Bhar

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Yaksha reliefs. Bharhut, 2nd century BCE.

Bhar (भड़) Bhar (भर) [1] Bhargote (भरगोते)[2] [3] Bharashiva (भारशिव)/Bharshiv (भारशिव)[4] [5] Bhar (भार)[6] [7] is gotra of Jats. Bhar gotra of Jats are found in Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. [8]. Bhar clan is found in Afghanistan.[9] Bhar (भार), a Jat clan is found in Multan,Pakistan.[10]

Origin

Bhar, Bhargote and Bharashiva Gotras originated from Bhar Nagavanshi Kings of the period of Mahabharata.


Branches of Nagavansha are - 1. Vasati/Bains 2. Taxak 3. Aulak 4. Kalkal 5. Kala/ Kalidhaman/ Kalkhande 6. Meetha 7. Bharshiv 8. Bharaich[11]


The ancient place of historical importance of Buddhist period, Bharhut gets the name after its rulers of clan Bhar. [12] They are also called Bharashiva. This gotra started from their ancestral people of Nagavansh who started the new system of worship of Shiva with sivalinga carrying on shoulders. This fact is derived from an Inscription of Bharashiva people found at Balaghat mentioned in Epigraphia Indica Vol.I. [13][14] [15]

'Bhar (भर)' in Rajasthani language is name of a long and high radiating sand dune found in desert which are formed due to piling up of shifting sands.[16] Probably these used to be the habitations of Bhar people in ancient times.

भारशिव नामकरण

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[17] लिखते हैं कि कुषाणशक्ति के अस्त और गुप्तों के उदय से पूर्व नागशक्ति शैव धर्मानुयायी रूप से पुनः उदित हुई। इस समय ये लोग शिवजी का अलंकार नाग (सांप) अपने गले में लिपटाकर रखने लगे थे। इन नवोदित नागवंशियों ने शिवलिंग को स्कन्ध पर धारण कर शिवपूजा की एक नई परम्परा स्थापित की थी। अतः इनका नाम भारशिव प्रसिद्ध हो गया। इस नाम को स्पष्ट करनेवाला एक लेख बालाघाट में मिला है। इसका उल्लेख ‘एपिग्राफिका इण्डिया’ भाग 1 पृष्ठ 269 तथा ‘फ्लीट गुप्त इन्स्क्रिप्शन्स’ 245 में इस प्रकार किया है -

“शिवलिंग का भार ढोने से जिन्होंने शिव को भलीभांति सन्तुष्ट कर लिया था, जिन्होंने अपने पराक्रम से प्राप्त की हुई भागीरथी गंगा के पवित्र जल से राज्याभिषेक कराया और जिन्होंने दश अश्वमेध यज्ञ करके अवभृथ स्नान किया था, इस प्रकार उन ‘भारशिव’ महाराजाओं का राजवंश प्रारम्भ हुआ।”

History

Bharshiva Dynasty' (150 To 234 AD): Ram Sarup Joon[18] writes that .... According to a story in Matsya Puran, quoted in chapter X of a book India of the Dark Ages the Nagas ruled for 100 years as renegades (this because they were Buddhist). Later, it is said they purified them


History of the Jats, End of Page-54


selves with water of the Ganga, performed ten Asvamedha Yagyas and were thus accepted, into the folds of Vaishnavism.

The facts are, however, different. This dynasty belonged to Madrak Jat gotra of Yadav Vansh and was devotees of Shiva. They had a number of ruling dynasties such as Takshak Nag, Bachhik Nag, Kilkil Nag, all of which are Jat gotras. Mathura, Padmavati and Kantipur were capitals of Naga dynasty. Nags of Padmavati were called Tank, which is also a Jat gotra, and are found in 24 villages near Sonepat.

In chapter 29 of "India of the Dark Ages" the ancestor of Tanks is mentioned as Raja Gajvkatra. In chapter 42 of the same book it is mentioned that Malla Jat Republic extended from Eastern Punjab to the Ganga and Yodhya republic extended into Rajasthan. Nagpur belonged to the Nags. Nagar Brahmins also originated from there.

