Haryana

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Map of Haryana

Haryana (Hindi: हरयाणा, हरियाणा, Punjabi: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ), ancient name Haritanaka (हरितानक), is a state in north India.

Introduction

पंजाब-हरयाणा विधान सभा भवन, चंडीगढ़

Haryana's contribution to the main stream of Indian History and culture has been remarkable. Watered by the divine rivers, the Sarsvati, the Drsadvati and the Yamuna as well as their numerous feeders, the region has rightly been called the cradle of Vedic civilisation. The region Haryana, though as geographical unit assumed its present name around 12th Century A.D.[1], yet its antiquity goes to pre-historic and proto-historic ages. Formed as a result of bifurcation of the then Punjab on 1st November, 1966 with an area of 44,212 square kms. as seventeenth province of the Indian Union, Haryana has made rapid development in economic and industrial sectors and has emerged as a front runner state over the years.

Haryana was carved out of the state of Punjab on 1st November, 1966. It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and Rajasthan to the west and south. Eastern border to Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh is defined by river Yamuna. Haryana surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. A large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of Haryana is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab.

Districts and Tahsils of Haryana

District Headquarters Tahsils in district
Ambala Ambala Ambala, Barara, Naraingarh
Bhiwani Bhiwani Bawani Khera, Badhra, Bhiwani, Dadri, Loharu, Siwani, Tosham,
Faridabad Faridabad Ballabgarh, Faridabad, Hathin, Hodal, Palwal
Fatehabad Fatehabad Fatehabad, Ratia, Tohana
Gurgaon Gurgaon Gurgaon, Pataudi, Sohna
Hissar Hissar Adampur, Hansi, Hisar, Narnaund
Jhajjar Jhajjar Bahadurgarh, Beri, Jhajjar, Matanhail
Jind Jind Jind, Julana, Narwana, Safidon, Pilu Khera
Kaithal Kaithal Guhla, Kaithal
Karnal Karnal Assandh, Gharaunda, Indri, Karnal, Nilokheri
Kurukshetra Kurukshetra Pehowa, Shahabad, Thanesar
Mahendergarh Mahendergarh Mahendragarh, Nangal Chaudhary, Narnaul, Satnali
Mewat Nuh Firozpur Jhirkha, Nuh, Punahana, Taoru
Panchkula Panchkula Kalka, Panchkula
Panipat Panipat Israna, Panipat, Samalkha
Rewari Rewari Bawal, Kosli, Rewari
Rohtak Rohtak Maham, Rohtak, Sampla, Kalanaur
Sirsa Sirsa Dabwali, Ellenabad, Rania, Sirsa
Sonipat Sonipat Ganaur, Gohana, Kharkhoda, Sonipat
Yamunanagar Yamunanagar Chhachhrauli, Jagadhri, Bilaspur

The cities around Delhi

The cities near Delhi, particularly Gurgaon, Faridabad and Bahadurgarh (one of the oldest industrial townships in Haryana, Hub for the largest footwear park in the country are emerging as major hubs for the information technology industry. There is also an established steel and textile industry. Haryana is also home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero Honda Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers.

Pre-History

While tracing settlement of the earliest man in Haryana region, we find that "Haryana has always remained a meeting place for various races, cultures and faiths. They met together, fused and crystallized into something truly Indian. The earliest scenes of human drama that were acted on this stage are lost to time. Whatever can be collected with the help of archaeology tells us that the first tool making appeared in hospitable Siwalik Hills of Haryana over a million years back. Ever since then man’s quest for newer lands, frequent mass movements from the west and Central Asia under varied socio-political compulsions, or human thirst for religious imperialism, caused a continual stream of immigrants into India and every time, the territory,now comprising Haryana State, had to bear the heaviest burden.

Further,"from geographical point of view, to trace the process of human settlement in Haryana through history amounts to identification of areas of population concentration during different periods, examination of the changes in spatial pattern of human settlement and investigation of factors behind these temporal-spatial patterns and trends, is not an easy task. The decision has to depend upon whatever sketchy historical and archaeological material could be obtained from various sources.”

