Andhra

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Andhra (आंध्र)(/आन्ध्र) Andhrana (आंध्राणा)/(आन्धराणा)[1] Adrayan (आदरायण) Adhrayan (आधरायण)/Andha (अंधा)/ Adhlayan (आधलायण) [2] is Jat gotra of Chandravanshi Kshatriyas.

Variants of name

Origin

It gets its name from Andhra rulers rulers. They were branch of Yadavas. [4]

There has been mention of Andhra rulers numbering 22 in Shrimad Bhagwat, 24 in Vishnu Purana, 30 in Matsya Purana. they have been mentioned as Andhra/Andhrabhratya there. They are descendant of samrat Yayati's great grandson Dirghatama's (दीर्घत्तमा) son Andhra (आंध्र).

History

Ram Swarup Joon[5] writes In the Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48, while describing various Kings who attended a ceremony in the Durbar (court) of Maharaja Yudhisthira, seventeen names are mentioned which are today found as Jat gotras. These are Malhia, Mylaw, Sindhar, Gandhar, Mahity, Mahe, Savi, Bath, Dharan, Virk, Dard, Shaly, Matash, Kukar (Khokar) Kak, Takshak, Sand, Bahik (Bathi) Bije (Bijenia), Andhra, Sorashtra (Rathi) Mann, Ar, Sohat, Kukat, Othiwal (Othval).


Ram Sarup Joon [6] writes that Adrayan or Adhrayan, Andha or Adhlayan gotra is very old. A ruler belonging to this dynasty took part in the Mahabharat. In Vishnu Puran there is reference to 176 rulers of this dynasty. Their capital was Jhirka Kalan. A rock edict of this dynasty has also been found, which tells us how Bindusara conquered the Andhra Kings.

Mr. V. A. Smith has also mentioned the ruler of this dynasty in his book. According to him they hailed from Andhra Desh and ruled in the Punjab and Kashmir. Probably their rule also extended over some parts of Sindh, Bihar and the South. From one branch of this gotra called Wadiyar, are the present rulers of Mysore.

Greek History

In Ch 5.22: Invasion of the Land of the Cathaeans by Alexander recorded by Arrian[7]....When Alexander was informed that Porus and Abisares had marched against them with their own forces and had roused many other tribes of the independent Indians to arms, he made a forced march against the Cathaeans, and on the second day after starting from the river Hydraotes he arrived at a city called Pimprama, inhabited by a tribe of Indians named Adraistaeans, who yielded to him on terms of capitulation. Giving his army a rest the next day, he advanced on the third day to Sangala, where the Cathaeans and the other neighbouring tribes had assembled and marshalled themselves in front of the city upon a hill which was not precipitous on all sides.

Ch 5.22: Invasion of the Land of the Cathaeans by Alexander

Arrian[8] writes.... MEANTIME he received information that the tribe called Cathaeans and some other tribes of the independent Indians were preparing for battle, if he approached their land; and that they were summoning to the enterprise all the tribes conterminous with them who were in like manner independent. He was also informed that the city, Sangala by name1, near which they were thinking of having the struggle, was a strong one. The Cathaeans themselves were considered very daring and skillful in war; and two other tribes of Indians, the Oxydracians and Mallians, were in the same temper as the Cathaeans. For a short time before, it happened that Porus and Abisares had marched against them with their own forces and had roused many other tribes of the independent Indians to arms, but were forced to retreat without effecting anything worthy of the preparations they had made. When Alexander was informed of this, he made a forced march against the Cathaeans, and on the second day after starting from the river Hydraotes he arrived at a city called Pimprama, inhabited by a tribe of Indians named Adraistaeans, who yielded to him on terms of capitulation. Giving his army a rest the next day, he advanced on the third day to Sangala, where the Cathaeans and the other neighbouring tribes had assembled and marshalled themselves in front of the city upon a hill which was not precipitous on all sides. They had posted their waggons all round this hill and were encamping within them in such a way that they were surrounded by a triple palisade of waggons. When Alexander perceived the great number of the barbarians and the nature of their position, he drew up his forces in the order which seemed to him especially adapted to his present circumstances, and sent his horse-archers at once without any delay against them, ordering them to ride along and shoot at them from a distance; so that the Indians might not be able to make any sortie, before his army was in proper array, and that even before the battle commenced they might be wounded within their stronghold. Upon the right wing he posted the guard of cavalry and the cavalry regiment of Clitus; next to these the shield-bearing guards, and then the Agrianians. Towards the left he had stationed Perdiccas with his own regiment of cavalry, and the battalions of foot Companions. The archers he divided into two parts and placed them on each wing. While he was marshalling his army, the infantry and cavalry of the rear-guard came up. Of these, he divided the cavalry into two parts and led them to the wings, and with the infantry which came up he made the ranks of the phalanx more dense and compact. He then took the cavalry which had been drawn up on the right, and led it towards the waggons on the left wing of the Indians; for here their position seemed to him more easy to assail, and the waggons had not been placed together so densely.