The Pauranic prejudice in the story is understandable. The Jats who followed Buddhism were considered renegades and those who adopted Vaishnavism became staunch Hindus.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 mentions in shloka 9 about Bhar clan as under: The tribute were presented unto Yudhishthira by the kings of the earth. And, O king, having brought with them as tribute loads upon loads of sandal and aloe as also black aloe, and heaps upon heaps of valuable skins and gold and perfumes, and ten thousand serving-girls of their own race, and many beautiful animals and birds of remote countries, and much gold of great splendour procured from mountains, the Kiratas waited at the gate, being refused permission to enter.

चन्दनागुरुकाष्ठानां भारान कालीयकस्य च
चर्म रत्नसुवर्णानां गन्धानां चैव राशयः (Mahabharata II.48.9)


View of Bharhut stupa in ruins and in the back ground is Bharhut hill
Yaksha relief at Bharhut being worshipped as Hanuman

Bharhut (भरहुत) or Barhut (बरहुत), is a location in Madhya Pradesh, Central India, known for its famous Buddhist stupa. The Bharhut stupa may have been established by the Maurya king Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, but many works of art were apparently added during the Sunga period, with many friezes from the 2nd century BCE. An epigraph on the gateway mention its erection "during the supremacy of the Sungas"[19] by Vatsiputra Dhanabhuti[20].

The place gets name Bharhut after its rulers of clan Bhar or Rajbhar. It became Bharhut over a period of time.[21] Bharhut was located on route from Kosambi, the capital of Vatsa Janapada to Vidisha, the capital of Dasharna janapada.[22] On this very route is situated another important ancient Buddhist stupa of Deur Kothar discovered very recently, which is 140 kms away from Bharhut in northeast direction in Rewa district. The origin of the word 'Bharhut' would have been from 'Bhar-Bhukti', which means 'the country of Bhars'. Bharbhukti later changed to Bharhut. [23] Bhar is the gotra of Jats found in Districtt Hisar in Haryana. They are also in Punjab who were originally from Rajasthan. Similarly Bharshiv, derived from Bhar, is also a Jat gotra originated from Nagavansh[24]

T.W. Rhys Davids writes that Bharhat and Bharhut both names are correct but Bharhat is more correct. He has mentioned both the names in his book. [25] He writes that plate 13 of Bharhut stupa depicts Raja Prasenjita 600 BCE on a chariot with 24 spiked Dhamma Chakra of Buddha. [26] This shows that Raja Prasenjit was not only the follower of Buddhism but had also adopted Buddha's Dhamma Chakra as state symbol. [27]

James Tod[28] places Bhar in the list of Aboriginal Races, many names in which are not capable of identification, and their correct form is uncertain and those of the mercantile tribes are largely groups confined to Rajasthan.

Inscriptions about Bharashiva people

We get mention of rule of Bharashiva people in following Inscriptions:

Villages founded by Bhar clan

The Nava Naga or Bharsiva

This content is from Chapter-12 of Dr Naval Viyogi's Book - "Nagas: the Ancient Rulers of India, p.332-336

The Nagas had, under the evident pressure of the Kushanas left Padmavati. We have the definite statement in the Puranas that Vinvasphani ruled at Padmavati and ruled upto Magadha. 14 Therefore, we may take it that about 80-100 AD the Naga dynasty takes shelter, away from the trunk road between Mathura and Vidisa, into the inner jungles of the central provinces. 15

The Bharsivas, re-issuing from the jungles of Hoshangabad and Jabalpur seem to have reached the Ganges through Baghelkhand. They established their capital at Kanti or Kantipuri. 16 Now it is a large mud fort about a mile long on the Ganges. The fort was destroyed in the muslim period and the king's seat was removed into the neigbouring hills at Vijaypur and an Manda, where the family, now in two branches: resides. The local tradition at Kanti is that long before 'the Gahadwala' the fort belonged originally to the Bhar Kings. The 'Bhar' kings here are evidently a corruption of the 'Bharsiva' kings 17 or Bharshiva.

