|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
- Alina (अलिना) (गुजरात) (AS, p.43)
Mention by Panini
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...अलिना (AS, p.43) गुजरात का ऐतिहासिक स्थान है। बलभिराज ध्रुवभट्ट शीलादित्य सप्तम का एक ताम्रदान-पट्ट इस स्थान से प्राप्त हुआ था, जिसमें उनके द्वारा श्वेतक-अहार- वर्तमान कैरा में स्थित महिलाभिग्राम का ब्राह्मणों को पंचयज्ञ के प्रयोजनार्थ दान में दिए जाने का उल्लेख है।
Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from c. 475 to 767. The founder of the dynasty, Senapati (general) Bhatarka, was a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat approximately in the last quarter of 5th century.
The Maitrakas ruled from their capital at Vallabhi. They came under the rule of Harsha in the mid-7th century, but retained local autonomy, and regained their independence after Harsha's death. Maitraka rule ended with the sacking of Vallabhi by the barbarians in 524, according to James Tod and in second or third quarter of the 8th century by various other scholars.
The Maitrakas of Vallabhi
Bhatarka (c. 470-c. 492)
Dharasena I (c. 493-c. 499)
Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500-c. 520)
Dhruvasena I (c. 520-c. 550)
Dharapatta (c. 550-c. 556)
Guhasena (c. 556-c. 570)
Dharasena II (c. 570-c. 595)
Siladitya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595-c. 615)
Kharagraha I (c. 615-c. 626)
Dharasena III (c. 626-c. 640)
Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640-c. 644)
Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka,
Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644-c. 651)
Dhruvasena III (c. 651-c. 656)
Kharagraha II (c. 656-c. 662)
Siladitya II (c. 662- ?)
Siladitya VII (c. 766-c. 776).
Alina Copper-plate Inscription of Shiladitya VII (766-767 CE)
- Ôm! Hail! From the victorious camp located at the famous town of Anandapura:-In unbroken descent from the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Bhatârka,-who was possessed of glory acquired in a hundred battles fought with the large armies, possessed of unequalled strength, of the Maitrakas, who had by force bowed down (their) enemies; (and) who acquired the goddess of royalty through the strength of the array of (his) hereditary servants, who had been brought under subjection by (his) splendour, and had been acquired by gifts and honourable treatment and straightforwardness, and were attached (to hint) by affection,-(there was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Guhasêna,-whose sins were all removed by doing obeisance to the waterlilies that were the feet of (his) parents; whose sword was verily a second arm (to him) from childhood; the test of whose strength was manifested by clapping (his) hands on the temples of the rutting elephants of (his) foes; who had the collection of the rays of the nails of (his) feet interspersed with the lustre of the jewels in the locks of hair on the tops of the heads of (his) enemies who were made to bow down by his prowess; whose title of ‘ king’ was obvious and suitable, because he pleased the hearts of (his) subjects by preserving the proper rites of the path prescribed by all the traditionary laws; who in beauty, lustre, stability, profundity, wisdom, and wealth, surpassed (respectively) (the god) Smara, the moon, (Himâlaya) the king of mountains, the ocean, (Brihaspati) the preceptor of the gods, and (the god) Dhanêsha; who, through being intent upon giving freedom from fear to those who came for protection, was indifferent to all the (other) results of his vigour, as if they were (of as little value as) straw; who delighted the hearts of learned people and (his) friends and favourites, by giving (them) wealth greater (even) than their requests; (and) who was, as it were, the personified happiness of the circumference of the whole earth.
- (Line 7.)-His son, whose sins were all washed away by the torrent of the waters of (the river) Jâhnavî spread out by the diffusion [of the rays*] of the nails of his feet, (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Dharasêna (II.), whose riches were the sustenance of a hundred thousand favourites; who was with eagerness, as if from a desire for (his) beauty, resorted to by (all) the virtuous qualities of an inviting kind; who astonished all archers by the speciality of (his) innate strength and (skill acquired by) practice; who was the preserver of religious grants bestowed by former kings; who averted calamities that would have afflicted (his) subjects; who was the exponent of (the condition of being) the one (joint) habitation of wealth and learning; whose prowess was skilful in enjoying the goddess of the fortunes of the compact ranks of (his) enemies; (and) who possessed a spotless princely glory, acquired by (his) prowess.
