Maharaja Karam Singh

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Maharaja Karam Singh of Patiala

Maharaja Karam Singh (r.30 June 1813- 23 Dec.1845) was ruler of Patiala.

The installation of Raja Karam Singh

Lepel H. Griffin states:[1] Colouel Ochterlony was present at the installation of the young Raja on the 30th June, and, on that occasion, at the Raja's special request and in open Durbar, the Agent conferred a valuable khillat upon Misr Noudha, as a sign of the Raja's satisfaction and determination to retain him in office. *

The Gurkha war of 1814

On the 1st November 1814, the Government of India were Compelled to declare war against the Gurkhas, who had for years been encroaching on British territory at the foot of the hills, and whose Government had refused either redress or apology. The briefest notice is, in this place, required of this war, which only so far effected Pattiala as to gain for the Raja, in return for zealous co-operation with the British army, a large increase of territory.

Amar Singh Thapa at Arki:

The story of the Gurkha conquests in the Punjab hills will be found in the histories of the Kangra and Simla Chiefs. Driven from Kangra by the superior power of Ranjit Singh, Amar Singh Thapa, the Gurkha leader, had established himself at Arki, in the little State of Bhagal, the Rana of which he had driven into exile.

The Gurkha conquests in Punjab:

When war was declared, the Gurkha conquests between the Satlej and the Jamna included Nahan, otherwise known as Sirmur ; Hindoor ; Kahlur, also known as Bilaspur ; a large portion of Bassahir ; twelve smaller States (Thakori) and the Thakoris dependent on Sirmur, the revenue of which amounted to Rs. 3,81,500 per annum. The Gurkha troops occupying this territory were estimated at 5,250 men, of whom 1,600 were in Nahan, and 2,000 with Amar Singh at Arki.


*Colonel Ochterlony to Government dated 16th April, 23rd April, 20th June and 1st Jnly. Government of India to Colonel Ochterlony 15th May 1813 and 24th June.
Keonthal, Mylog, Bhaji, Bogal, Bhagat, Kothar, Konhiar, Dhami, Jubal, Balsan, Manpal and Kamarsen. Government to Colonel Ochterlony dated 30th September and 1st October 1814. Colonel Ochter1ony's report of 29th August.


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Their encroachments on British and Pattiala territory:


The encroachments of the Gurkhas had been indifferently directed against British territory, independent and protected States ; and the Raja of Patiala had more than once, before the declaration of war, been engaged in repelling these encroachments, under the direction of the Governor General's agent at Ludhiana,* and it was to Pattiala troops that the villages of Mundlai and Berowli, which had been unjustly seized, were given up.

Colonel Ochterlony opens the campaign:

In October 1814, Colonel Ochterlony marched into tho hills by Way of Rupar ; captured Nalagarh and Taragarh on the 5th and 8th of November, and, after a long and desperate defence, took possession of Rangarh, the strongest position of the enemy, on the 11th February 1815.

Completely defeats Amar Singh, April 1815:

On the 15th of April he completely defeated Amar Singh and compelled him to retire to the fort of Malawa, where, reduced to extremity, he at length surrendered, and was allowed to retire with his whole garrison, with their arms, giving up all the forts between the Satlej and the Jamna and completely evacuating the whole of that territory.

Pattiala services

During this campaign, the infantry of the Pattiala Raja had been with Colonel Ochterlony's force, and a portion of his cavalry had been employed in guarding the plain country at the foot of the hills. In recognition


* Colonel Ochterlony to Government, 17th April, 23rd July, 16th September, 28th of October 1813.
† Voluminous correspondence of the years 1814, 1815, and 1816. The final treaty of Segowli of the 2nd December 1815, was delivered by Colonel Ochterlony to the Nipal Agent at Makwanpur, 4th March 1816. Aitchison's Treaties, vol. II, No. XLIX.