The origin of the word 'Bharhut' or 'Bharhut' would have been from 'Bhar-Bhukti', which means 'country of Bhars'. 18 Till today-the people of Bhar tribes reside in this region, who seem to be the remnants Of 'Bhar Naga tribe' to which ruling family belonged. Jayaswal does not agree to this view, but I am Its strong supporter: in view of new archaeological findings and their scientific interpretation, as given in previous chapters. However some evidences are produced below: It is to be noted, that in ancient period, the indigenous Naga people in particular used to organize themselves into guilds. (See chapter VI PP 124-25) As the system in origin l9, was a tribal evolution, hence guild's people and their elders or chiefs (Khalifah, or Sresthis) infact were from a single blood. These Khalifah or Sresthis in later, Mauryan period were known as kings. These kings, some times later, became more powerful and hereditary too, who being non-Aryan Kshatriyas, were known as Raj-putra or Rajputs of medieval period. 20 Sometimes this period of evolution,from tribe to royal Rajput family, is very long and uncountable. One person,


Foot notes -

13. Jayaswal KP.-15.

14.V.P. (Wilson) II P-659.

15.Jayaswal KP. P-16.

16.Jayaswal KP. P-29.

17.Ibid.

18.Ibid.

19.(a) Jayaswal KP. "Hindu Polity" P-46 ..

(b) Bhandarkar D.R. "Lecture on the Ancient History of India" PP-169-70.

20.Katyayan comments on Panini IV -1-168.

JANAPAD SHABDĀT KSHATRIYĀTDN.।

KSHATRIYĀ DEKARĀJĀ TSANGHA PRA TISHE DHARTHAM." ।।

Nagas, the Ancient Rulers of India, their Origin and History 363


[p.333]: belonging to the same blood or tribe became kig. others who were pushed to Jungles or hills still remained tribe. Some of the Bhars and the Rajbhars of this region (U.P.) still known as Rajputs 21 others are still Sudras by caste. Hence Jayaswal cannot say that Bhar tribes of this region cannot be blood relatives of royal families of Manda and and Vijayapur.

Another argument of Jayaswal goes in my favour. He says. "The Bhar Deul Siva's temple, as indicated by learned scholar is covered all over with the figures of naga (serpent) kings. As recorded by Kittoe in whose time it was called the temple of KarKota Nag" . ThiS evidently supports this view that the Bhar here stands for Bharsivas. 22 This is to be noted that Karkota Nag was worshipped by the Takas 23, who were progenitor of Bharsivas. These Takas or Takka or Takshak Nagas according to the Mahabharata account were non-Aryan Native Naga tribe and sworn enemies ot Aryan Pandavas {See chapter VI P-144 and X P-261 for detail .

Re-establishment of Nagas

The Bharsivas, in the later days of imperial Kushanas or about 150 A.D. reached Kantipur on the Ganges, they performed there Ashwamedha and coronations at or near Banaras where is located the place known as Nagwa, the present site of the Hindu University seems to be associated with their name. From Kantipur, they moved westwards under Virasena, who strikes coins extensively and whose coins are found from Ahichchhatra, regains Padmavati and Mathura.

It is stated in the Vayu and Brahmand Puranas that rule of Navanaga was not only confined to Samayukta-Prant alone but also to the east and the western Bihar also because their capital was in Mathura as well as in Champavati-Bhagalpur. 25

The Puranas, give to the Padmavati and the Mathura Nagas or in view of the Vishnu, to the Padmavati, Kantipuri-Mathura Nagas,-seven successions. This is fully borne out by the names gathered from the coins and inscriptions as tabulated below after Jayaswal :

Bharsivas Rise at Kantipuri (140 A.D.)

  • Nava Naga (year 27 on his coin) ..... Founders of the Nava Naga Dynasty (Bharsiva) 040-170 AD)
Padmavati Kantipuri Mathura
(Taka Dynasty) (Bharsiva Dynasty) (Yadu dynasty)
210-230 AD 210-245 Haya Naga name unknown
Bhima Naga (years 30 on coin)

Foot notes -

21. Sherring Rev M.A.; Hindu Tribes and Castes. PP 357-73.

22. Jayaswal KP., "History of India' P-30.

23. Jayaswal KP. P-39.

24. Jayaswal KP. P-31.

25. Jayaswal KP. P-32.


[p.334]:

Padmavati Kantipuri Mathura
230-250 AD 245-250 name unknown
Skanda Naga Traya Naga
250-270 AD 250-260 name unknown
Brahaspati Naga Barhina Naga (years 7 on coin)
[Vakataka Suzerainty begins 284 AD]
270-290 AD 260-290 ....
Vyaghra Naga Charaja Naga (year 30 on coin)
290-310 AD 290-315 AD 315-340 AD
Deva Naga Bhava Naga Kiritsena
310-344 Ad (315-344 AD) 340-344 AD
ganapati Naga Rudrasena at Purika Naga Sena

According to Vakataka 26 inscriptions (Fleet G I. PP-237)

Gautamiputra, son of the Emperor Pravarsena another of Rudrasena I, did not succeed, but Rudrasena I, both as the grand-son of Pravarsena and as the grandson of the Bharsiva-Maharaja Bhavnag, succeeded. The Nava Naga ruled from three capitals Padmavati, Mathura and Kantipuri.

But Rudrasena I ruled from Purika.


Sometimes before Samudragupta, (335-375 AD) the Naga kings were ruling over Eran. As,27 Padmavati, Kantipuri and Mathura were three centres of their rule, the Eran- Vidisa was fourth. Naga coins have been recovered in a very large number from this region. All these four kingdoms were inter-related with each other and perhaps, they all unitedly encountered the attacks of Kushanas and Scythians and pushed them back from their motherland. These Naga kings were great warriors. According to Cunningham, from the lonely finding of a coin, from the remains of Eran, we get information from its writing, which is in Brahmi, that ancients name of the City was 'Erikiran' which was most probable named after some famous Naga King of similar name. 28 The coins of Ravli- Naga, Basu-Naga and Ganapati-Nagas have been recovered in a very large number from Vidisa and Eran.

Bharsivas of Padmavati; A confederacy of Naga Rulers of North

We have already thrown light in Chapter V and VI (PP - 132-33) that the basis of Naga polity was tribal republican confederacy or Gan Sangha system very similar to that of Sumerian. 29


Foot notes -

26. Jayaswal KP. P-17.

27. Jayaswal KP .. P-15.

28. Bajpai Atima, "Madhyapradesh Ke Nagbanshi Sikke" PP 115-17.

29. Hawkes Jacquetta, 'The First Great Civilization" PP 160-161.


[p.335]: We know that the West Asia was original home of Nagas from where this tradition was transferred to Indus Valley along with their migration in Neolithic-Chalcolithic Age and was prevalent among the native people in Vedic and later Vedic period.

During the life time of Buddha and later period there were many such confederacies of Naga people in North as well as in South India such as Malava-Kshudraka, Andhaka-Vrishani, Vaishali-Videha, Videha-Lichchhavi, Lichchavi-Malla, Vujji, Trigarttashashtha 30 (in north and west), Naga (chera) Mandal in south.

Jayaswael31 KP gives an account of political organization of Bharsivas as follows -

"The system of the Naga government was a federation consisting of (1) tree mam monarchial Naga families, one of which, the Bharasiva, was the imperial leader (chief), with a number of gubernatorial families under him, (2) a number of republics. Two branches at Padmavati and Mathura were set up by the Bharsivas, with distinguishing dynastic titles of their own. The Padmavati dynasty had the official designation the Taka Bansha, which is given in the Bhavasataka a book dedicated to Ganapati-Naga. The Mathura family had the official title-the Yadu-Bansha which is mentioned in the drama Kaumudimahotsava writtten about the same time as the Bhavasataka. The two titles incidentally furnish ethnological data of the Nava Nagas .... Padmavati family was thus a sovereign family, and their subordination to the Bharsiva was evidently of an Imperial type. The Mathura family and the family to which Nagadatta (father of Maharaja Mesvara Naga of the Lahore seal) beelonged and who ruled somewhere in Ambala district probably at the old capital Shrughna, seem to have been under the direct control of the Bharsiva. There was a ruling family near Indrapura (Indorkhera) in the district of Bulandshahar. As regards Bharsivas they had their two centres, Kantipuri and Padmavati. The Mathura family never minted any coin but the Padmavati family did so from the beginning to the end. They were thus a sovereign family." It is obvious Bharsivas were racially -Yadavas and of Taka Bansha . Political confederacy system was their peculiarity.