Pre-Harappan and Harappan culture

Excavations of various archeological sites in Haryana, like Naurangabad and Meetathal in Bhiwani, Kunal in Fatehabad, Agroha near Hissar, Rakhi Garhi (Rakhigarhi) in Jind, Sites in Rukhi (Rohtak) and Banawali in Sirsa have evidence of pre-Harappan and Harappan culture. Findings of pottery, sculpture and jewellery in sites at Pehowa, Kurukshetra, Tilpat and Panipat have proved the historicity of the Mahabharat war. These places are mentioned in the Mahabharat as Prithudaka (Pehowa), Tilprastha (Tilpat), Panprastha (Panipat) and Sonprastha (Sonipat.

Haryana has been the scene of many wars because of it being "The Gateway of North India". As years rolled by, successive streams of Huns, Turks and the Afghans invaded India and decisive battles were fought on this land. After the downfall of the Gupta empire in the middle of 6th century AD north India was again split into several kingdoms. The Huns established their supremacy over the Punjab. It was after this period that one of the greatest King of ancient India, Harshvardhana began his rule. He became the King of Thanesar (Kurukshetra) in 606 AD, and later went on to rule the most of north India. In the 14th century, the Tomar kings led an army through this region to Delhi.

The land of Lord Shiva

The name itself means 'Hari ka Desh' or the land of Lord Shiva. There is mention of Ganas is in the form of attendants of Shiva in the story of creation of Virabhadra and destruction of Daksha in Hindu mythology. The story goes: One day Daksha made arrangements for a great horse sacrifice, and invited all the gods omitting only Shiva. Shiva's first wife was Sati and daughter of Daksha Prajapati. Sati, being greatly humiliated, went to the banquet and Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Narada bore this news to Shiva. Shiva burned with anger, created Vīrabhadra who bowed at Shiva's feet and asked his will. [1]

Ancient Haryana

Shiva directed Virabhadra: "Lead my army against Daksha and destroy his sacrifice; fear not the Brahmanas, for thou art a portion of my very self". On this direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama, scattered the gods on every side; then he returned to Kailash. [2]

Deva Samhita mentions that after the destruction of Daksha's sacrifice by Virabhadra and his ganas, the followers of Shiva, the defeated gods sought Brahma and asked his counsel. Brahma advised the gods to make their peace with Shiva. Shiva accepted his advice and restored the burnt head of Daksha and the broken limbs were made whole. Then the devas thanked Shiva for his gentleness, and invited him to sacrifice. There Daksha looked on him with reverence, the rite was duly performed, and there also Vishnu appeared. A compromise was achieved between Vaishnavas and followers of Shiva.

The above story of creation of Virabhadra from the Shiva’s lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabhadra and his ganas is mythical and not scientifically possible but has some historical facts in it. Thakur Deshraj has explained that there was a clan of Jats named Shivi who had a republic ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Paninis shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī given below. [3]

The historian Ram Swaroop Joon explains that Shiva lived in Gangotri Hills which, due to Shiva's popularity, came to be known as Shiva's Jata. The mountain ranges in that area is now known as Shivaliks. Raja Virabhadra of the Puru dynasty was the ruler of 'Talkhapur' near Haridwar, which also formed part of the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata'. [4]

This is the area around Haridwar. King Bhagiratha brought the Ganga to the plains in this region. According to legend the Ganga flows out from Shiva's Jata. Actually this also means that the Ganga flows out from the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata', the birthplace of the Jat Raja Virabhadra who was a follower and admirer of Shiva. On hearing of Sati's tragedy, Shiva went to the durbar of Virabhadra and pulled at his hair in fury while narrating the story. This infuriated Virabhadra and with his army, are invaded Kankhal and killed Daksha. [5]

Kankhal, ancient town near Haridwar, was the summer capital and Thanesar (Kurukshetra) the winter capital of Shiva. [6]Shiva after ascending to the throne visited plain areas, the present Haridwar. To give a warm welcome to Shiva the site of Haridwar was made a welcome-gate hence called Haridwar (हरिद्वार) . The country below it was known as Haryana in the memory of Shiva coming to this region.

