Ala-ud-din Khalji

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Ala-ud-din Khilji or Alauddin Khilji (r. 1296- died 1316), born as Juna Khan Khilji,[1] was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty in Northern India, and ruled from 1296 to 1316.[2][3] Of Turkic ethnicity, he is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.[4] He captured the throne in 1296 AD, after getting killed Jalal ud Din Khalji, who had founded the dynasty and was his uncle and father-in-law.

Variants of name

History

He was a strategist and military commander who commanded forces across the Indian subcontinent. Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji is also noted in history for being one of the few rulers in the world to have repeatedly defended his empire against Mongol invasions. He defeated large Mongol armies and then launched punitive expeditions against them in Central Asia, around modern-day Afghanistan.

Timeline History

  • 1290 Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad. Accession of Jalal-ud-din Khalji.
  • 1292 Ala-ud-din Khalji captures Bhilsa. Mongol Invasion.
  • 1294 Devagiri pillaged by Ala-ud-din Khalji.
  • 1296 Accession of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
  • 1297 Conquest of Gujarat (from Karnadeva II).
  • 1301 Capture of Ranthambhor by Ala-ud-din Khalji.
  • 1302-1303 Capture of Chitor. Mongol Invasion.
  • 1305 Conquest of Malwa, Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi by Ala-ud-din Khalji
  • 1310 Ala-ud-din Khalji's army under Malik Kafur occupies Devagiri ending the Seuna Yadava Kingdom.
  • 1316 Death of Ala-ud-din Khalji.

His expeditions in Gujarat

Gujarat expedition : Alauddin Khilji sent two of his great generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, to Gujarat, which was conquered and annexed. Nusrat Khan started for Gujarat from Delhi on February 24, 1299 AD, Ulugh Khan started from Sindh and joined Nusrat Khan near Chittorgarh. Malik Kafur a slave, was bought for 1000 Dinars. He rose to position of general in the army.

His expeditions in Rajasthan

Ranathambor: In 1290 Jalaluddin Khilji attacked Ranthambhore but was repulsed. Hamir Dev, a descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan ruled Ranthambor.

Chittor: His attack on Chittor in 1303 CE to capture the queen of Chittor, Rani Padmini, the wife of King Rawal Ratan Singh and the subsequent story have been immortalized in the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in the Awadhi language in the year 1540.[5]

Malwa: Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Mewar, Ranathambor and Gujarat stuck fear in the mind of the remaining Indian Kingdoms of northern India. But Mahlak Dev refused to give in to Alauddin Khalji so easily. He gathered 20,000 horsemen and 90,000 infantry to confront Alauddin's army. Harnanda Koka was the general of his army. On the other hand, Ain-ul-Mulk Multani was on the head of a 160,000 Muslim army. After a bloody war Harnana Koka was killed and his forces retreated. Malwa along with Mandu, Dhara and Chanderi fell to Alauddin Khalji. Ain-ul-Mulk Multani was appointed the governor of Malwa.

Marwar: Alauddin Khilji invaded Marwar in 1308. Satal Dev was the king of Marwar and the owner of the famous Siwana fort. Alauddin Khilji sent Malik Kamaluddin as the general of his army. After a fierce battle, the Marwari army was defeated. Satal Dev was captured and was executed.

Jalore

Alauddin Khilji invaded Jalore next. The first expedition was a failure, Khilji's army was defeated by Kanhad Dev Songara. Alauddin Khilji then sent Malik Kamaluddin. The Hindu forces were defeated this time by Malik Kamaluddin's forces. The book "Kahnad-dev Prabhand", written by Padmnabh, tells more about this king.

The battle against Sarva Khap army

The battle at the confluence of Hindan and Kali river against Ala ud din Khilji in the 13th Century AD in protest against imposition of heavy taxes and interference in private affairs. [6]

Jats and Ala-Uddin Khilji

Ram Sarup Joon[7] writes that ... Alauddin Khilji was a religious bigot and was deadly against Hindus. He had a trusted chief named Malik Kafur, a Hindu (Saini) convert, and ex-wrestler.

He had married a sweeper women.

Ala-Uddin ruined Chittor in his effort to get Rani Padamni. He levied Jazia on the Hindus and placed restrictions on marriages, so that beautiful Hindu virgin girls could be given to Muslims. These acts were worse that death to Hindus.

The Jat Sarv Khap meeting was held in protest against these 'Firmans' at Khanpur, District Meerut.

It was unanimously decided that the king should be given an ultimatum on a fixed date on which all able bodied men from 18 to 4o years of age should be ready to sacrifice themselves. They assembled at the confluence of the Kali (Nadi) and Hindon Rivers.

The remaining men and women were detailed on administrative duties.

The king was infuriated on receipt of this ultimatum and at once sent Malik Kafur with 25,000 men, to deal with them.

A fierce battle-took place. Malik Kafur was defeated. The Jats gave a severe blow to the royal army which was forced to run away from the battle field.

He never attacked the Jats of the Sarv Khap again.

During his period


History of the Jats, End of Page-149


it was rumored that Mogul invasion was imminent in Punjab. Ala-Uddin thought it better to reconcile with the Jats at this crucial moment. He negotiated a truce with them by canceling his repugnant firmans. He paid a huge remuneration and compensation to the Jats and got their promise to help him in the event of foreign aggression.