1. Sangala is supposed to be Lahore; but probably it lay some distance from that city, on the bank of the Chenab.

p.301-302

Visit by Xuanzang in 639 AD

Alexander Cunningham[9] writes that From Kosala, Hwen Thsang proceeded to the south for 900 li, or 150 miles, to An-to-lo, or Andhra[10] the modern Telingana. The capital was named Ping-ki-lo, which M. Julien transcribes as Vingkhila, but it has not yet been identified. We know that Warangol, or Varnakol, was the capital of Telingana for several centuries afterwards, but its position does not agree with the pilgrim's narrative, as it lies too far from Chanda on the Pain Ganga river, and too near to Dharanikotta on the Kistna. The Chinese syllables also do not represent the name of Warangol, although they might perhaps be taken for Vankol. They may be read as Bhimgal, which is the name of an old town in Telingana mentioned by Abul Fazl. But Bhimgal is only 120 miles to the south-west of Chanda, instead of 150 miles to the south or south-west, and is upwards of 200 miles to the north of Dharanikotta instead of 167 miles. I should therefore be inclined to accept the Chinese syllables as a blundering transcription of Warangol itself, if the positions agreed more nearly. But the actual distance between Varangol and Chanda is 160 miles, and between Varangol and Dharanikotta only 120 miles. It is, therefore, too near the latter place, and too far from the former place, according to Hwen Thsang's account. If we might adopt Amaravati in Berar as the capital of Kosala, then Bhimgal would represent the capital of Andhra beyond all doubt, as it stands rather short of midway between


[p.528]: Chanda and Dharanikotta ; but both the distances are too great to suit Hwen Thsang's numbers of 900 li and 1000 li, or 150 miles and 167 miles. The position of Elgandel, which is midway between Bhimgal and Varangol, agrees better with the pilgrim's narrative, as it is about 130 miles from Chanda, and 170 miles from Dharanikotta. I am, therefore, willing to adopt Elgandel as the probable representative of the capital of Andhra in the seventh century of the Christian era.

The province of Andhra is described as 3000 li, or 500 miles, in circuit. No frontier is mentioned in any direction ; but it may be presumed that the Godavari river, which is the modern boundary to the north and east, was likewise the ancient one, as it is also the limit of the Telugu language towards the north. To the west, where it met the great kingdom of Maharashtra, it cannot have extended beyond the Manjhira branch of the Godavari. The territory may, there- fore, be described as stretching from the junction of the Manjhira and Godavari to Bhadrachelam on the south-east, a length of 250 miles, and to Haidarabad on the south, a length of 100 miles, the distance between Haidarabad and Bhadrachelam being, 175 miles. These limits give a total circuit of 525 miles, or nearly the same as that stated by Hwen Thsang.

The Andhras are mentioned by Pliny[11] under the name of Andarae, as a powerful nation, who possessed thirty fortified cities, and a large army of one hundred thousand infantry, two thousand cavalry, and one thousand elephants. They are also noted in the Pen-tingerian Tables as Andrae-Indi. Wilson quotes these


[p.529]: Tables as placing the Andhras " on the banks of the Ganges,"[12] but the extremely elongated form of the Pentingerian Map has squeezed many of the peoples and nations far out of their true places. A much safer conclusion may be inferred from a comparison of the neighbouring names. Thus the Andrae-Indi are placed near Damirice, which I would identify with Ptolemy's Limyrike by simply changing the initial A to A, as the original authorities used for the construction of the Tables must have been Greek. But the people of Limyrike occupied the south-west coast of the peninsula, consequently their neighbours the Andrae-Indi must be the well-known Andhras of Telingana, and not the mythical Andhras of the Ganges, who are mentioned only in the Puranas. Pliny's knowledge of the Andarae must have been derived either from the Alexandrian merchants of his own times, or from the writings of Megasthenes and Dionysius, the ambassadors of Seleukus Nikator and Ptolemy Philadelphus to the court of Palibothra. But whether the Andarae were contemporary with Pliny or not, it is certain that they did not rule over Magadha at the period to which he alludes, as immediately afterwards he mentions the Prasii of Palibothra as the most powerful nation in India, who possessed 600,000 infantry, 30,000 horse, and 9000 elephants, or more than six times the strength of the Andarae-Indi.

