Mewar

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Mewar (मेवाड़) is a region of south-central Rajasthan . Its ancient name was Medpat, Medipat, Medipata, Medapata (मेदपाट). It includes the present-day districts of Pratapgarh, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur. It was ruled by the Kshatriyas of Mori, Guhilot, Parihar and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years.

History

  • Atri Jats - Chittorgarh is a most important ancient historical town and district place in Rajasthan. It was founded by Jatri gotra Jats. It was previously known as Jittor. Al-biruni has mentioned about this town as Jittor.[1]

Gehlot rulers of Mewar

Guhil was the first person of this clan, after whom the clan was named Guhilot or Gehlot. Son of Guhil was Bhoj and his son was Mahendra. Son of Mahendra was Nagaditya and his son was Shiladitya (646). Son of Shiladitya was Aparajit (661). Son of Aparajit was Mahendra II and his son was Kalbhoj. Kalbhoj is also known by his title Bappa Rawal. He established rule over Chittor in 734.

Rulers from Medipata (Idar)
Rulers from Nagda
Rulers from Chittor
  • Bappa Rawal (ca 713-d. 753) - Born at Eklingaji in Atri clan, the patriarch of the Guhilots of Mewar, deposed Maan Mori, the last Mori King, and established the Mewar Kingdom and dynasty. He was eighth ruler of the Guhilot Dynasty and founder of the Mewar Dynasty (r. 734-753) in present-day Rajasthan. He was a son of Rawal Mahendra II. He is considered to be direct descendent of Famous king Yashodharman who defeated Hunas King Mihirakula's army in 528 AD . Bappa Rawal was one of the most powerful and famous rulers of the Mewar Dynasty. Although a surviving member of the Guhilot clan, Prince Kalbhoj (his actual name) who came from Atri clan did not continue the family name of seven generations when he came to the throne; instead, he established the Mewar Dynasty, naming it for the kingdom he had just taken. He went on to become a celebrated hero on battlefields near and far, yet his fascinating life is full of enigmas, and many were the legends created about him. It is said that Bappa was blessed by Harita Rishi, a sage of the Mewar region, with kingship. His father, Rawal Mahendra II had married a woman of the Paramara clan, from Mt. Abu or Chandravati, both Paramara centres at that time. She was also the sister of Maan Mori, the Paramara king who ruled much of the State of Mewar. This included Guhilot clan land, which Paramara invaders from Malwa had annexed a century or so earlier, and set up their capital in the ancient fortress of Chittorgarh.
  • Guhilots (734 AD) - A legendary figure in Mewar history, Bappa Rawal's warlike temperament commended him to the attention of Maan Mori, a local chieftain who belonged to the Parmara clan. Bappa Rawal led the combined Hindu forces against invaders from west, mostly early Muslim invasions on India, and successfully defeated them as the chief of Maan Mori's army. Bappa Rawal soon took over the territory of his patron / master, and established himself as ruler of Mewar, an event usually dated to AD 734.
  • All subsequent rulers of Mewar trace their lineage to Bappa Rawal. The senior lineage of rulers descended from him were known as Guhilots (also Guhelots or Guhilas), a patronymic derived from the name of their purported distant forbear, the aforementioned Guha.
  • Khoman (812 AD) - Prince Khoman led another expedition a few years later in AD 812 uniting all Kshatriyas and throwing the armies of Harun-al-Rashid from India and Sind. He was involved in series of battles and led armies to victory after victory culminating in AD 812 when the invaders were finally thrown out. This led to a time of peace until 100 years later, when Md Gazni came into the picture. Prince Khoman was the bravest son of Mewar, revered even today. 'Khoman-Gani' or Khamaghani, a common term used in Rajasthani, when Rajputs greet each other.
  • Jauhar of 1303: Ala-ud-din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, sent a marauding army across India at the turn of the 13th century; this army, commanded by Malik Kafur, defeated the Guhilot rulers of Mewar in 1303. The impending fall of Chittorgarh, the main bastion of the Guhilots, occasioned the famous Jauhar of 1303, when the womenfolk then resident within that fort collectively committed suicide rather than risk personal dishonour at the hands of the victorious invading army. The brave men wore saffron turbans as a mark of performing saka, of running into battle with no hope of coming back.