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of his services, the British Government conferred upon him, at the close of the war, 16 pargannahs, of which the detail is given in the annexed Sanads.*

For some time the Pattiala administration was carried on with more regularity and success than for many years previously. The Rani and the Misr remained in power, and no more grave disputes arose between neighbouring States, than an old standing quarrel with Manimajra regarding the distribution of the waters of the Gaggar nallah, an


* Sanad to Raja Karam Singh of Pattiala far Purgunnahs Mahili under the Seal and Signature of His Excellency the Governor General in Council.
”Whereas all the hill country has come into the possession of the British Government, and whereas Raja Karam Singh was forward to afford the co-operation of his troops during the late contest, therefore the present Sanad is granted, conferring on the said Raja Karam Singh and on his heirs for ever, the purgunnahs of Waheelee, Kuljoun, Buntheera, Koosalla, Chubrote, Kehmullee, Baddayheer, Saugur, Toorasutgowa, Jubub, and Pollakotee, together with the saeer duties of the same, and all the rights and appurtenances belonging to them, in exchange for a nuzurana of the sum of one lakh and fifty thousand rupees ; and the said sum having been paid into the Company's Treasury by kists, as agreed upon, nothing further shall ever be demanded on this account.
The British Government will always protect and support the said Raja and his heirs in the possession of this territory. The Raja,considering this Sanad a legal and valid instrument, will immediately take possession of the aforesaid lands, but he must not encroach on any lands beyond the acknowledged limits of the purgunnahs enumerated. In case of war, the Raja must, on the requisition of the British authorities, furnish armed men and Begarees to join the detachment of British Troops which may be stationed for the protection of the country. He will omit no exertion to do justice, and to promote the welfare and happiness of the ryots ; while they on their part, considering the said Raja as their true and rightful lord, must obey him accordingly, and pay their revenue punctually, and be always zealous to promote the cultivation of their lands, and to testify their loyalty and obedience.
Dated 20th October 1815.
Sanad to Raja Karam Singh of Pattiala for the Thakooree of Bughat and Juggutgurh, under the Seal and Signature of His Excellency the Governor General in Council,
Whereas all the hill country has come into the possession of the British Government, and whereas Raja Karam Singh was forward in affording the co-operation of his troops during the late contest. Whereas by order of the Right Honorable the Governor General the

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important question in a dry and sandy country ; * the reduction of the Fort of Kunori, belonging to the contumacious Chalians ; and the rightful ownership of certain Pargannahs in Hariana, which Mr. Fraser, the Assistant Resident at Dehli, claimed for the British Government††, and the detailed history of which dispute will be given hereafter.

But Raja Karam Singh again fell into the hands of bad advisers and determined to remove Misr Noudha and the Rani from power. The Misr himself believed


present Sanad is granted to said Raja conferring on him and on his heirs for ever.
1st. — The Purgnnnah of Bughat and the city of Taksal with the first fort at Sookchinpoor ; and the second fort at the end of the Bazar of Taksab, and the fort of Tharoogurh ; and Purgunnah Parleekhar with the fort of Ajeergurh, and Pergunnah Keeateen with the fort of Rajgurh, and Purgunnah Luchherany, and Purgunnah Berowlee, and together with these purgunnahs and the five forts specified, saeer collections amounting to one thousand eight hundred rupees, the whole forming a portion of the Thakooraee of Bughat, also
2nd, — The fort of Juggutgurh with the Purgunnah of Juggutgurh and its dependencies, forming a portion of Sirmore, together with all the rights and appurtenances belonging thereto, in exchange for the sum of Rupees, 1,30,000, and the said sum having been paid at the Company's treasury, no further demand will ever be made on the Raja on this account. The British Government will always protect and support the said Raja in possession of the said lands, and the Raja taking possession of the aforesaid lands shall not encroach on the possessions of another. In case of war, the troops stationed by the Raja for the protection of the said lands shall be sent to join the British Forces. The Raja will promote the welfare of his ryots on their part &c., (as in preceding Sanad).
Dated 20th October 1815.
The Pargunnahs mentioned in these two Sanads were taken from the Ranas of Keonthal and Bhagat for their hesitating and unfriendly conduct during the war.
Colonel Ochterlony to Government dated 28th July, 9th August, and 23rd September 1815. Government of India to Sir D. Ochterlony, 20th October 1815.
* Captain Birch to Resident Delhi, 31st May 1818.
† Captain Birch to Sir D. Ochterlony of 21st March and 4th April 1818.
†† Sir D. Ochterlony to Resident Dehli of 5th November 1816, 25th April, 15th June and 4th October 1817.
Resident Dehli to Captain Birch, 14th June 1818.