The Chinese pilgrim notices that though the language of the people of Andhra was very different from that of Central India, yet the forms of the written characters were for the most part the same. This statement is specially interesting, as it shows that


[p.530]: the old Nagari alphabet introduced from Northern India was still in use, and that the peculiar twisted forms of the Telugu characters, which are found in inscriptions of the tenth century, had not yet been adopted in the south.

इतिहास

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[13] लिखते हैं कि चन्द्रवंशी सम्राट् ययाति के पुत्र अनु का प्रपौत्र दीर्घतमा* था जिसके अङ्ग, वङ्ग, कलिङ्ग, सुह्म, पुण्ड्र और आन्ध्र नामक पुत्र थे। इन सबने अपने नाम से प्रान्त बसाये। आन्ध्र ने अपने नाम से आन्ध्रालय (आस्ट्रेलिया) बसाया था। वहां से कुछ आन्ध्र लोगों ने भारतवर्ष में आकर आन्ध्रप्रदेश बसाया2। इस आन्ध्र के नाम पर आन्ध्र वंश प्रचलित हुआ था जो कि जाट वंश (गोत्र) है।

वैदिक सम्पत्ति के लेखक पं० रघुनंदन शर्मा साहित्यभूषण ने पृ० 414 पर लिखा है कि आन्ध्र लोग आन्ध्रालय अर्थात् आस्ट्रेलिया को गये।

दक्षिण भारत में एक प्रदेश आज भी ‘आन्ध्र’ के नाम पर प्रसिद्ध है। आन्ध्रवंश के राजाओं का राज्य इस आन्ध्रप्रदेश एवं कई अन्य प्रदेशों पर वैदिककाल में ही स्थापित हो गया था। रामायणकाल में भी इस वंश का राज्य आन्ध्र देश पर था। रामायण में लिखा है कि “सुग्रीव ने सीताजी की खोज के लिए सेनापति अङ्गद के नेतृत्व में वानरों को दक्षिण दिशा के कई देशों के अतिरिक्त ‘आन्ध्र देश’ में भी जाने का आदेश दिया3।” इन आन्ध्रवंश जाटों का राज्य महाभारत काल में भी था। पांडवों की दिग्विजय के अवसर पर सहदेव ने आन्ध्र देश के राजा को दूतों द्वारा ही वश में करके उससे टैक्स (कर) लिया (महाभारत सभापर्व, अध्याय 31वां)।


1. Jats the Ancient Rulers, P. 249 by B.S. Dahiya I.R.S.
2. जाट इतिहास पृ० 26, लेखक श्रीनिवासाचार्य महाराज।
3. वाल्मीकीय रामायण किष्किन्धाकाण्ड, सर्ग 41वां, पृ० 794.
4. क्षत्रिय जातियों का उत्थान पतन एवं जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 309-310, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
* अनु की 13 वीं पीढ़ी में हुआ (देखो अनु की वंशावली)।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-223


इस वंश के राजा, युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ में पधारे और द्रव्य लाये। आन्ध्रवंश के शूरवीर कौरवों की तरफ होकर महाभारत युद्ध में लड़े थे (महाभारत कर्णपर्व)।

इस आन्ध्रवंश के राजाओं का पुराणों में वर्णन इस प्रकार से है। श्रीमदभागवत में 22, विष्णु पुराण में 30 (चतुर्थ अंश, अध्याय 24, श्लोक 43-50, शासन 456 वर्ष), मत्स्य पुराण में 30 जिनका शासन 448 वर्ष रहा, वायुपुराण में 176 आन्ध्रराजाओं का शासनकाल 172 वर्ष लिखा है3। इस मतभेद का कारण विभिन्न स्थानों में आन्ध्रराजाओं का राज्य होना ही हो सकता है। इनका परिचय आन्ध्र, आन्ध्रभृत्य, सातवाहन और शातकर्णी के नाम से दिया है। इसी कारण मि० स्मिथ को यह अनुमान करना पड़ा कि “आन्ध्रों के तीन प्रकार के राज्य थे - एक प्रजातन्त्री स्वतन्त्र, दूसरा मौर्यों के आधीन परतन्त्र, तीसरा एकतन्त्री।” इसी को पुराणों ने अनेक धाराओं में लिखा है1

