Ada

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Ada (अड़ा) / Ad (अड़)[1] is gotra of Jats. Ada clan is found in Afghanistan.[2]

Origin

  • Ada may be a Nagavanshi Jat Gotra originated from queen Ada of Caria.
  • Origin of the Gotra was from their act of being resistive (अड़ना). [3]

Jat History

Ram Swarup Joon[4] writes In the Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48, while describing various Kings who attended a ceremony in the Durbar (court) of Maharaja Yudhisthira, seventeen names are mentioned which are today found as Jat gotras. These are Malhia, Mylaw, Sindhar, Gandhar, Mahity, Mahe, Savi, Bath, Dharan, Virk, Dard, Shaly, Matash, Kukar (Khokar) Kak, Takshak, Sand, Bahik (Bathi) Bije (Bijenia), Andhra, Sorashtra (Rathi) Mann, Ar, Sohat, Kukat, Othiwal (Othval).

Afghan History

H. W. Bellew[5] writes that The Achak, or Achakzi, are entirely pastoral and predatory, and inhabit the Kadani valley and north slopes of the Khojak Amran range to the Toba tablelands. But they wander far to the west, and are found scattered all over the country to Herat and Badghis, and parts of the Ghor country. They are reckoned at five thousand tents, and are in two divisions, viz., Bahadur and Gajan.

Gajan (Kachin tribe of Naga) sections are : — Ada. Adrak. Ali. Ashe. Badi. Harun. Jali. Kamil. Lali. Mali. Mapi, Mushaki. Shakar, etc. Of the above sections Ashdan and Ashe appear to be the same ; and are different forms of Achi and Achak. Some of the other sections are not recognised, such as Fam, Ghabe, Ada, and Adrak.


H. W. Bellew[6] writes ....Jaji tribe - Adjoining the Turi, on the west of the Pewar spur, is the Jaji tribe, reckoned at about five thousand families ; they are Sunni Musalmans, and supposed to be of the same descent as the Mangal, their neighbours in the south-west. They speak the Pukhto and conform to the Pukhtunwali, but are not acknowledged as either Afghan or Pathan, nor Ghilzi, nor Tajik. They are much isolated, and very little is known about them, beyond that they are eternally at feud with the Turi. They may perhaps be the Kara Khitai of Kirman, for nowhere else in this part of Afghanistan are the Kara Khitai to be found by that name. Among the Kara Khitai of Kashghar and Yarkand the cavalry soldier is called Jigit, and the infantry soldier Jaja. It may be that our Jaji represent the descendants of the Jaja soldiery, perhaps planted here as a military colony, of the Kara Khitai princes of the dynasty founded in Kirman (1224 A.D.) by the Barak Hajib before mentioned. This dynasty ruled the provinces of Kirman and Suran (the countries drained by the Kuram and Gomal rivers) as dependents of the Mughal sovereigns of Khorasan and Persia for a period of eighty-two years. ....The Jaji, as we find them, occupy the Alikhel district, drained by the Haryab and Kirya feeders of the Kuram river, and extend westward towards the Shuturgardan range, as far as Jaji thana, or " military post," in the Hazardarakht defile. They are divided --- [Page-100]: into eight wan or "companies," viz., Ada, Ahmad, Ali, Bayan, Husen, Lehwanai, Petla, and Shamo. Ada, Bayan, and Shamo are the names of Turk tribes.

Greek History

Ada of Caria (Ancient Greek: Ἄδα) (fl. 377 – 326 BC)[7] was a member of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) and ruler of Caria in the 4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and later as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon. Ada was the daughter of Hecatomnus and wife of Hidrieus, who, though he was her brother, lived with her in wedlock, according to the custom of the Carians. When Hidrieus was dying, he confided the administration of affairs to her, for it had been a custom in Asia, ever since the time of Semiramis, even for women to rule men.[8] writes

Ada was the daughter of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia, Idrieus, and Pixodarus. She was married to her brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in 351 BC and died in 344 BC. On the death of her husband Ada became satrap of Caria, but was expelled by her brother Pixodarus in 340 BC. Ada fled to the fortress of Alinda, where she maintained her rule in exile.

