Zut

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Author: Laxman Burdak, IFS (R).

Zut is a variant of Jat. Zut is arabicised from the Indian (Hindi) word Jat.

Variants

History

Hukum Singh Panwar

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[1] writes that In the Persian and Arabic speaking countries this name is spoken with soft 't' irrespective of the occupation it suggests, but with a difference in its spellings[2], In the Arabic language it is written as Zut or Zutti[3] or as Az-Zut[4] and also as Zot or Zott[5], but in Persian and Turkish as Jat[6].

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[7] writes that The variants beginning with /Z/ were in use in ,ancient period and gained popularity in the Middle East at the hands of the early medieval Muslim geographers like Istakhri, Ibn Hawkal and Mukkaddasi[8], Some writers[9] believe that Az-Zut[10] as an alternative, exhibits the Middle Eastern influence on this ancient Indian name[11].


Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[12] writes - It is significant that Djat and Zutt were written as one compound word, "Djat-Zut" to represent them as one and the same people. We are informed that a Djat-Zutt physician, who was well-versed in witch-craft, treated Hazarat Mohammad's wife, Aisha, when she fell seriously ill[13].


Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[14] writes - Getae, too is a root word in Greek. The orthography of Jatt or Jata was corrupted by the absence of 'j' sound in certain languages as well as by the uses of ablaut and umlaut offering different sound values of vowel 'a' in different languages of foreign countries. Let us first deal with 'j' sound in Jat. Jī, g, j and z have close acoustic similarities. 'J' is conspicuous by its absence[15] in Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zat, Zete, Zit, Zot, or Zoth, Zothi or Zuti.

In German there is no 'th' sound[16], hence 'Zoth is spoken as Zot.

It is interesting to note that Zoth or Zot was written as Joth or Jot in old Norse. Semitic influence[17] is also visible in Iatii for 'i' is-Semitic 'y', equivalent to in Sanskrit, and both 'y' and 'jj' are changeable into J and . This is why perhaps Jat was also written as Yat in the past in Central Asia.

In Latin language the Greek alphabet 'Z' is substituted[18] by 'G' for (J), as its original sound, proximates to that of 'Z'. Hence Jat was spelt with 'G' in the Latin world, mainly Europe, in all its alternatives from Italy to Sweden.

In the Arabic and Persian Languages, since 'j' and 'z' sounds are available, Jat was written as Jat (जात) or Zat (जात) with soft 't' (त) because sound of hard 't' (ट)[19] is not there in these languages. It is worthy of mention here that in Persian, because of its closest affinity with Sanskrit, Jata (जट) was written as (?), but with soft 't' (त) and in Indianised Persian it was (?), still with soft 't'.

We have also come across another form, Az-Zutt in the Arab countries. This is explained by the fact that 'a' used to be prefixed in Middle East with Sanskrit words beginning with a consonant246, viz. Akkad, Amorite, Assyrian etc. Az-Zutt was derived accordingly.

Bhim Singh Dahiya

Bhim Singh Dahiya[20] writes [p.67]: We shall conclude this narration of the existence of the Jats in Muslim Arab Empire with another quotation from the History of Persia, Vol. II :


[p.68]:"Under the orders of Walid I, at the beginning of eighth century of our era, a large number of Jats, termed Zotts by the Arabs, had been transported with their buffaloes from the lower Indus to the marshes of river Tigris. As soon as they were firmly established there, they began to rob and to kill. By closing the Basra-Baghdad road, they raised the cost of food in the capital and compelled successive Caliphs to send armies to subdue them. Their insolence is expressed in the following poem; preserved in the pages of Taban :

'0 inhabitants of Baghdad, die!
May your dismay last long!
It is we who have defeated you after having forced you
to fight in the open country;
It is we who have driven you in front of us, like a flock of weaklings !'
"Marrum's Generals were unsuccessful in dealing with this elusive scourge and Motasim's first care was to send Ojayf, a trusted Arab General, to subdue these alien people. Ultimately in A.H. 220 (834 A.D.) Ojayf succeeded in his task by cutting their communications. The Zotts surrendered and after being exhibited in boats to the delighted citizens of Baghdad, wearing their national garb and playing their musical instruments, were exiled to Khanikin on the Turkish frontier and to the frontier of Syria, where they proceeded taking with them their buffaloes. These useful animals, they can claim to have introduced in the Near East and into Europe."