Sisodia rulers of Mewar

  • Rahup was son of Karan Singh and brother of Kshmema Singh. His descendants were
    • Narapati
    • Dinakarn
    • Jaskarn
    • Purnpala
    • Prithvipal
    • Bhuvan Singh
    • Bhim Singh
    • Jay Singh
    • Lakshaman Singh - Declared ruler of Mewar as no one else was left in Rana's family, he held the village of SISODA and hence his descendants were called Sisodia Guhilot's.
      • Ajay Singh , younger son
    • Arisingh
    • Hammir Singh
Rana Hamir recaptured Chittor from Sanchoria rulers under Delhi Sultanate.
  • Rana Hamir Singh (1326–1364)
  • Rana Kshetra Singh (1364–1382)
  • Rana Lakha (1382–1421)
  • Rana Mokal (1421–1433)
  • Rana Kumbha (1433–1468)
  • Rana Udai Singh I (1468–1473)
  • Rana Raimal (1473–1509)
  • Rana Sangha (Sangram Singh) (1509–1528)
  • Rana Ratan Singh (1528–1531)
  • Rana Vikramaditya mahthan (1531–1537)
  • Rana Udai Singh II (1537–1572)
  • Rana Pratap Singh (Maharana Pratap) (1572–1596)
  • Rana Amar Singh (1596–1620) He faced many attacks. One of his kinsmen Sagar Singh was appointed as Rana by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. But he never received recognition from public and nobility. Amar Singh remained Maharana of Mewar.
  • Rana Karan (1620–1628)
  • Rana Jagat Singh (1628–1652)
  • Rana Raaj Singh (1652–1680)
  • Rana Jay Singh (1680–1699)
  • Rana Amar Singh II (1699–1711)
  • Rana Sangrama Singh II/ (1711–1734)
  • Rana Jagat Singh II (1734–1752)
  • Rana Pratap Singh II (1752–1754)
  • Rana Raaj Singh II (1754–1761)
  • Rana Ari Singh II (1761–1771)
  • Rana Hammir II (1771–1777)
  • Maharana Bhim Singh (1777–1828)
  • Maharana Jawan Singh (1828–1838)
  • Maharana Sardar Singh (1838–1842)
  • Maharana Sarup Singh (1842–1861)
  • Maharana Sambhu (1861–1874)
  • Maharana Sujjan Singh (1874–1884)
  • Maharana Fateh Singh (1884–1930)
  • Maharana Bhupal Singh (1930–1955).
  • Rana Hamir (1326–1364) : Following an invasion by the Delhi sultanate at the turn of the 13th century, the ruling Guhilot clan had been displaced from Mewar. The victorious Khilji sultans assigned the newly conquered territory of Mewar to the administration of Maldeo, ruler of the nearby state of Jalore, who had allied with them during the recent war. In a bid to reconcile and co-opt the natives of the land to his rule, Maldeo arranged for the marriage of his widowed daughter Songari with Hamir, the scion of an impoverished cadet branch of the erstwhile ruling dynasty.Hammir regained control of the region, re-established the dynasty, and became the first of his dynasty to use the royal title 'Rana'. Hammir also became the progenitor of the Sisodia clan, a branch of the Guhilot clan, to which every succeeding Maharana of Mewar has belonged. Rana Hamir Singh re-established the state of Mewar in 1326 AD by engineering a coup d'état against his father-in-law. The dynasty thus founded by Hamir, who was descended in direct patrilineage from Bappa Rawal, came to be known as Sisodia after Sisoda, the mountain village whence Hamir hailed.
  • Rana Kshetra Singh (1364–1382)
  • Rana Lakha (1382–1421)
  • Rana Mokal (1421–1433)
  • Rana Kumbha (1433–1468) - He was not only an expert in fortification but also an accomplished playwright and patron of music. Many of the historic monuments that dot Mewar were erected by him, including the Kumbhalgarh fort and the Vijay Stambha ( Tower of Victory ) in Chittorgarh. Kumbha was a son of Rana Mokal of Mewar by his wife Sobhagya Devi, a daughter of Jaitmal Sankhla, the Parmara fief-holder of Runkot in the state of Marwar.
  • Rana Udai Singh I (1468–1473)
  • Rana Raimal (1473–1509) - He is often overlooked due to his reign being interposed between two notable rulers. Maharana Raimal came to power by defeating his patricide predecessor, Udaysingh I in battles at Jawar, Darimpur and Pangarh. Early in Raimal's reign, Ghiyas Shah of Malwa attacked Chittor unsuccessfully. Soon after, Ghiyas Shah's general, Zafar Khan attacked Mewar and was defeated at Mandalgarh and Khairabad. By marrying Sringardevi (daughter of Rav Jodha), Raimal ended the conflict with the Rathores. During Raimals' reign, Raisingh Toda and Ajmer were recaptured. Raimal also strengthened the state of Mewar and repaired the temple of Eklingaji in Chittor. The last years of Raimal's rule were marked by conflict between his sons with Prince Sanga (Maharana Sangram Singh) having to flee Chittor. The oldest sons, Prithiviraj and Jagmal were both killed. At this difficult juncture, the Rana was informed that Sanga was still alive and in hiding. Raimal summoned Sanga back to Chittor and died soon afterwards.
  • Rana Sanga (1509–1527) - He became king after slaying all his brothers and who stood up against the invaders and was able to unite many Rajput states to fight against the foreigners. He was among the most prominent chieftains of his day. He initially allied with an invading Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi, in 1526. After this was accomplished, Rana Sanga led a combined Rajput army to defeat Babur and capture Delhi, but was himself defeated by Babur at the Battle of Khanua on March 16, 1527. Legend says after being seriously injured still wanted the battle to continue and was poisoned by some of his nobles. Mystic saint, Meerabai was the wife of his eldest son, Bhoj Raj (d. 1521).
  • Rana Ratan Singh (1528–1531)
  • Rana Vikramaditya Mahthan (1531–1537)
  • Rana Udai Singh II (1537–1572)
  • Rana Pratap (1540–1597) - He was son of Rana Udai and his Songarri Chauhan Rani. He had to face not only Akbar's army but also had to fight against other Rajput kings like Raja Todar Mal and Raja Man Singh of Amber who aligned with the Mughals. In the Battle of Haldighati (1576), Maharana Pratap was badly hurt and was saved by his famous horse Chetak, who took him in an unconscious state away from the battle scene.

Later, Pratap relocated to Chavand in the mountainous southeastern area of Mewar. Maharana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident. He died at Chavand, on January 29, 1597, aged fifty-six. the village Chavand is situated 6 km in east from Parsad (परसाद) village on Udaipur- Khairwar road. There is a Jaina temple here and Mahals of Maharana Pratap. He was cremated in village Bandoli (बंडोली) about 3 kms from Chavand. There is a chhatri on the bank of nalah.

  • Rana Amar Singh (1596–1620)

Jat Rulers in mewar

  • Jatri
  • Lega
  • Suhag - Vira Rana and Dhira at ‘Kod Khokhar’ (कोडखोखर) in Medapata
  • Nagil

See also

References

  1. Jat Samaj, Agra : March 1999

Back to Jat Kingdoms in Ancient India