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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

The official name of Turkey has been re-spelt as Turkiye (तुर्किये)

Map of Turkey

Turkey is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and the Balkan region of Southeastern Europe. Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre, classified as a leading global city.


Turkey borders eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. In addition, it borders the Black Sea to the north; the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara to the west; and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises 3 percent of the country.


Turkey has been inhabited since Paleolithic times. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, and Armenians.[1][2][3] Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era[4][5] The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey.[6] The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities.[7] Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.[8] After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa.[9]

The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as ca. 2300 BC. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians ca. 2000–1700 BC. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC.[10][11] Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria.[12] Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC.[13] Starting from 714 BC, Urartu shared the same fate and dissolved in 590 BC,[14] when it was conquered by the Medes. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.

Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (now İzmir) and Byzantium (now Istanbul), the latter founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I.[15]

All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th century BC.[16] The Greco-Persian Wars started when the Greek city states on the coast of Anatolia rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC. The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC,[17] which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area.[18]

Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms, all of which became part of the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC.[19] The process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquest accelerated under Roman rule, and by the early centuries of the Christian Era, the local Anatolian languages and cultures had become extinct, being largely replaced by ancient Greek language and culture.[20][21] From the 1st century BC up to the 3rd century CE, large parts of modern-day Turkey were contested between the Romans and neighbouring Parthians through the frequent Roman-Parthian Wars.

According to Acts of Apostles 11,[22] a city in the southern of Turkey, Antioch (now Antakya) is the birthplace of the first Christian community.[23]

In 324, Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinople, became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. This empire, which would later be branded by historians as the Byzantine Empire, ruled most of the territory of present-day Turkey until the Late Middle Ages;[24] although the eastern regions remained in firm Sasanian hands up to the first half of the seventh century. The frequent Byzantine-Sassanid Wars, as part of the centuries long-lasting Roman-Persian Wars, fought between the neighbouring rivalling Byzantines and Sasanians, took place in various parts of present-day Turkey and decided much of the latter's history from the fourth century up to the first half of the seventh century.

Several cities in Turkey, such as Istanbul (Constantinople), Iznik (Nicaea), and Selçuk (Ephesus) were the hosts of ecumenical gatherings in early Christianity.

DNA study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population

David G. Mahal and Ianis G. Matsoukas[25] conducted a scientific study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population of which brief Conclusion is as under:

The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity with several other ethnic communities in the Indian subcontinent. A startling new assessment of the genetic ancient origins of these people was revealed with DNA science.

The human Y-chromosome provides a powerful molecular tool for analyzing Y-STR haplotypes and determining their haplogroups which lead to the ancient geographic origins of individuals. For this study, the Jats and 38 other ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent were analyzed, and their haplogroups were compared. Using genetic markers and available descriptions of haplogroups from the Y-DNA phylogenetic tree, the geographic origins and migratory paths of their ancestors were traced.

The study demonstrated that based on their genetic makeup, the Jats belonged to at least nine specific haplogroups, with nine different lines of ancestry and geographic origins. About 90% of the Jats in our sample belonged to only four different lines of ancestry and geographic origins:

1. Haplogroup L (36.8%)- The origins of this haplogroup can be traced to the rugged and mountainous Pamir Knot region in Tajikistan.

2. Haplogroup R (28.5%): From somewhere in Central Asia, some descendants of the man carrying the M207 mutation on the Y chromosome headed south to arrive in India about 10,000 years ago (Wells, 2007). This is one of the largest haplogroups in India and Pakistan. Of its key subclades, R2 is observed especially in India and central Asia.

3. Haplogroup Q (15.6%): With its origins in central Asia, descendants of this group are linked to the Huns, Mongols, and Turkic people. In Europe it is found in southern Sweden, among Ashkenazi Jews, and in central and Eastern Europe such as, the Rhône-Alpes region of France, southern Sicily, southern Croatia, northern Serbia, parts of Poland and Ukraine.

4. Haplogroup J (9.6%): The ancestor of this haplogroup was born in the Middle East area known as the Fertile Crescent, comprising Israel, the West Bank, Jordon, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. Middle Eastern traders brought this genetic marker to the Indian subcontinent (Kerchner, 2013).

5.-9. Haplogroups E, G, H, I, T (9.5%): The ancestors of the remaining five haplogroups E, G, H, I, and T can be traced to different parts of Africa, Middle East, South Central Asia, and Europe (ISOGG, 2016).