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that his life was in danger, and accused both the Raja and Bhai Lal Singh of having designs against him; but this was not likely, though the Misr's former experience made his apprehensions natural. But he was able to make no objection to the Raja taking, after two months, the whole power into his own hands, and the latter having extorted this promise, visited his mother, who, seeing that opposition was useless and desiring to make a virtue of necessity, told him that if he desired power there was no need to wait two months but that he might assume it at once. He, accordingly, retaining Misr Noudha as Chief Minister appointed several of his own friends to important offices, and assumed charge of the Treasury, Household, and Revenue Departments. The English authorities, by direction of the Governor General, informed the Raja that he would best promote his own interests by allowing his administration to remain as before, and by upholding the authority of his able Minister ; but no other interference was advisable, the more especially as the partial abdication of the Rani had been voluntary, and as the arrangement by which the Raja acquired power was, sooner or later, inevitable.*

Misr Noudha died soon after this, in October 1818, returning from a pilgrimage to Joala Mukhi. No State had ever been better served than Pattiala had been by him. He, in consort with Rani Aus Kour, saved the country from anarchy and


* Captain Birch to Resident Dehli, dated 10th June and 10th July 1818. Resident Dehli to Captain G. Birch, 3rd July, 12th July. Secretary to Government of India to Resident, 31st July 1818.


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restored it to prosperity ; while no charge was ever advanced against his honesty, even by his enemies. He seems to have been as clever as Diwan Nanun Mal, though perhaps more cautious and timid. Rani Aus Kour, after the death of her adviser, continued to lose influence and power, but no open dispute took place between her and her son until the beginning of 1821.

Misr Noudha's successor::Barkat Ali Khan

The Raja had appointed as Chief Minister in the room of Misr Noudha, one Barkat Ali Khan, a native of Oude, who had long been in the service of Sir David Ochterlony. The Rani had retained in her charge the Tosliakhana with the Treasury, Jewel House, &c., and she had increased the jagir of Re. 50,000, which had been granted, in 1807, for the maintenance of her and her son, to nearly two lakh of rupees, which she held in sole possession.

The rupture between Raja and his mother

This determination to strengthen herself at his expense, naturally irritated the Raja, and a quarrel arising between Wazir Khan, a Pathan leader, in favour with the Rani, and Barkat Ali Khan the Minister, in which a few wounds were given and received by the partisans of either party, The Raja believed or professed to believe that his mother desired to raise a revolt against him and to resume charge of the administration. He begged the British Political officer at Karnal to visit him and make some satisfactory arrangement with the Rani, the result of which was that the Raja was declared to possess sole and absolute power and the Rani agreed to retire to her estate at Sunour and abstain from all interference in public affairs.*


:* Captain Birch to Sir D. Ochterlony, dated 12th February and 9th March 1821.


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She retires from Pattiala to Sunour:

There seemed a probability of peace, but two important points were still Unsettled; first, the enormous amount of territory claimed by the Rani as her jagir ; and, secondly, the custody of the Toshakhana which the Rani had carried away with her to Sunour.

The Jagir of the Rani:

With regard to the jagir, Sir D. Ochterlony held that, although the Rani had no right to the whole estate of Rs. 50,000, which had been granted not only for her own maintenance but also for that of the Prince, yet it would be generous and becoming in the Raja to interpret the grants in her favour ; but to the enormous additions which she had made to the estate while she possessed full power, during the late reign, she had absolutely no claim whatever, and the Raja would do well to resume them all.

The Toshalchana, which was supposed to contain in money, jewels and gold and silver plate , fifty lakhs of treasure, Captain Birch, the Assistant Agent, had allowed the Rani to take with her to Sunour, believing that the Raja was not averse to this arrangement, and that the treasure would be safe with the Rani, who would be responsible for its custody, and who promised to send a correct list of its contents to her son. But this she would not do : she sent indeed a memorandum which was so imperfect as to be worthless and refused a more detailed account.*


* The only memorandum she submitted was " Five lakhs of rupees with other article in chests and coffers.”
Captain Birch to Sir D. Ochterlony, 30th July and 8th, 14th and 16th August 1821.
Sir D. Ochterlony to Captain Birch, 29th May, 1st, 5th, 10th and 17th August 1821.


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The departure Sir D. Ochterlony from Dehli AD 1821:

Such was the unsatisfactory state of affairs when Sir D. Ochterlouy left Dehli, And Raja hesitated to take any decided action, uncertain whether any change of policy was signified by Sir David's departure. But the rejection by the Rani of all friendly overtures ; her determination to retain both land and treasure and the belief entertained by the Raja of the misappropriation of some of the most valuable property in his mother's possession, decided him, early in 1823, to take further and immediate action.