The region of Haryana in those days covered the areas of 30 districts of Uttar Pradesh, Brajmandal, present Haryana, part east of River Sutlej and Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Nagaur, Bikaner, Churu and Jhunjhunu districts in Rajasthan. [7]

Origin of the Word Haryana

Pre-historic and Ancient Period

The earliest reference to Haryana occurs in a Chahamana Inscription describing Arnoraja as carrying arms into Haritanaka (i.e. Haryana ). The territorial designation Hariala mentioned in the Skandapurana also stands for the same region. The Delhi Museum Inscription of the reign of Muhammad Tughluq (A.D. 1328) gives the name as Hariyana the very heaven on earth and where lies the city Dhillika (Delhi), built by the Tomaras. This agrees with the Palam Baoli Inscription of the time of Balban (A.D. 1280) which provides its variant name Hariyanaka.

There has been considerable difference of scholarly opinion on the origin of the word Haryana. Attempts have been made to derive it after various mythological gods and persons such as Hari (Indra), Haryana (name of a person), Harishchandra and Parashurama or to declare it as a corrupt form of Abhirayana which originated after the Abhiras, a prominent tribe of the region. The suggestions, having absolutely no historical basis are mere conjectures and need not be given any serious consideration. The word Haryana, in fact, signified a land which abounded in greenery and vegetation. Its other name Bahudhanyaka which occurs in the Mahabharata and on the Yaudheya coins conveys the same meaning6. The area covered by present Haryana was variously known in ancient times as Uttaravedi, Brahmavedi, Brahmavarta, Brahamarshidesha, Kurudesha, Kurukshetra, Kurujangala, etc. [8]


In sanskrit language applying the yaṇa sandhi rules we find that Hari + Ānā = Haryānā. Examples of yaṇa sandhi are:

इति+आदि = इत्यादि
हरि+ आणा = हरयाणा

Let us provide more facts about Haryana from ancient literature.

We can transliterate from हरयाना in Sanskrit to Harayānā in English. Its sandhi is as under:

हर + याना = हरयाना
Harayānā = Hara + yānā

Here Hara means Shiva and yānā is path or the vehicle explained as under from text on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yana_%28Buddhism%29

Yāna (Sanskrit and Pāli) refers to a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.

In Buddhism and Hinduism, both yāna and mārga (road or path) express the metaphor of spiritual practice as a path or journey. Ancient texts in both religions discuss doctrines and practices associated with various yānas. In Buddhism, yāna often augments the metaphor of the spiritual path with the idea of various vehicles that convey a person along that path. The yāna / mārga metaphor is similar to the Chinese image of the Tao (path or way) but Indian and Chinese cultures appear to have evolved such similar metaphors independently.

Vedic origins of -yāna as a spiritual journey

The use of yāna to use as a name or to refer to a spiritual journey may date to the Ṛgveda, possibly composed circa 1500 BCE, whose 10th Mandala makes several references to devayāna, (translators usually render this as the "path of the gods" or similar) and one reference to pitṛyāna ("path of the fathers"). The first verse of the Ṛgveda's burial hymn (10.18) translates approximately as "O Death, take the other path, which is distinct from the way of the gods" (paraṃ mṛtyo anu parehi panthāṃ yaste sva itaro devayānāt). The "other path" is the pitṛyāna, referred to in hymn 10.2 and alluded to in 10.14 and 10.16.

Thus Haryana name has linkages with both Buddhism and Vedic religion.


History

The present day Haryana is the region where, along the banks of the River Saraswati, the Vedic Civilization began and matured. It was here that the Vedas were written, as the Aryans chanted their sacred Mantras. Replete with myths and legends, Haryana's old history is steeped in glory. It was here that Lord Krishna preached Bhagvad-Gita before the start of the battle of Mahabharata. It was on this soil that Saint Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharat in Sanskrit. Before the Mahabharat war, a battle of ten kings took place in the Kurukshetra region in the Saraswati Valley. But it was the Mahabharata War, fought approximately in 900 BC, which gave to the region worldwide fame. Mahabharat knows Haryana as Bahudhhanyaka, land of plentiful grains and Bahudhana, the land of immense riches. The word Hariana, occurs in a 1328 AD Sanskrit inscription kept in the Delhi Museum, which refers to the Haryana region as The heaven on earth.