When Alexander the Great entered Caria in 334 BC, Ada adopted Alexander as her son and surrendered Alinda to him. In return, Alexander accepted the offer and gave Ada formal command of the Siege of Halicarnassus.[9] After the fall of Halicarnassus, Alexander returned Alinda and made Ada queen of the whole of Caria.[10] Ada's popularity with the populace in turn ensured the Carians' loyalty to Alexander.

According to Turkish archaeologists, the tomb of Ada has been discovered, although this claim remains unresolved. Her remains are on display in the archaeological museum of Bodrum.[11]

Ch. 23 Destruction of Halicarnassus.— Ada, Queen of Caria

Arrian[12] writes ...Then Orontobates and Memnon, the commanders of the Persians, met and decided from the state of affairs that they could not hold out long against the siege, seeing that part of the wall had already fallen down and part had been battered and weakened, and that many of their soldiers had either perished in the sorties or been wounded and disabled. Taking these things into consideration, about the second watch of the night they set fire to the wooden tower which they had themselves built to resist the enemy's military engines, and to the magazines in which their weapons were stored. They also cast fire into the houses near the wall; and others were burned by the flames, which were carried with great fury from the magazines and the tower by the wind bearing in that direction. Some of the enemy then withdrew to the stronghold in the island (called Arconnesus), and others to another fortress called Salmacis. When this was reported to Alexander by some deserters from the incendiaries, and he himself could see the raging fire, though the occurrence took place about midnight, yet he led out the Macedonians and slew those who were still engaged in setting fire to the city. But he issued orders to preserve all the Halicarnassians who should be taken in their houses. As soon as the daylight appeared he could discern the strongholds which the Persians and the Grecian mercenaries had occupied; but he decided not to besiege them, considering that he would meet with no small delay beleaguering them, from the nature of their position, and moreover thinking that they would be of little importance to him now that he had captured the whole city.

Wherefore, burying the dead in the night, he ordered, the men who had been placed in charge of the military engines to convey them to Tralles. He himself marched into Phrygia, after razing the city to the ground, and leaving 3,000 Grecian infantry and 200 cavalry as a guard both of this place and of the rest of Caria, under the command of Ptolemy. He appointed Ada to act as his viceroy of the whole of Caria.[1] This queen was daughter of Hecatomnus and wife of Hidrieus, who, though he was her brother, lived with her in wedlock, according to the custom of the Carians. When Hidrieus was dying, he confided the administration of affairs to her, for it had been a custom in Asia, ever since the time of Semiramis, even for women to rule men. But Pixodarus expelled her from the rule, and seized the administration of affairs himself. On the death of Pixodarus, his son-in-law Orontobates was sent by the king of the Persians to rule over the Carians. Ada retained Alinda alone, the strongest place in Caria; and when Alexander invaded Caria she went to meet him, offering to surrender Alinda to him, and adopting him as her son.[2] Alexander confided Alinda to her, and did not think the title of son unworthy of his acceptance; moreover, when he had captured Halicarnassus and become master of the rest of Caria, he granted her the privilege of ruling over the whole country.


1. Hecatomnus, king of Caria, left three sons, Mausolus, Hidrieus, and Pixodarus; and two daughters, Artemisia and Ada. Artemisia married Mausolus, and Ada married Hidrieus. All these children succeeded their father in the sovereignty, Pixodarus being the last surviving son.

2. Amyntas, king of Macedonia, grandfather of Alexander the Great, adopted the celebrated Athenian general Iphicrates, in gratitude to him as the preserver of Macedonia. See Aeschines (De Falsa Legatione, pp. 249, 250).


p.64-66

Ada village in Balasore Orissa

Ada is a village in Balasore (also known as Baleswar or Baleshwar) district in Orissa state of eastern India.

Notable persons

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. अ-22
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.164
  3. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.221,s.n. 45
  4. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 32-33
  5. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, p.164
  6. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, p.99-100
  7. 377 BC is the date of her father's death: Gardner, Percy (1918). A History of Ancient Coinage, 700-300 B.C. Clarendon Press: Oxford University. p. 303.
  8. Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander/1b , ch.23
  9. "Geography". Perseus.org.
  10. The Anabasis of Alexander/1b,ch.23
  11. "Carian Princess Hall". Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.
  12. The Anabasis of Alexander/1b , ch.23

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