सम्राट् चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य के समय 30 बड़े परकोटे नगर आन्ध्रों के थे। इनकी सेना में एक लाख पैदल, दो हजार घुड़सवार थे। इनकी राजधानी कृष्णा नदी के किनारे श्री काकुलंम थी। सम्राट् बिन्दुसार ने आन्ध्रों को मौर्य शासन के आधीन किया था। किन्तु सम्राट् अशोक के बाद ये लोग फिर स्वतन्त्र हो गये थे। इनका प्रभाव बहुत विस्तृत था2

आन्ध्र लोगों को स्वतन्त्रता दिलाने वाला सिमुक था3। इस वंश के 30 शासक हुए हैं जिन्होंने 220 ई० पू० से 225 सन् ईस्वी तक 445 वर्ष राज्य किया। गोदावरी और कृष्णा नदियों के बीच के क्षेत्र पर इनका स्वतन्त्र राज्य रहा। उत्तर में आन्ध्र लोगों ने 28 ई० पू० कण्व वंश जिनका राज्य पाटलिपुत्र में था, को हराकर राज्य किया। आन्ध्रवंश के 30 शासक हुए जिनमें अधिक प्रसिद्ध ये थे -

  • 1. सिमुक - इसने मौर्यवंश के पराधीन आन्ध्र लोगों को 220 ई० पू० में स्वतन्त्रता दिलाई। इसके शासनकाल में बड़ी उन्नति हुई4
  • 2. कृष्ण - यह सिमुक का छोटा भाई था। इसने नासिक को अपने राज्य में मिला लिया था5/
  • 3. श्रीसतकर्णि - यह सम्राट् सिमुक का पुत्र था। इसने मालवा, विदर्भ तथा नर्मदा घाटी के प्रदेशों को जीत लिया था। इसने दो अश्वमेध यज्ञ किये और “दक्षिणापथपति” की उपाधि ग्रहण की6
  • 4. श्री गौतमीपुत्र सतकर्णि - यह इस वंश का सुप्रसिद्ध और शक्तिशाली शासक था। इसने सन् 106 से130 ई० तक राज्य किया। उसे शक, यवन, पल्हव आदि विदेशी जातियों का नाशक कहा गया है। इसके काल में शक जाति पश्चिमी भारत में काफी शक्तिशाली थी। इसने उनको हराया और एक शक शासक की कन्या से विवाह किया। सन् 130 ई० में इस सम्राट् की मृत्यु हो गई7। इस सम्राट् के पुत्र राजा श्रीपल्माई से शक सम्राट् जोरवम्न ने आन्ध्रराज्य का कुछ भाग छीन लिया।

1. क्षत्रिय जातियों का उत्थान, पतन एवं जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 309-310 लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
2. जाटों का उत्कर्ष, पृ० 310, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
3, 6, 7. भारत का इतिहास पृ० 65, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी।
3, 4, 5, 6. हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 240.
7. जाटों का उत्कर्ष, पृ 310, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-224


  • 5. श्रीयज्ञ सतकर्णि - यह आन्ध्रवंश का अंतिम प्रसिद्ध राजा था। इसने भी शकों के साथ युद्ध जारी रक्खा। समुद्रपार देशों से इसके अच्छे सम्बन्ध थे। इसके बाद आन्ध्रवंश के शासक दुर्बल थे। शक सम्राट् रुद्रदामन ने लगभग सन् 225 में यह आन्ध्रराज्य जीत लिया1

आन्ध्रवंश अथवा सातवाहन वंश के शासनकाल में उद्योग-धन्धे तथा व्यापार बहुत उन्नत थे। इस काल में पश्चिमी देश जैसे मिस्र, रोम, सीरिया आदि से घनिष्ठ व्यापारिक सम्बन्ध थे। इन देशों के व्यापारिक जहाज भारत की भड़ौच बन्दरगाह पर माल उतारते और नगरा एवं पैठन मण्डियों से माल लादकर ले जाते थे। भारत से मलमल, सूती कपड़ा और मसाले बाहर के देशों में जाते थे और इनके बदले में शीशे का सामान, मदिरा, जूता तथा अन्य वस्तुएँ आती थीं2

इस आन्ध्रवंश का राज्य कश्मीर, पंजाब, सिन्ध, दक्षिणी भारत, बिहार और उड़ीसा में था। इस वंश की बडियार शाखा का राज्य मैसूर रियासत पर था जो दक्षिण का सर्वाधिक प्रगतिशील राज्य था। बडियार वंश के जाट जोधपुर जिले में हैं। आन्ध्रवंश के अनेक गांव हैं जिनमें बिजनौर जिले के नांगल, कादीपुर, मोहनपुर आदि हैं3