Later the Mughal, Babur, defeated the Lodhis in the first battle of Panipat in the year 1526. Another decisive battle was fought in Panipat in 1556, establishing the reign of the Mughals for centuries to come. Taking advantage of Humayun's death, Hemu had marched to Agra and Delhi and occupied it without difficulty. In response, Bairam Khan (Akbar's guardian) marched towards Delhi. Both the armies clashed in the second battle of Panipat. Hemu was in a winning position when a stray arrow struck him in the eye. He fell unconscious causing panic among his troops. The tide of the battle turned and the Mughals won the battle.

Towards the middle of the 18th century, the Marathas had control over Haryana. The intrusion of Ahmed Shah Durrani in India, culminated in the third battle of Panipat in 1761. Marathas' defeat in this battle marked the end of their ascendancy and the decline of the Mughal Empire, leading to the advent of the British rule.

In 1857, the people of Haryana joined the Indian leaders in the first War of Independence against the British. By the end of June, 1857, most of the present Haryana region was liberated from the British. But the British managed to put down the attempt of the freedom lovers by November, 1857.

Indian history is replete with tales of heroism of the highest order and in this context, the historic significance of the battles of Panipat and Kurukshetra in Haryana cannot be ignored by any means. The sacrifices of Haryana's brave soldiers have played a very important role in maintaining the territorial and sovereign integrity of our nation. The new state which emerged as a separate political entity of the Indian Union on November 1, 1966, is considered to be the cradle of rich Indian cultural heritage. In terms of economic development too, Haryana has come a long way during the few past years.

An agrarian state

Haryana is primarily an agrarian state. It is because of this the following saying is popular for Haryana:

देसाँ मोँ देस हरियाणा, जित दूध दही का खाना

In addition to the river Yamuna, seasonal rivers such as the Ghaggar, Markanda, and Tangri pass through the state. Numerous irrigation canals that cross the state, bringing water for irrigation from the perennial rivers of the Himalayas. The land is generally flat, covered with loamy soil and very suitable for agriculture. The southwestern area of the state is drier and sandier. There are some hilly areas, which form part of Shivalik Hills in the north-east and Aravalli Hills in the south. The climate is continental, with extremes of heat in summer. Monsoon winds bring adequate rainfall between July and September.


Haryana has been the hub of social, cultural and religious activity in India, even before the time of Vedic Civilization. Given its unique geography, the state of Haryana was witness to the invasions of the Muslim rulers, battles of the Marathas and the Sikhs. Hindu saints, Buddhist monks and Sikh gurus have traversed Haryana, spreading their messages of universal love and brotherhood. The population of Haryana, according to the 2001 census, is 2,10,83,000, with 1,13,28,000 males and 97,55,000 females. The population density is 477 people/sq km. Religion has always provided the main basis for the structure of the Haryana society. In ancient times, Aryan people followed the Vedic religion. Later on Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Sikhism influenced the people. Swami Dayanand's teachings greatly impressed the people and the Arya Samaj has a large following among Hindus of Haryana. In present day Haryana, Hindus are about 90% of the population, Sikhs 6.2%, Muslims 4.05% and Christians 0.10%. Hindus are divided into a number of castes like Jats, Brahmins, Ahirs, Gujars, Aggarwals, Arora Khatris, Sainis, Rajputs and Rors. Among them all, the Jats occupy a pre-eminent position in Haryana, being the largest group in the state. The artisan castes such as Telis (oil traders), Sunars (goldsmith), Lohars (blacksmiths), dhobis (launderers) and Nais (barbers) are found throughout the state, especially in villages.

Jats in Haryana

The Jats are spread throughout Haryana. After 1931 the census data are not recorded on caste basis. So the exact population of Jats can not be estimated accurately. According to a rough estimate Jats constitute 24 per cent of the State population — the largest single community in Haryana.[1] As per this norm the population of Jats comes out to be 4638000. Harijans constitute about one fifth of the population. The Muslims in the state are mostly Meos and are concentrated in the Mewat region. There are three categories of Muslims in Haryana. The Asharf or Sharaf (noble) form the higher caste, the Ajlaf (base or mean) is the middle with Arzal (lowest of all) coming at the end. There are Muslim Rajputs as well as converted Muslims. The Sikhs generally live in Ambala, Kurukshetra and Karnal districts. Sikhs too have their own castes like Jat Sikhs, Aroras etc.