Therefore, attributing the origins of this entire ethnic group to loosely defined ancient populations such as, Indo-Aryans or Indo-Scythians represents very broad generalities and cannot be supported. The study also revealed that even with their different languages, religions, nationalities, customs, cuisines, and physical differences, the Jats shared their haplogroups with several other ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent, and had the same common ancestors and geographic origins in the distant past. Based on recent developments in DNA science, this study provided new insights into the ancient geographic origins of this major ethnic group in the Indian subcontinent. A larger dataset, particularly with more representation of Muslim Jats, is likely to reveal some additional haplogroups and geographical origins for this ethnic group.

Jat History in Turkey

Bhim Singh Dahiya[26] writes that Jats are known as Jatts in Turkey and Egypt.

Turvasu, In the dynasty of Yayati, was son of Yayati from Devayani, with whom Tomar gotra is related. Yayati had two wives Devayani and Sharmishtha.

Yayati got two sons from Devayani – 1. Yadu and 2. Turvasu.

Yayati got three sons from Sharmishtha – 1. Druhyu 2. Anu and 3. Puru. [27]

Ram Swarup Joon[28] writes that Pliny has written that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii.

Jat Warriors who Fought in Turkey

  • Risaldar Major Jag Ram is recipient of Indian Distinguished Service Medal in 1918 for his bravery in war in Turkey. Ram Sarup Joon[29] writes that ...Lancer Dafadar [later Risaldar Major] Jag Ram IDSM 14 Murrays Jat Lancers: He belonged to village Matan district Rohtak (now in district Jhajjar). In November 1918 C Squadron of 14 Lancers was ordered to attack an enemy stronghold in Turkey. The squadron extended at 4 yards interval and advanced in trot. On getting close, the squadron encountered thick barbed wire fence. The squadron commander considering further advance dangerous, ordered 'Files About'. Lance Dafadar Jagram who was centre Section Commander, shouted, "As you were". Then turning towards the squadron cp,amder, shouted, "Do you want to blacken the faces of Jats?" The squadron commander smiled and said 'Right Jagram' and ordered:"Gallop, line for attack. Charge." The horses jumped the wire and the enemy surrendered. Jagram was awarded IDSM and the squadron commander earned VC.

Jat Places in Turkey

Map of Lycia in Antalya Province of Turkey, showing significant ancient cities and some major mountains and rivers. Red dots are mountain peaks, white dots are ancient cities. Each place in this map is after some Jat clan
  1. Xanthos was the name of a city in ancient Lycia, the site of present-day Kınık, Antalya Province, Turkey, and of the Xanthus River on which the city is situated. Xanthus is variant of Jats in Greek. Xanthus is the Greek variant of Jat and its latinazed form is Xanthos as shown in Map. They also gave name to the River called Xanthus River.
  2. Caria was a region of western Anatolia. Its inhabitants were called Carians who were emigrants from Crete to Central Asia.[30] They came to the aid of Darius-III (the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia) and were part of alliance in the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC) formed by Darius-III in war against Alexander the Great at Arbela, now known as Arbil, which is the capital of Kurdistan Region in northern Iraq. [31]Dalman River flows through the region. Jat clans: Kar, Kari, Karia, Kurka
  3. Halicarnassus was an ancient Greek city which stood on the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey located in southwest Caria. Now called Budrum, a province in Turkey. It was the birthplace of the historians Herodotus and Dionysius.
  4. Kibyra or Cibyra (Greek: Κιβύρα), also referred to as Cibyra Magna, is an ancient city and an archaeological site in south-west Turkey. Jat clans: Kivar
  5. Araxa (Greek: Ἄραξα) was a city of ancient Lycia in Antalya Province, Turkey, situated on the Xanthus River. Jat clans: Arka, Arakha
  6. Pinara was a large ancient city of Lycia at the foot of Mount Cragus (now Mount Babadağ), and not far from the western bank of the River Xanthos, homonymous with the ancient city of Xanthos (now Eşen Stream). The name Pinara has somewhat been assimilated to the name of the present-day village of Minare, half an hour below the ruins and depending Fethiye district of Muğla Province, Turkey. Jat clans: Pandar
  7. Limyra (in Greek Λιμύρα) was a small city in Lycia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, in the present-day Antalya Province of Turkey. Jat clans: Limbar
  8. Patara was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of Gelemiş, in Antalya Province. Jat clans: Pattar, Patar
  9. Podalia or Potamia is an Ancient Lycian city in Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Arycandos River flows through it. Jat clans: Potalia
  10. Arycanda or Arykanda is an Ancient Lycian city in Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Arycandos River flows through it. Jat clans: Aryak
  11. Antalya is is an Ancient Lycian city in Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. It is the capital of Antalya province. It was called Attalia in ancient times. Jat clans: Antal
  12. Myra (Ancient Greek: Μύρα, Mýra) was an ancient Greek town in Lycia where the small town of Kale (Demre) is today, in the present-day Antalya Province of Turkey. Jat clans: Mahra, Mura
  13. Milyas was the mountainous country in the north of ancient Lycia, the south of Pisidia, and a portion of eastern Phrygia.[32] Jat clans: Meel
  14. Dalman River, the ancient Indus, formed the traditional border between Caria and Lycia in Turkey. Jat clans: ....
  15. Kale - Kale is a rural district of Denizli Province of Turkey near the town of Tavas. Jat clans: Kale, Kale Rawat
  16. Berdak (Armenian: Բերդակ, Russian: Бердак), a village in Goghtn Region of Armenia, currently included into Ordubad region of Nakhichevan autonomy of Azerbaijan.Berdak village in Turkey in Tunceli Province is known by names: Pertek, Pertag, Pertage, Pertaq, Partage, Pertak, Berdak. Pertag, means "tiny fortress" in Armenian.
  17. Tokat (also called Dokia) is the capital city of Tokat Province of Turkey in the mid-Black Sea region of Anatolia, modern Turkey. It is located at the confluence of the Tokat River (Tokat Suyu) with the Yeşilırmak. Geographical name changes in Turkey have been undertaken, periodically, in bulk from 1913 to the present by successive Turkish governments. Ancient name Dokia changed to present Tokat. It is probable that Jat clan Dukiya were rulers of the area and gave name to the region and the Tokat River. Jat clans: Dukiya, Dahyu
  18. Galatia (Greek) capital Ankara - In 278 BC, the Ankara city, along with the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by a Celtic group, the Galatians, who were the first to make Ankara one of their main tribal centers, the headquarters of the Tectosages tribe.[33] Other centers were Pessinos, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, and Tavium, to the east of Ankara, for the Tolstibogii tribe. The city was then known as Ancyra. The city was subsequently passed under the control of the Roman Empire. In 25 BC, Emperor Augustus raised it to the status of a polis and made it the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia.[34] Jat clan - Galati may be originated from ancient Galatian tribe.