The complaints of Raja against his mother:

The whole matter was finally referred to Captain Ross, tho Deputy Superintendent of tho Cis-Satlej States. The Raja complained that his mother did not observe the seclusion which was becoming and consistent with the family honor ; that she had falsified the Sanads by which she held her estates ; that the most valuable effects of the Toshakhana were misappropriated ; that, by holding a separate Court, she impaired his legitimate authority ; and, lastly, that her officers interfered in the administration. He added that the strength and resources of the State were so much injured that he would probably be unable to furnish the required contingents and be condemned as having failed in his duty to the British Government.

His proposal to restrain the power of Rani:

The Raja proposed, as a remedy for these evils, that his mother should return to Pattiala and reside there, and that her income should be Rs. 50,000 per annum, the amount of the original jagir ; while the newly acquired estate should be resumed, also that


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the Toshakhana should be brought to Pattiala, and only allowed to remain in the Rani's custody if complete lists were given of its contents, and if it should be proved that, hitherto, no part of it had been misappropriated.

The proposals of the Raja were just and the provision promised to his mother liberal being more than twice as large as any Dowager Rani of Pattiala had ever before received after the accession of her son ; and there was no reason for the British Government to interfere to prevent the Raja taking whatever steps he chose to enforce his wishes ; except that the Rani possessed so large a territory and so many troops, having also at her disposal all the accumulated treasure of the family, that it appeared probable that should the Raja attempt to coerce her she would oppose him by force and appear at the head of a revolt against her son as, sixteen years before, she had headed a revolt against her husband.*

The interference of the British Government again asked and given:


The British Government thus again interfered in the internal affairs of Pattiala, at the urgent request of the Raja and to save his territory from the horrors of civil war. In October 1823, Captain Murray was sent with a detachment to assist the Raja in enforcing his legitimate wishes : namely, the possession of the State treasure and the resumption of such jagirs as the Rani had newly acquired; also to compel her to resign the fort of Sunour, only two miles from Pattiala, since her residence so near the capital was a fruitful source of intrigue and dispute.


* Captain Ross, Deputy Superintendent, 4th February 1823. Government of India to Mr. Elliott of 31 at July 1823.


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British troops at Pattiala:

When the British officer made his demands to Diwan Roop Chand, the Rani's agent, that official burst into tears and declared he could not carry them to his mistress, who would probably commit suicide.

Opposition of Rani to the demands of his son:

At length he consented and soon brought a reply from the Rani, offering Captain Murray a lakh of Rupees to allow the existing arrangement to continue and to forward to Calcutta a report which she would prepare, as she had not yet been heard in her defence. If this was refused, she declared that she would spend the remainder of her life in retirement by the Ganges, and accept neither jagir nor provision from her son. But a prompt acquiescence in the demands of the Government being insisted upon, she made over the fort to the Raja's troops and came herself into camp where she was treated with every respect. But, for several days, she refused all amicable settlement of the dispute. She refused to live at Amargarh, her old jagir, and declared that unless she was permitted to retain Sunour, she would go in person to Calcutta and appeal to the Governor General against the cruelty of her son.

She leaves Pattiala for Ambala:

She had, of course, no real ground for complaint ; for the Raja was most anxious to treat his mother with all consideration ; and had included in her jagir the best lands, the strongest fort, and richest town in his territory, and would have placed his treasure at her sole disposal ; but her servants, who thought more of their own advantage then of that of their mistress, encouraged her in a useless opposition, and on the 14th October, she left Ambala, refusing all terms unless Sunour was granted to her. The Raja was in


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She was persuaded to return:

despair : the honor of his family was ruined should his mother Wander about the world a supplicant Seeking for redress against her son who only demanded his rights, and was ready to concede to her every point not absolutely essential. Much as he disliked to yield, he gave up her the town and fort of Sunour, and she, knowing this victory was all she could expect, returned there, and, before the end of October, was put in possession of her estate of Rs. 50,000, and consented to make friends with her son.*.

The close of the political career of Rani Aus Kour AD 1823:


Here ended the political life of Rani Aus Kour. She was a woman of great ability, and her wise administration of the Pattiala State, during part of her husband's reign and during the minority of her son, was the admiration of the neighbouring States and was warmly praised by the British Government. Her ambition may easily be forgiven, and it was no more than natural that she should be unwilling to part with the power she had held so long and used so wisely.