More than 70% of the population of Haryana is dependent on agricultural sector for their livelihood. The people speak several similar sounding dialects of Hindi. The most important dialect being 'Bangaru'. The people of Haryana are generally speaking taller, stronger and healthier than the average Indian due to hard work and the inclusion of lots of dairy products in their diet. The main languages spoken by the people are Haryanavi, Hindi, Panjabi, Urdu and English. Sanskrit is now taught in schools till the 8th class.

List of Jat Gotras in Haryana

A: Agre, Ahlawat, Antal, Asiagh, Aulakh,

B: Badhran/Budhrain/Budhrayan, Bajya, Balhara, Balyan/Baliyan, Bedian, Beniwal, Bhaado/Bhadu/Bhatoo, Bhama, Bhankar, Bhanwala, Bhar, Bhati, Bhayan, Bhidhan, Bhooker/Bhuker, Bhoria, Bhyan, Binner, Birhman, Budania, Budhwar, Bura/Boora,

C: Chahar, Chauhan,

D: Dabas, Dagar, Dahiya, Dalal, Dattasulia, Deol, Deshwal, Dhall, Dhandhi, Dhanger, Dhariwal, Dhillon, Dhonchak, Dhuwan/Dhawan/Dhuan, Dorwal, Dookya/Dhukiya/Daukiya, Dudi, Dangi, Duhan, Doon, Dhankhar,


F: Farswal/Pharsawal,

G: Gahlot/Gehlot/Gehlaut, Gawaria, Gehlawat, Ghalyan, Ghangus/Ghanghas, Godara, Goyat, Gulia,

H: Hari, Hooda,

J: Jaglan, Jakhar, Joon, Janghu,

K: Kadyan/Kadian/Kadiyan, Kajla, Kakodia, Kalhar/Kalher/Kaler, Kaliraman/Kaliramna/Kaleramne, Kalkal, Kandhol/Kandhola, Karwasra, Khaladiya, Kharb, Khasa, Khatkar, Khatri, Khunga, Kiliraya, Kookana/Kukana, Kulhari, Kataria

L: Lathar Laboria, Lakhlan, Lakra, Lamba, Lathwal, Lohach, Lohchab, Loura, Luhach,

M: Maan, Machhra, Mahla, Malik, Mandhan, Munda, Malhan,

N: Naidu, Nain, Nandal, Narwal, Nashier, Nehra,

O: Ohlan,

P: Pahal/Pahil, Parswal/Poras/Porous, Pawaria/Pawadia, Phogat, Phour/Phore, Punia, Panwar,

R: Rahar/Rar/Rad, Raparya, Rathee, Rathi, Ravish, Redhu/Redu, Rana,

S: Sahran/Saharan/Saran, Sangwan, Saroha, Sehrawat, Sheorayan/Shivrain, Shokeen, Siddhu, Sihmar, Sindhu, Siwach, Solath, Surah,

T: Tada, Taxak, Tewatia/Teotia, Thalor/Thalod,

V: Vaire, Vanar, Vijayrania,

Famous Jats from Haryana

Note - Click to see all Notable Jats From Haryana

Jat History in Haryana

Martyrs of Kargil war from Haryana

See the list and details of Martyrs of Kargil war from Haryana

See also

External links

References

  1. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  2. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  3. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  4. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  5. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  6. Bhaleram Beniwal, Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihāsa, 2005, Publisher - Jaypal Agencies, Agra, p. 39
  7. Bhaleram Beniwal, Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihāsa, 2005, Publisher - Jaypal Agencies, Agra, p. 39
  8. Chapter-II History, Pre-historic and Ancient Period
  • Kargil Shahid visheshank, Jat Samaj,Agra, September-October 1999

Further Reading and Notes

For understanding the history of the formation of Haryana as a new state in 1966, kindly read:

  • Gulshan Rai, Formation of Haryana, 1987, New Delhi.
  • Rajesh Kumar, Demand of a Separate State: A Study of the Formation of Haryana, 1947-1966, MSS Dissertation One year Diploma Course in Archival Studies, 2004, NAI, Delhi.
  • H.A. Phadke, Haryana:Ancient and Medieval, Harman Publishing House, Delhi 1990. ISBN-81-85151-34-2