An Invincible and Prosperous Confederacy

We have earlier (Chapter-VI PP 133-34) told that the Nagas were great warriors, that is why they pushed back Kushanas and Scythians from Northern India. The sworn enemy of these non-Aryan republicans, Kautilya 32 has expressed his view that these republicans were invincible. K. P. Jayaswal also puts forth his remarks on this issue 33 - "The other chief feature of their (republican) constitution was that they emphasized on their citizens the duty to acquire military skill. In other words they


Foot notes -

30. Jayaswal KP. "Hindu Polity" PP 38, 50-52, 54-55.

31. Jayaswal KP., "History of India" PP 33-34.

32. Jayaswal KP., "Hindu Polity" P-119.

33. Jayaswal KP., "Hindu Polity" PP-54-55.


[p.336]: had a citizen army. Each state was a nation-in-arms. Conversely, the other class, where the 'king' consul constitution obtained, probably had, like monarchs a regular or hired army. The nation-in-arms class, however, did not become purely military, for their constitution also required their citizens to devote attention to industry and agriculture (VĀRTIĀSASTROPAJIVINAH, A.S. XI-I-160 P-376). Hence they were most wealthy as well as powerful" It shows while in peace, citizens were kept engaged in craft activities and trade which was their main occupation.

Padmavati; the Capital of Bharsivas

There is a small village named Karavati, situated on the Dabra (Distt-Gwalior) Shivpuri road. At a distance of 10 K.M. to the west of this village at the junction of rivers Sindh and Parvati (Sindhu and Para) the ancient grand City of Padmavati 34 was situated. Now-a-days this place is known as Pavaya or Padam Pavāya. It is very interesting to note that during the rainy season, a very large number of coins belonging to the Naga rulers appear at the surface.35 These coins have made the historians enable to identify this ancient Naga city. The first mention of this city as Padmavati, is made in the Vishnupurana 36, where it is stated that the Nava-Nagas made, Padmavati, Kantipuri and Mathura their capitals and ruled for seven generations. 37


Bhavabhuti 38 has stated that 'Padmavati is situated near the junction of the rivers Sindhu, Para' Lavana and Madhumati. Later following the information given by M.B Lele 39 in his Marathi book titled 'Malatimadhava sar ani kiwar', the Department of Archaeology discovered this ancient site. According to a critical study of coins, Virsena was the founder of the kingdoms of Padmavati and Mathura.

Nava Nagas founded a large mint in Padmavati, from where coins were issued in a very large number, on the basis of which it is surmised that the Navanagas, in addition to their high virtues of being most expert and talented rulers, were also most prosperous. One of the well known peculiarities of Naga coins is that they are all dated. They have figures of palm trees and a human figure seated on a throne. 40The palm tree is a Naga symbol. Since Sanskrit word for mint is Tak-shala [[[Taka]] (Bharsiva) + Shala] this shows these Taka-Bharsiva had some hand in establishing new technique or workshop of casting of coins.

The demolished remains of strong fort on the junction of the rivers still give a reminiscent view. From the defence point of view, because it, was surrounded by in-exhaustable flow of river water from two sides and, on the other two sides by deep trenches, it was most safe and invincible. The trenches were 20 feet deep and were occupied by either furious lions or river water. The traces of these trenches are still visible.41


Foot notes -

34. ASR (1915-16) P-103.

35. ASR (1915-16) P-105.

36. V.P. (Wilson) II P-659.

37. Jayaswal KP. - "History of India" PP 20-21 and 35.

38. ASR (1915-16) P-102.

39. ASR (1915-16) P-103.

40. (a) Jayswal KP. PP 20-27. (b) Smith V.A., "Coins of Indian Museum" P-191.

41. ASR 1915-16 P-lOO Footnote.


[p.337]: Bhavabhuti 42, the famous Sanskrit poet of seventh century A. D. composed his valuable scripture, at Padmavati. Bhavabhuti got constructed a large Yajnashala (sacrificial lace) at the bank of river Paravati, its remains are still in good condition.