The loyalty of Pattila in 1845

When hostilities with the Lahore Government became certain, at the close of 1845, Maharaja Karam Singh declared his loyalty and devotion to the British Government and his readiness to furnish all necessary supplies for the army and a contingent for active service.

Death of Raja Karam Singh AD 1845

But he was at this time dangerously ill, and, anxiety completing what disease had begun, he died on the 23rd of December, the day


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after the battle of Firushahr, and was succeeded by his son Narindar Singh, then 23 years of age.

पटियाला महाराजा करमसिंह

पटियाला महाराजा करमसिंह (Maharaja Karam Singh)

महाराजा करमसिंह

सन् 1813, 30 जून को 15 वर्ष की अवस्था में महाराज करमसिंह बड़ी धूमधाम से गद्दी पर बैठे। सरदार लोगों ने भेंट वगैरह की रस्म अदा की। ऐसा मालूम होता था कि पहले अधिकारियों का और रानी आसकौर का अख्तियार न रहेगा जिससे रियासत में गड़बड़ मच जाएगी। अंग्रेज सरकार ने भी अपना सम्बन्ध त्याग दिया था, परन्तु किसी प्रकार राज्य में बखेड़ा न हुआ और राज-कार्य पूर्ववत्


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज, पृष्ठान्त-419


होता रहा। गोरखों से अंग्रेजों की लड़ाई होने पर राज्य से भी सहायता दी गई। कुछ समय तक रियासत का काम महारानी आसकौर और मिश्र नोदाराय करते रहे और इस बीच में चड़तसिंह जागीरदार के आन्दोलनकारी होने से परगना खामानून का भाग भी अंग्रेजी सरकार ने जब्त करके रियासत में मिला दिया। यह घटना सन् 1915 ई० 16 मई की है। क्योंकि महाराज करमसिंह बालिग हो गए थे, इसलिए वे रानी आसकौर और मिश्र नोदाराय से अधिकार छीनने की कौशिश करने लगे। मिश्र नोदाराय के साथ ऐसा बर्ताव किया गया कि जिससे उन्हें ऐसा मालूम हो गया कि अब रियासत में रहना असम्भव है। मिश्र नोदाराय ज्वालामुखी का दर्शन करके लौट रहे थे कि रास्ते में ही वह मार डाले गए। मिश्र नोदाराय बड़े राज्य-भक्त थे और उनके रहते राज्य की बड़ी उन्नति हुई थी।


अब करमसिंह महारानी आसकौर का भी रियासत से हस्तक्षेप हटाना चाहते थे। अतः उन्होंने कप्तान जार्ज ब्रज असिस्टेण्ट एजेंट को पटियाला बुलाकर यह ऐलान करा दिया कि रियासत का कुल अधिकार महाराज को है, इसलिए प्रजा को महाराज की आज्ञा शिरोधार्य करनी चाहिए और इसके विरुद्ध कोई कार्यवाही होगी तो महाराज उसको कड़ा दण्ड देंगे। महारानी आसकौर को भी आज्ञा हुई कि वह अपनी जागीर कस्बा सनोर में रहें। पर करमसिंह तो कुछ मुसाहिबों द्वारा भरा हुआ था, तब तो अपनी माता आसकौर से बड़ी सख्ती से पेश आ ही रहा था। चूंकि रानी साहिबा कप्तान जार्ज व्रज की राय से रत्नागार को, जिसकी कि कीमत पचास लाख बताई जाती है, सुरक्षित रखने के लिए अपने साथ जागीर में ले गई थीं। इसी से महाराज करमसिंह की ओर से फिर झगड़ा उठाया गया और रानी आसकौर की जागीर घटाने तथा रत्नागार लौटने का सवाल उठाया गया। इसकी ब्रिटिश गवर्नमेंट तक सिफारिश की गई और सरकार की ओर से कप्तान मरे इसके फैसले के लिए नियुक्त किए गए। कप्तान मरे ने पहुंचकर रानी साहिबा को समझाया कि आप पटियाला चलकर रहें और वहां 50000) रुपया सालाना खरच करने के लिए ले लिया करें। परन्तु महारानी ने इसका जवाब दिया कि अगर इस तौर जागीर छोड़ने का सवाल उठाया गया तो मैं गंगाजी के किनारे जा बैठूंगी। इसके लिए मैं अपने पुत्र करमसिंह से कुछ नहीं चाहूंगी। महारानी को बहुत समझाया गया, पर उन्होंने एक न मानी। लाचार रानी आसकौर को सनोर की 5000) की जागीर पर ही राजी कर लिया गया और वह वहीं रहने लगी। पर महाराज करमसिंह के जब महाराज नरेन्द्रसिंह पैदा हुए तब से वह पटियाला आकर ही रहने लगीं।