आन्ध्रवंश के शाखा गोत्र - 1. सातवाहन-सातकर्णी 2. बड़ियार। इस वंश को आन्ध्रभृत्य भी कहते हैं।


1. जाटों का उत्कर्ष, पृ० 310, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
2, 3. भारत का इतिहास पृ० 65, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी, हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 244।
3.जाट इतिहास पृ० 76, लेखक ले० रामस्वरूप जून

In Bhagavata Purana

Andhra rulers ancestry

'A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism' by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, pp 226-227 mentions that (10) ten kings of the Sunga dynasty shall reign for 112 years. These are:Pushyamitra → Agnimitra → Sujyestha → (Vasumitra + Bhadraka + Pulinda): Pulinda → Utghosha → Vajramitra → Bhagavata → Devabhuti


Vasudeva, the minister of Devabhuti, shall kill his master and become himself the king.

Vasudeva → Bhumitra → Narayana → Susarman

These four kings shall be called Kanvas. They shall reign for 345 years. Susarman shall be killed by his servant Balin, a King of the Andhra clan, who shall himself usurp the throne. Balin shall be succeeded by his brother Krishna (Balin + Krishna). The genealogy of Krishna is:


KrishnaSrisantakarnaPournamasaLambodaraChivilakaMeghasvatiAtamanaAnishta KarmanHaleyaTalakaPurishabhiruSunandanaChakora → 8 Bahuka or Bahus ending in Sivasvati → GomatiPurimatMedasirasSivaskandaYajnasriVijayaChandravijnaSalomadhi [Page-227 ]

These thirty kings of the Andhra dynasty shall rule the earth for 456 years.

In Ramayana

Ramayana - Kishkindha Kand Sarg 41 mentions about Andhras as under:

तथा वन्गान् कलिन्गाम् च कौशिकान् च समंततः ।

अन्वीक्ष्य दण्डक अरण्यम् स पर्वत नदी गुहम् ॥४-४१-११॥

नदीम् गोदावरीम् चैव सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत ।

तथैव आन्ध्रान् च पुण्ड्रान् च चोलान् पाण्ड्यान् केरलान् ॥४-४१-१२॥

In Mahabharata

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 mentions geography of Bharatavarsha:

"Andhras, and, O king, many hilly tribes, and many tribes residing on lands laying at the foot of the hills, and the Angamalajas, and the Manavarjakas (Maan)+(Bardak); "
अन्ध्राश च बहवॊ राजन्न अन्तर्गिर्यास तदैव च
बहिर्गिर्य आङ्गमलदा मागधा मानवर्जकाः (Maan+Bardak) Mahabharata (6.10.48)

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions the provinces sabjugated by Sahadeva, who marched towards the southern direction. The hero brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from the Paundrayas, and the Dravidas along with the Udrakeralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas.

पाण्ड्यांश च थरविथांश चैव सहितांश चॊथ्र केरलैः
अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान Mahabharata (2.28.48)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) , A very ancient tribe, mentioned as Dasyus in the Aitareya Brahmana (VII.18), as the result of a curse by Vishwamitra. Linked with Pulinda, Khasa, Nishada and other low peoples, they fought for Duryodhana (VIII. 51.17). The Mbh. (XII.200.40) describes them as natives of the south. (VI.10.48)


अन्ध्राश च बहवॊ राजन्न अन्तर्गिर्यास तदैव च
बहिर्गिर्य आङ्गमलथा मागधा मानवर्जकाः (VI.10.48)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Taka or Takhar, Name of their tribe was Andhra. [14]
According to Thakur Deshraj there was a great king in Andhra-vansh named Hala around 69 AD. The descendants of Maharaja Hala came from south to north and settled in uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The Jat groups of these Kshatriyas were known as Hala.[15]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Andar (अंदार) or Andara (अंदार) is Jat gotra same a Andhak. [16]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Andhrana (आंध्राणा).[17]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vadiar (वाडियार) .[18]

Distribution in Uttar Prdesh

Villages in Bijnor district

Badhava, Chanda Nangli (Mohanpur), Kadipura, Nangal Jat, Takipura,

Adhran are Jats in Bijnor andDhampur tahsils in Bijnor distrct. There are about five villages of Adhran gotra in both Bijnor and Dhampur tahsil in which the total population of Adhran gotra is not more than 2000. These villages are Takipura, Kadipura, Badhava, Nangal Jat and Chanda Nangli (Mohanpur).

See also

Adhran

References


Back to Jat Gotras