मौर जाटों का राज्य - लेस्सरज़ब और अरारट (तुर्की में) के पहाड़ी क्षेत्रों पर था। यहां से इन्होंने 2200 वर्ष ई० पू० मिश्र पर आक्रमण किया था। [35]

यूरोपियन टर्की - इसको ‘सल्तनत आटोमेन ऐम्पायर’ कहते हैं। (देखो दी हिस्टोरिकल लीजेन्ड्स आफ पर्शिया बाई जोन विलसन डी, डी, ऐम, आर, ए, ऐस)। आटोमेन यौगिक शब्द है ओटो + मेन का। ओटो अपभ्रंश है यदु का। मेन अपभ्रंश है मनु का। तात्पर्य है यदुवंशियों से। इस साम्राज्य की राजधानी कुन्सतुनतुनिया को यदुवंशी बादशाह कोन्स्टेनटाइन ने आबाद किया था। कोन्स्टेनटाइन अपभ्रंश है कंसतनतनियां का। कंसतन = कंस का लड़का। तनियां = कंसतन की लड़की, अर्थात् कंस के लड़के की लड़की के वंश में। इसीलिए इस वंश की पदवी ‘अफरासिआब जाह’ कहलाती है। अफरासिआब अपभ्रंश है अप्रिय श्याम का। तात्पर्य है श्री कृष्णचन्द्र जी से शत्रुता रखने वाले कंस के वंश के यदुवंशी। (पृ० 10-11)

यह पहले लिखा जा चुका है कि सम्राट् ययातिपुत्र यदु से यादववंश प्रचलित हुआ जो कि जाटवंश है।[36]

Rule of Turvasu

Yayati made Turvasu the rulers of westwrn region. The descendants of Turvasu were known as Turvasus, who founded Turvaski. Over a period of time Turvaski became Turski and finally Turkey.

The ancestor of Tomars

The descendants of Turvasu, known as Turvasus changed due to linguistic differences to Turvas, Tavras, Tambar and Tomar. Due to political reasons Tomars returned from west region to south through Central Asia and settled in areas around Delhi. Since they had come from west they have been called Yavanas in Sabha Parva of Mahabharata.

The Tomars moved from Delhi region to other places in search of better lands and reached up to Bhind in Madhya Pradesh. In the seventh century the Tomars were divided into two communities. Those Tomars who came under the influence of newer Hindu religion, got inducted into Agnikula Rajputs. Rest who believed in old Vedic traditions remain to be known as Tomar Jats even today.