James Todd Annals

James Todd[21] writes - The various tribes inhabiting the desert and valley of the Indus would alone form an ample subject of investigation, which would, in all probability, elicit some important truths. Amongst the converts to Islam the inquirer into the pedigree of nations would discover names, once illustrious, but which, now hidden under the mantle of a new faith, might little aid his researches into the history of their origin. He would find the Sodha, the Kathi, the Mallani, affording in history, position, and nominal resemblance grounds for inferring that they are the descendants of the Sogdoi, Kathi, and Malloi, who opposed the Macedonian in his passage down the Indus ; besides swarms of Getae or Yuti, many of whom have assumed the general title of Baloch, or retain the ancient specific name of Numri ; while others, in that of Zjat Jat, preserve almost the primitive appellation. We have also the remains of those interesting races the Johyas and Dahyas, of which much has been said in the Annals of Jaisalmer, and elsewhere ; who, as well as the Getae or Jats, and Huns, hold places amongst the " Thirty-six Royal Races " of ancient India.[22]


James Todd[23] writes that Jakhar, Asaich, Punia are all denominations of the Jat race, a few of whom preserve under these ancient subdivisions their old customs and religion ; but the greater part are among the converts to Islam, and retain the generic name, pronounced Zjat. Those enumerated are harmless and industrious, and are found both in the desert and valley.

Other authors

In Arabian form, the term is mentioned as Zat or Zutt (in Arabic 'J' changes for 'Z') by the Arab geographers. [24], [25], [26] Thus the nomenclature of the tribe is of post-Sanskrit Indian origin and belongs to the Indo-Aryan language. [27]

In his etymological discussion the learned author, Quzi Athar Mubarakprui, has pointed out that the word Zutt or Zutti used in the Arabic Sources is an arabicised form of Jat as explained in several Arabic and Persian dictionaries including Lisan –al-Arab of lbn Manzur, the most famous and voluminous Arabic lexicon [28], [29] Quoting the same work, he states that Zut are people of race from Sind who are of black colour. [30]This is arabicised from the Indian (Hindi) word Jat and its singular is Zutti. He has also given opinion of some other lexicographers who thinks that this is the Arabic form of the Indian word Chat. [31] With reference to the well known geographical work, Taqwin al-Buldan, he observed that in the ancient period the Jats were also found in Baluchistan in a large number in addition to Sind [32], [33]

In his etymological discussion the learned author has pointed out that the word Zutt or Zutti used in the Arabic Sources is an arabicised form of Jat as explained in several Arabic and Persian dictionaries including Lisan –al-Arab of lbn Manzur, the most famous and voluminous Arabic lexicon [34] Quoting the same work, he states that Zut are people of race from Sind who are of black colour. [35]This is arabicised from the Indian (Hindi) word Jat and its singular is Zutti. He has also given opinion of some other lexicographers who thinks that this is the Arabic form of the Indian word Chat. [36]