अलाउद्दीन खिलजी और सर्वखाप

सन 1295 में अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने पंचायत को कुचलने के लिए अपने एक सेनापति मलिक काफूर को २५००० की सेना लेकर वर्तमान पश्चिम उत्तर प्रदेश के जाट बाहुल्य इलाके में भेजा. हिंडन और काली नदियों के संगम पर अर्थात बरनावा गाँव के आस-पास सर्वखाप के मल्ल वीरों और खिलजी की सेना के बीच भयानक युद्ध हुआ. अधिकतर मुस्लिम सैनिक काट डाले गए, जो बचे वे अपने सेनापति सहित मैदान छोड़कर भाग गए. पंचायती फैसले के अनुसार इस युद्ध में खिलजी सेना से लड़ने हर घर से एक योद्धा ने भाग लिया था. [8]


दलीपसिंह अहलावत लिखते हैं -

संवत् 1354 (सन् 1297 ई०) में गांव शिकारपुर (जिला मुजफ्फरनगर, खाप बालियान) में सर्वखाप पंचायत का सम्मेलन हुआ जिसमें हरयाणा की सभी खापों के 300 जाट प्रतिनिधि एकत्र हुए। इनके अतिरिक्त 125 प्रतिनिधि गुर्जर (खाप कलसलायन), 10 राजपूत, 98 अहीर, 20 रवे और 22 सैनी प्रतिनिधि भिन्न-भिन्न खापों के थे। पंचायत ने निम्नलिखित बातों पर विचार किया -

  1. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के जनता पर अत्याचार एवं अन्याय।
  2. जनता को धन इकट्ठा करने पर रोक तथा हिन्दुओं पर जजिया लगाना।
  3. शस्त्र रखने तथा बारात के साथ सशस्त्र रक्षा सैनिक जाने पर रोक।
  4. सर्वखाप पंचायत को सेना रखने की पाबन्दी।
  5. पहले राजस्व किसान की उपज का छठा भाग लिया जाता था। उसको अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने बढ़ाकर पैदावार का आधा भाग लेने के आदेश जारी कर दिए।

इस बैठक में सर्वसम्मति से निम्नलिखित प्रस्ताव पारित हुए-

  • 1. कोई भी व्यक्ति अधिक राजस्व न दे।
  • 2. बारातों पर लगी पाबन्दी को नहीं माना जाएगा।
  • 3. जजिया की अदायगी नहीं की जायेगी।
  • 4. पंचायत अपनी स्वतन्त्रता को जारी रखेगी और अपनी स्वाधीनता की हर कीमत पर रक्षा करेगी।
  • 5. 24,000 सैनिकों की सेना खड़ी की जाये।
  • 6. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के अत्याचारों की आलोचना की गई और यह घोषणा की गई कि यदि बादशाह सर्वखाप पंचायत की मांगों को स्वीकार नहीं करेगा तो पंचायत उसके विरुद्ध युद्ध की घोषणा कर देगी।

बादशाह ने अपने सेनापति एवं वजीर मलिक क़ाफूर को पंचायत के प्रतिनिधियों के पास भेजा जिसने कुछ मांगें पंचायत की मान लीं तथा शेष पर विचार करने का आश्वासन दिया। (दस्तावेज-41, सर्वखाप पंचायत रिकार्ड)।

इसके अतिरिक्त जाट इतिहास इंगलिश पृ० 149 पर लेफ्टिनेन्ट रामसरूप जून ने सर्वखाप पंचायत रिकार्ड का हवाला देकर लिखा है कि “अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने पंचायत की इन मांगों को अस्वीकार कर दिया और उसने मलिक काफूर को 25,000 मुस्लिम सेना के साथ पंचायती सेना को कुचलने के लिए भेजा। काली नदी एवं हिण्डन नदी के मिलाप क्षेत्र में दोनों ओर की सेनाओं का भयंकर युद्ध हुआ। पंचायती सेना (जिसमें अधिकतर जाट थे) ने बादशाही सेना पर बड़े शक्तिशाली धावे करके उसके अनेक सैनिकों को मौत के घाट उतार दिया तथा पीछे धकेल दिया। मुसलमान सैनिक रणभूमि छोड़कर भाग खड़े हुये। अलाउद्दीन की सेना हार गई और पंचायती सेना विजयी रही। बादशाह ने पंचायत के प्रस्ताव की सब बातें मान लीं तथा अपने फरमान रद्द कर दिए। बादशाह को सर्वखाप से क्षमा मांगनी पड़ी और युद्ध का सब खर्च भी दे दिया। पंचायत के साथ उसने मित्रता कर ली। उसका कारण था कि भारत पर मंगोलों के आक्रमण लगातार हो रहे थे जिससे खिलजी को उनका भय था। उसने पंचायत से विदेशी आक्रमणों के विरुद्ध अपनी सहायता करने का वचन ले लिया।”[9]

Death

Alauddin died in January 1316, of oedema. It is believed that his lieutenant Malik Naib hastened his death. His tomb and madrasa dedicated to him, exists at the back of Qutb complex, Mehrauli, in Delhi.[10]

References

  1. "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. Sultan Alauddin Khilji The Muntakhabu-’rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute
  4. History & Civics 7 (Col. Ed.) By Consulting Editors - Behula Khan, Subhadra Sen Gupta & Monisha Mukundan, SJ Mitchell, p36.
  5. Padmavat The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 430.
  6. Ram Swarup Joon, History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  7. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter IX,p. 149-150
  8. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 20
  9. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter VII (Page 575-576)
  10. Qutb Complex: Ala al Din Khalji Madrasa www.archnet.org.