Notes on Turkish Name Changes

Note on Reading Turkish Names: Some of the modern place names at various places are given in Turkish language. For the most part, the equivalent English, French or German pronunciations are good approximations, but Turkish has some letters not present in those languages. Ğ or ğ is not pronounced, but lengthens the preceding vowel. For example, dağ, "mountain", is pronounced daa. Substitution of an English G or g is false. Ç or ç is a ch as in child, Ş or ş is an sh as in shore. What appear to be an English C or c is a J as in John, while the J or j is pronounced as the z in azure. The vowels have a short rather than a long pronunciation. As Turkish is an agglutinative language, the endings do not have the same meanings; e.g., daği is not the plural of dağ, which is daĝlar (daalar).

Geographical name changes in Turkey have been undertaken, periodically, in bulk from 1913 to the present by successive Turkish governments. Thousands of names within the Turkish Republic or the Ottoman Empire have lost or departed from their popular or historic alternatives in favour of recognizably Turkish names, as part of the Turkification policy. The governments have argued that such names are foreign or divisive. Names changed were usually of Armenian, Greek, Georgian (Including Laz), Bulgarian, Kurdish, Assyrian, or Arabic origin. Place names that have formally changed frequently persist in local dialects and languages throughout the ethnically diverse country.

The policy commenced during the final years of the Ottoman Empire and continued into the Turkish Republic. Under the Kemalist oriented government, specialized governmental commissions were created for the purpose of changing names. Approximately 28,000 topographic names were changed, which included 12,211 village and town names and 4,000 mountain, river, and other topographic names. Most name changes occurred in the eastern regions of the country where minority ethnicities form a large part or a majority of the population. Policies at times included banning the use of foreign names that were considered divisive and inappropriate. With a view to preserve old history of the places we have listed them as under.


External links

See also

Further reading


  1. Douglas Arthur Howard. The History of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xiv–xx. ISBN 978-0-313-30708-9.
  2. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BC). Oxford University Press. pp. 3–11, 37. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2.
  3. Casson, Lionel (1977). "The Thracians" (PDF). The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 35 (1): 2–6. doi:10.2307/3258667.
  4. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BC). Oxford University Press. pp. 3–11, 37. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2.
  5. David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid Biles Beck (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4.
  6. Gürpinar, D.; Gürpinar, Dogan (2013-10-17). Ottoman/Turkish Visions of the Nation, 1860-1950. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-33421-3.
  7. Mehmet Fuat Köprülü&Gary Leiser. The origins of the Ottoman Empire. p. 33.
  8. Masters, Bruce (2013-04-29). The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, 1516–1918: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107033634.
  9. Masters, Bruce (2013-04-29). The Arabs of the Ottoman Empire, 1516-1918: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107033634.
  10. "Ziyaret Tepe – Turkey Archaeological Dig Site". uakron.edu.
  11. "Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times And Today'" (PDF).
  12. Zimansky, Paul. Urartian Material Culture As State Assemblage: An Anomaly in the Archaeology of Empire. p. 103.
  13. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). "Anatolia and the Caucasus, 2000–1000 B.C. in Timeline of Art History.". New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 10
  14. Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. p. 314.
  15. D. M. Lewis; John Boardman (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. p. 444. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4.
  16. Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 144435163X pp 135–138, p 343
  17. Hooker, Richard (6 June 1999). "Ancient Greece: The Persian Wars". Washington State University, Washington, United States. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010.
  18. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BC). Oxford University Press. pp. 3–11, 37. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2.
  19. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (October 2000). "Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. – 1 A.D. in Timeline of Art History.". New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006.
  20. David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid Biles Beck (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4.
  21. Theo van den Hout (27 October 2011). The Elements of Hittite. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-139-50178-1.
  22. "Acts of the Apostles 11:26".
  23. Encyclopaedia Biblica, Vol. I, p. 186 (p. 125 of 612 in online .pdf file).
  24. Daniel C. Waugh (2004). "Constantinople/Istanbul". University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
  25. Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population Reveals Several Different Ancient Origins
  26. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.25
  27. Genealogy of Yayati
  28. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter III, p.40-41
  29. Ram Sarup Joon:History of the Jats/Chapter XIII,p.227
  30. Arrian:The Anabasis of Alexander/1b, ch.20, f.n.-1
  31. The Anabasis of Alexander/3a, Ch.8
  32. Strabo. xii. p. 573.
  33. Livy, xxxviii. 16
  34. Belke, Klaus (1984). "Ankyra". Tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 4: Galatien und Lykaonien (in German). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 126–130. ISBN 978-3-7001-0634-0.
  35. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-414
  36. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 333)

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