महाराज करमसिंह के भाई अजीतसिंह को भी कुछ लोगों ने भड़काया और उनको रियासत का आधा भाग दिलाने की लालसा दिलाकर दावा करा दिया। बहुत दिनों तक यह रगड़ा चलता रहा, पर यह अनहोनी बात रियासत के कानून


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज, पृष्ठान्त-420


के मुताबिक कैसे हो सकती थी कि अजीतसिंह को रियासत का आधा भाग मिल जाता। क्योंकि इस तरह राज्य के टुकड़े-टुकड़े कुछ ही समय में हो जाते हैं। अतः अजीतसिंह जब कुछ समझने भी लग गया और उभाड़ने वालों का असर भी जाता रहा तथा कई दिनों तक देहली पड़े रहने पर भी कुछ न हुआ तो अपने भाई से सन्धि कर ली और वे पटियाला आकर ही रहने लगे। अजीतसिंह के लिए 15000) की जागीर और 3 हजार रुपये हाथ खर्च प्रतिवर्ष का प्रबन्ध किया गया और महाराज करमसिंह ने ही बड़ी धूमधाम से विवाह किया।

इन झगड़ों से निपटकर महाराज करमसिंह ने राज्य-प्रबन्ध की ओर ध्यान दिया, क्योंकि पुराने प्रबन्ध में बहुत खराबियां आ गईं थीं। हालांकि जिस समय यह प्रबन्ध कायम हुआ था, आवश्यक समझकर ही किया गया था। क्योंकि उस समय राज्य के चारों ओर उपद्रव हुआ करते थे, इसलिए तहसीलदारों तक को फौजदारी और दीवानी दोनों मामलों के निपटारे का पूरा अधिकार था। कोई बिरला ही मुकद्दमा दीवान तक पहुंचा था। इसी तरह छोटे-छोटे थानेदारों को भी बहुत से अधिकार थे जिसके कारण प्रजा में खलबली मच गई थी। रियासत के आमद-खरच, लगान के प्रबन्ध का भी ऐसा ही हाल था। नौकरों को वेतन के बदले जागीर देने का अधिक रिवाज था। सेना की कवाइद, हथियार-तोप आदि भी पुराने जमाने के ही आधार पर थीं। मुकद्दमों के फैसले प्रान्तीय हाकिम जुबानी ही करते थे जिससे घूंस का बाजार भी अधिक गर्म था। प्रान्तीय हाकिम सिपाही बहुत कम रखते थे, परन्तु पूरे सैनिकों का वेतन हड़प जाते थे। जब कोई बड़ा अफसर उनके यहां पहुंच जाता तो सिपाहियों के काम पर जाने का बहाना बनकर टरका देते थे। इन तमाम कमियों को महाराज करमसिंह ने समझ लिया और उन्होंने इसका प्रबन्ध करने में पूरी चेष्टा की।

नये प्रबन्ध के मुताबिक चार पदाधिकारी अलग-अलग कामों की देखभाल एवं फैसले के लिए नियुक्त हुए। इन्हें हुक्म था कि तमाम बड़े-बड़े मुकदमे महाराज के परामर्श से तय किए जाएं। नौकरों को जागीर के बजाए वेतन दिया जाए। खास-खास सरदारों की जागीर कायम रहीं। फौजों और सिपाहियों का भी नये ढ़ंग से इन्तजाम हुआ। एक-एक हजार सैनिकों की कई टुकड़ियां बनाई गईं और तत्कालीन प्रचलित फ्रान्सीसी कवाइद आरम्भ की गई। रुपया बाकायदा सीधा खजाने में आने और खर्च की रसीदें कटकर जाने का इन्तजाम किया। इस तरह महाराज करमसिंह ने कई नवीन इन्तजाम करके शान्ति स्थापित की।

प्रजा से कर और लगाम लेने में भी नया इन्तजाम हुआ। अच्छी-बुरी जमीन के मुआफिक लगान कायम किया गया जिससे तमाम जमीन में खेती की जाने लगी। महाराज करमसिंह ने पुराने किलों, मकानों की भी मरम्मत करवाई। पटियाला का किला और अन्य कई नई-नई इमारतें बनवाईं गईं। भरतपुर के दूसरे