Virasena

In about 175 or 180 A.D., we find a Naga king named Virasena re-establishing Naga sovereignty at Mathura. According to Dr. Jayaswal,43 the rise of Virasena was a turning point not only in the Naga history but also in the history of Aryavarta. His coins have been found in Northern India, almost all over Uttar Pradesh and in the Punjab. They are most common around Mathura. He occupied Mathura and ruled all over the Aryavarta Doab. An inscription of Virasena was discovered by Sir Richhard Burn. There are a number of broken sculptures and carved pieces and the inscription is on the head and mouth of a sculptured animal.44 The inscription is dated in the 13th year of the reign of Svamin Virasena. Virasena 45 assumed full sovereignty from the first year of his reign. It appears that he ousted the Kushanas from Mathura and the whole of the Doab between the Ganga River and the Yamuna. Virasena had a fairly long reign and according to Dr. Jayaswal he ruled from about 170 A.D. to 210 A.D. The same writer is of the opinion that 'The intimate connection between his coins and coins of the undoubted Bharasiva king, the Naga emblem on his coins as if to complete his name, the period of his rise and his establishing himself at Mathura mark Virasena out as one of the earliest Bharasiva Nagas of the inscriptions and the Nava Nagas of the Puranas.'

Bhava Naga

According to KP Jayaswal,46 there were four kings after Virasena. Haya Naga, Traya Naga, Brahina Naga, Charaja Naga. Bhava Naga ruled from about 290 to 315 A.D. Dr. Jayaswal made it clear that he had fixed the date of Bhava Naga on a consideration of the Vakataka and Gupta chronology. Bhava Naga was a contemporary of Pravarsena I who was an elder contemporary of Samudra Gupta. Bhava Naga is described as belonging to, the family of the Bharasivas 47 whose royal line owed its origin to the great satisfaction of Siva that was caused by their carrying a Sivalinga placed as a load upon their shoulder" and "who were besprinkled on the forehead with the pure water of the Bhagirathi that had been obtained by their valour. "


Foot notes -

42. ASR 1915-16 P-lOl.

43. Jayaswal KP. P-19.

44. Jayaswal KP.-21.

45. Jayaswal KP.-23.

46. Jayaswal KP. P-27.

47. Jayaswal KP. P-17.

Distribution in Pakistan

Bhar (भार) are found in Multan area in Pakistan. [29],[30]

Distribution in Haryana

In India they are found in Haryana and in Rajasthan.

Villages in Hisar district

Village Singhwa Khas,

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Tonk district

Raghunathpura Parli (रघुनाथपुरा पारली) village in Malpura tahsil in Tonk district in Rajasthan has population of Bhar Jats.

Villages in Barmer district

Bharon Ka Tala,

Villages in Nagaur district

Mandal Jodha,

Notable Persons

References

  1. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 10
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. भ-44
  3. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.53, s.n. 1842
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. भ-55
  5. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.54, s.n. 1894
  6. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. भ-41
  7. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.54, s.n. 1888
  8. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter VIII,s.n. 64,p-585
  9. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.126
  10. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/B , p.84
  11. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III,p.242
  12. Prof. Suddyumn Acharya, Bharhut Stoopa Gatha (Hindi), Ed. Ramnarayan Singh Rana, Satna, 2007, p. 41
  13. Epigraphia Indica Vol.I, p.269
  14. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III ,p.242
  15. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 272
  16. http://www.jatland.com/home/Glossary_of_Rajasthani_Language/B
  17. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठा.241-242
  18. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 54-55
  19. John Marshall, "An Historical and Artistic Description of Sanchi", from A Guide to Sanchi, citing p. 11. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing (1918). Pp. 7-29 on line, Project South Asia.
  20. [1]
  21. Prof. Suddyumn Acharya, Bharhut Stoopa Gatha (Hindi), Ed. Ramnarayan Singh Rana, Satna, 2007, p. 41
  22. M.L. Chadhar, Bharhut Stoopa Gatha (Hindi), Ed. Ramnarayan Singh Rana, Satna, 2007, p. 65
  23. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, 2002, p.332
  24. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 272
  25. T.W. Rhys Davids, The Buddhist India, 1971, p. 209
  26. T.W. Rhys Davids, The Buddhist India, 1971, p. 91
  27. Dr C.D. Naik, Bharhut Stoopa Gatha (Hindi), Ed. Ramnarayan Singh Rana, Satna, 2007, p. 25
  28. James Todd Annals/Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,p.144
  29. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Bhim Singh Dahiya, p. 333
  30. Rose:'Tribes and Castes', Vol. II, p. 84

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