9780963479860.
  4. Kalhana (2001). Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmi., 2001. p. 12–. ISBN 9781402173486.
  5. Chris Ackerley, Lawrence Jon Clipper (1984). A Companion to Under the Volcano. UBC Press, 1984. pp. 129, 130–. ISBN 9780774801997.
  6. Eric S. Margolis (2000). War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Tibet. Routledge, 2000. p. 123–. ISBN 9780415927123.
  7. S.R. Bakshi (1997). Kashmir: History and People Volume 1 of Kashmir through ages. Sarup & Sons, 1997. p. 78–. ISBN 9788185431963. "Buddhism spread in kashmir zojila."
  8. Moonis Raza, Aijazuddin Ahmad, Ali Mohammad (1978). The Valley of Kashmir: The land. Vikas Pub. House, 1978. p. 31–. ISBN 9780706905250.
  9. Singh, N., Canadian Sikhs, Canadian Sikhs' Studies Institute, 21 Jay Avenue, Nepean, Ontario, Canada, 1994, pp. 164.

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