Babur

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Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (1483–1530) (बाबर), sometimes also spelt Baber or Babar, was a conqueror from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Timur, from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother.

Early life

Babur was born on February 14, 1483 in the city of Andijan, Andijan Province, Fergana Valley, contemporary Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, ruler of the Fergana Valley, the son of Abū Saʿīd Mirza (and grandson of Miran Shah, who was himself son of Timur) and his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan (and great-great grandson of Tughlugh Timur, the son of Esen Buqa I, who was the great-great-great grandson of Chaghatai Khan, the second born son of Genghis Khan).[1]

History

In 1504, Babur was able to cross the snowy Hindu Kush mountains and capture Kabul;[2] the remaining Arghunids were forced to retreat to Kandahar. With this move, he gained a new kingdom, re-established his fortunes and would remain its ruler until 1526.[3]

In 1505, because of the low revenue his new mountain kingdom generated, Babur undertook his first expedition to India and had written before in his memoirs, "My desire for Hindustan had been constant. It was in the month of Shaban, the Sun being in Aquarius, that we rode out of Kabul for Hindustan"; it was a brief raid across the Khyber Pass.[4]

Founderof Mughal Empire in India

After his third loss of Samarkand, Babur gave full attention on conquest of India, launching a campaign, he reached Chenab in 1519.[5] Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfill his ancestor Timur's legacy, since it used to be part of his empire.[6] At the time parts of north India was under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi of Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors. He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim.[7] He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne of the country, however the ambassador was detained at Lahore and released months later.[[8]

Babur started for Lahore, Punjab, in 1524 but found that Daulat Khan Lodi had been driven out by forces sent by Ibrahim Lodi.[9] When Babur arrived at Lahore, the Lodi army marched out and was his army was routed.[10] In response, Babur burned Lahore for two days, then marched to Dipalpur, placing Alam Khan, another rebel uncle of Lodi's, as governor.[11] Alam Khan was quickly overthrown and fled to Kabul. In response, Babur supplied Alam Khan with troops who later joined up with Daulat Khan Lodi and together with about 30,000 troops, they besieged Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi.[42] He easily defeated and drove off Alam's army and Babur realized Lodi would not allow him to occupy the Punjab.[12]

Battle of Panipat (1526)

Babur started his campaign in November 1525, when he reached Peshawar he got the news that Daulat Khan Lodi had switched sides and drove out Ala-ud-Din. Babur then marched onto Lahore to confront Daulat Khan Lodi, only to see Daulat's army melt away at their approach.[13] Daulat surrendered and was pardoned, thus within three weeks of crossing the Indus Babur became the master of Punjab.

Babur marched onto Delhi via Sirhind, he reached the historical field of Panipat on 20 April 1526, where he met Ibrahim Lodi along with his numerically superior army of about 100,000 soldiers and 100 elephants.[14][15] The battle began on morning of 21 April 1526, Babur utilised the tactic of Tulugma, encircled the Ibrahim Lodi's army and forcing them to face artillery fire directly, and frightening the war elephants utilised by the Delhi's army.[16][17]

Ibrahim Lodi died during the battle thus ending the Lodi Dynasty.[18][19]


After the battle Babur occupied Delhi and Agra, seated himself on the throne of Lodi and laid the foundation of the Mughal Rule in India.

Baburnama

Babur wrote his memoirs and these form the main source for details of his life. They are known as the Baburnama and were written in Chaghatai Turkic, his mother-tongue. Baburnama was translated into Persian during the rule of Babur's grandson Akbar.[20]

Babur and Jats

Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi[21] writes about Jats and Babur:

Another invader Babar found the Jats inhabiting a tract between Mil-ab and Bhera mountains. He remarks:

If one go (sic. goes) into Hindustan the Jats and Gujars always pour down in countless hordes from hill and plain for loot in bullock and buffalo ... When we reached Sialkot, they fell in tumult on poor and needy folks who were coming out of the town to our camp, and stripped them bare. I had the silly thieves sought for, and ordered two or three of them cut to-pieces.[22]

It is said that in response to Rana Sanga's call a Jat militia of 5,000 from the Upper Doab and another from the Brij participated in the battle of Sikari against Babar.[23]

बाबर और सर्वखाप पंचायत

बाबर और सर्वखाप पंचायत में मनमुटाव चलता रहा. अंत में 1528 में बाबर स्वयं गाँव सौरम गया तथा तत्कालीन सर्वखाप पंचायत चौधरी रामराय से संधि कर ली और चौधरी को एक रूपया तथा पगड़ी सम्मान के 125 रपये देकर सम्मानित किया. [24]

External links

References

  1. Babur, Emperor of Hindustan (2002). The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. translated, edited and annotated by W.M. Thackston. Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-76137-3.
  2. Ewans, Martin (September 2002). Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. HarperCollins. pp. 26–7. ISBN 0-06-050508-7.
  3. Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–429. ISBN 8121903645.
  4. Eraly, Abraham (2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.pp.21-23
  5. Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–429. ISBN 8121903645.
  6. Eraly 2007, p. 27–29.
  7. Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India : from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.. New Delhi: Atlantic Publ. pp. 89–90. ISBN 8126901233
  8. Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–429. ISBN 8121903645.
  9. Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, (Har-Anand, 2009), 27.
  10. Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, 27.
  11. Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, 27-28.
  12. Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, 28.
  13. Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–429. ISBN 8121903645.
  14. Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–429. ISBN 8121903645.
  15. Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India : from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.. New Delhi: Atlantic Publ. pp. 89–90. ISBN 8126901233
  16. Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India : from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.. New Delhi: Atlantic Publ. pp. 89–90. ISBN 8126901233
  17. Szczepanski, Kallie. "The First Battle of Panipat". About.com.
  18. Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–429. ISBN 8121903645.
  19. Szczepanski, Kallie. "The First Battle of Panipat". About.com.
  20. Dilip Hiro (2006). Babur Nama: Journal of Emperor Babur. Mumbai: Penguin Books India. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-14400-149-1.
  21. The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire/Introduction,p.11
  22. Memoires of Babur, quoted by Qanungo, Jats, 33.
  23. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.), 15.
  24. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 23