References

  1. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.339
  2. The author was informed in this regard by the Iranian, Iraqi and Arab students who studied in the local AI. Jat Heroes Memorial College, Rohtak (Haryana) from 1980 to 1982. Haji Mohammad Sayyad, Lughat-i-Sayyadi, Kanpur, 1248 AH./ 1905 AD., p. 181. I am grateful to them.
  3. Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 488.
  4. Strange, G.Le; Eastern Caliphate, London, 1966. pp. 244,331; AC Woolner, The Ind. Origin of Gypsies in Europe, JPHS, Vol. II, 1914. p. 119. Westphal-Hellbusch Sigrid and Heinz Westphal; Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Jat, Berlin, 1968, p. 12.
  5. Mukerji, AB.; "Jats of the Upper Ganga-Jamuna Doab" in the Deccan Geographer, Vol. VI, No. I, p. 45; Jan., 1968. Yogender Pal Shastry, Jaton Ka Utkarsh (Hind), p. 264; Kankhal, 1962.
  6. Haji Mohammad Sayyad, op.cit. As informed by the Iranian Prof. Dr. Javed Payman of the University of Tehran in 1971. Strange op.cit. Westphal & Westphal, op.cit., p. 96.
  7. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.339
  8. Strange, op.cit., pp. 244. 331.
  9. Mukerji, op.cit.. p. 35. Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I, pp. 51,76,89.
  10. This name, as such, is still found in modern Arabia and Damascas. (Woolner. op.cit.).
  11. Pococke, E.; Ind. in Greece, p. 297, ('A' is prefixed with Sanskrit words beginning with a consonant in ancient Middle East). Jata is definitely a Sanskrit word written with Z in that region.
  12. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.340
  13. Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 489. The author was informed by Col. Dr. L. C. Kajla that when the personal physician of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and other doctors failed to cure the then Education Minister of India who suffered from some throat ailment, he was called on to examine the Maulana and was successful in treating him. On inquiry by Maulana he came to know that Kajla is a Jat of V. Soldha in distt.: Rohtak (Jhajjar now) (Haryana), the Maulana spontaneously remarked that "a Jat physician successfully treated Aisha, the wife of Hazrat Mohammad also".
  14. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.361
  15. Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, Calcutta, Alphabet Table, p. 26
  16. Buschmann, Dr. Karl-Heinz and Sri Rajkumar Mukerji, German for Indians World Press, Cal., 1957, p. XVII. The pronunciation of g and j in borrowed words is like 'J' of Hindi; hence Got or Goth is spoken as Jot or Jut,
  17. Chamber's Twentieth Century Dic., Reprint 1949, p. 451
  18. Ibid., P 372.
  19. Steingass, Persian-Eng. and Eng-Persian Dictionaries.
  20. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,pp.67-68
  21. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert,p.1292
  22. See sketch of the tribes, Vol. I. p. 98
  23. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert,p.1297
  24. Ibn Hauqal, Kitab Masalik Wa al-Mamalik, in Elliot and Dowson, op. cit., I, p.40
  25. Muhammad Tahir al-Patani, Mujma bihar al-Anwar (Kanpur:1283), II, S.V.Zutti, The tribes are mentioned in Iraq, and Syria as Zutt, while in Egypt as Zitt.
  26. Cf. Gabriel Ferrand, S.V. Zutt, Urdu Daira-i-Ma’arif-i-Islamiya, X, p. 459
  27. Dr S. Jabir Raja (AMU), “The Jats of Punjab and Sind”: Their settlements and migrations (c. 5th-12th AD)”, The Jats, Vol. I, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, 2004, p. 55
  28. Ibn Mauzur, Lisan al-Arab-Dar-i-Sidar, Beirut 1956, III/308
  29. Ali Akbar, Lughat Namah-i-Dahkhuda, No. 53, P.379
  30. Muhammad Tahir, Majma Bihar al–Anwar, Nawal Kishore (n.d.) II/62 (as cited by Qazi Athar, op. cit.,P.8)
  31. Majma al-Bahrain under entry-Zutt, (as quoted by Quzi Athar ,P. 61 )
  32. Abul Fida, Taqwin al-Buldan Paris, 1840, p 334
  33. Zafarul Islam: Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri’s Studies on Jats, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Dr Vir Dingh, Delhi, 2006. p. 26
  34. Ibn Mauzur, Lisan al-Arab-Dar-i-Sidar , Beirut 1956 , III/308 , See also Ali Akbar , Lughat Namah-i-Dahkhuda, No. 53, P.379
  35. Muhammad Tahir, Majma Bihar al–Anwar , Nawal Kishore (n.d.) II/62 (as cited by Qazi Atbar , op. cit.,P.8)
  36. Majma al-Bahrain under entry-Zutt, (as quoted by Quzi Athar ,P. 61 )

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