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज, पृष्ठान्त-421


युद्ध के समय, रियासत से 20 लाख रुपया अंग्रेज सरकार को दिया गया, जिसका ब्याज देने के अतिरिक्त सरकार ने मित्रता का भाव भी प्रकट किया।

रियासत कैथल, नाभा, झींद आदि के पास आपसी झगड़े चलते रहते थे, जिसके कारण कभी-कभी युद्ध के ठनने की भी नौबत आ जाती थी। महाराज करमसिंह के राज्य-काल में इन चारों स्थानों के शासकों ने विक्रम सम्वत् 1890 ज्येष्ठ सुदी 13 को सन्धि कर ली। यह सन्धि ढूढान नामक स्थान पर हुई। इस सन्धि के मुआफिक सन् 1808 से जिस रियासत की जहां तक सरहद थी, वहीं तक कायम हुई और किसी रियासत का कर्जदार, बाकीदार अगर दूसरी रियासत में पहुंचे तो उसे फौरन उस रियासत को सौंप दिया जाए, या उससे नियमानुसार बाकी और कर्ज की रकम दिला दी जाए और किसी रियासत का आदमी दूसरी रियासत से चोरी का माल ले आये तो उचित सजा दी जाये और सीमाओं पर फिजूल झगड़े न खड़े जाएं। अगर किसी कर्मचारी द्वारा ऐसा हो तो उसे पूरी सजा दी जाय। उसी तरह की और भी कई एक आवश्यक शर्तो पर नाभा, कैथल, जींद और पटियाला के शासकों ने हस्ताक्षर कर दिये परन्तु इन शर्तों के मानने में कुछ ढिलाई से काम लिया गया। फलस्वरूप कैथल और पटियाले के बीच लड़ाई भी हो गई और एजेण्ट गवर्नर-जनरल अम्बाला ने बीच-बचाव करके शान्त करवाया।

महाराज करमसिंह अच्छी बातों से घृणा नहीं करते थे। उस समय फारसी पढ़ाना बुरा समझा जाता था, परन्तु लिखा-पढ़ी का सभी काम उस समय फारसी में होता था, इसलिए महाराज ने अपने पुत्र नरेन्द्रसिंह को फारसी पढ़ाने का प्रबन्ध किया। चूंकि इनकी माता के रहते पटियाले में ही फारसी पढ़ाना मुश्किल था, क्योंकि पुराने विचारों के कारण वह इसका विरोध करतीं। इसलिए नरेन्द्रसिंह के पढ़ने का इन्तजाम बहादुरगढ़ में किया और जब रानी आसकुंवरि का फागुन बदी एकम विक्रम सम्वत् 1891 में स्वर्गवास हो गया तब, प्रकाश्यरूप से पटियाले में पढ़वाने लगे।

अंग्रेजी सरकार ने जब रियासत जींद के शासक के मर जाने पर देखा कि उनकी कई रानियां और कई रिश्तेदार-कुटुम्बी राज्य के पाने का दावा करते हैं और असली हकदार का पता ही नहीं चलता, इसलिए उसने सन् 1837 ई० दस जनवरी को यह कानून इश्तिहार किया कि “नाभा, पटियाला, जींद और कैथल के वास्ते धर्म-शास्त्र की रू से जो कुटुम्बी समीप हो वह कुल जायदाद का मालिक हुआ करेगा और स्त्रियों को कोई हक न दिया जाएगा।”

महाराज ब्रिटिश सरकार के प्रति अपनी भक्ति समय-समय पर प्रकट करते रहे। रियासत से अफगानिस्तान के युद्ध में 2500000) करजे के बतौर दिए गए। पंजाब की अंग्रेज सरकार से हुई प्रथम सिखों की लड़ाई में महाराज ने दो हजार


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज, पृष्ठान्त-422


सवार, दो हजार पैदल और बहुत से लड़ाई के सामान रसद के साथ 6 बड़ी तोपें भी दी थीं। महाराज स्वयं युद्ध में सम्मिलित होते परन्तु बीमार होने के कारण न जा सके। पंजाब-युद्ध के समाप्त होने पर सरकार ने इन्हें शिमले के आस-पास के सोलह परगने दिये।

तेईसवीं दिसम्बर सन् 1845 को महाराज रोग-ग्रसित हो परलोक सिधारे।

References


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