- (L. 10.)-His son, who meditated on his feet, (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Shilâditya (I.), who acquired the second name of Dharmâditya by the pursuit of wealth, happiness, and riches, illumined by conformity with religion,-who pervaded all the regions with the excess of (his) wonderful good qualities that gladdened all mankind; who supported the great burden of weighty desires on a cushion that was (his) shoulder, radiant with the lustre of (his) scimetar that was possessed of the brilliance of victory in a hundred battles; who, though (his) intellect was pure through mastering the endmost divisions of the limits of all the sciences, was easily to be gratified with even a small amount of good conversation; who, though (his) heart possessed a profundity that could be fathomed by no people, yet had a most agreeable disposition that was displayed by the excess of (his) good actions; (and) who acquired an eminent reputation by clearing out the blocked-up path (of the good behaviour) of the kings of the Krita age.
- (L. 14.)-His younger brother, who meditated on his feet, (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Kharagraha (I.),-who possessed a wealth [of vigour] that was not worn out, either with fatigue or with pleasurable enjoyment, when, bearing the yoke as if he were a most choice bullock, he was carrying on (his) shoulders, with the sole object of fulfilling his commands, the goddess of sovereignty, even while she was still an object to be longed for by (his) elder (brother) who, excessively full of respect (for him), (behaved) as if he were (the god Indra) the elder (brother) of Upêndra; who, though (his) footstool was covered over with the lustre of the jewels on the heads of a hundred kings subdued by (his) wealth of power, had a disposition that was not embued with the sentiment of haughtiness (induced) by contempt for other people; by (whose) enemies, even though renowned for manliness and pride, no remedy, except the performance of obeisance alone, could be successfully employed; the collection of whose pure virtues effected the happiness of the whole world; who forcibly destroyed all the specious procedure of (this wicked) Kali age; whose very noble heart was not tainted by any of the faults that assert an ascendancy over inferior people; who was renowned for manliness; who excelled in knowledge of the sacred writings; (and) who manifested (his) attainment of being accounted the first among heroes, by being spontaneously chosen (as her lord and husband) by the goddess of the fortunes of the assembled hostile kings.
- (L. 19.)-His son, who meditated on his feet, (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Dharasêna (III.),--who, by mastering all the sciences, produced an excess of joy in the minds of all learned people; who, with (his) goodness and wealth and liberality, and with (his) heroism, broke the chariot-axles that were the thoughts of (his) enemies who, occupied in intense reflection (upon his might), lost the power of acting in concert (against him); who, though thoroughly well conversant with the devious divisions of the many sacred writings and the arts and sciences and the proceedings of mankind, still had a nature that was of the most gracious kind; who, though possessed of innate affability, was (still further) decorated with the grace of modesty; who destroyed the display of pride of (his) opponents by the staff of (his) arm that was uplifted in the act of capturing banners of victory in a hundred battles; (and) whose commands were hailed with joy by the whole array of kings whose pride, induced by (their) skill in the use of weapons, was subdued by the power of his own bow.
- (L. 22.)-His younger brother, who meditated on his feet, (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Dhruvasêna (II.), whose famous second name of Bâlâditya was established as one of appropriate meaning, through the (whole) world being pervaded by the affection of mankind that was produced by (his) rising,-who surpassed all previous kings in excellent achievements; who was the accomplisher of objects, even such as were hard to be attained; who was, as it were, the very personification of manhood; who, as if he were Manu, was spontaneously resorted to by (his) subjects, the action of whose thoughts excelled in affection for (his) great good qualities; who mastered all the arts and sciences; who, in beauty, put to shame the moon, which (lustrous as it is, still) is marked with spots; who pervaded with (his) great brilliance all the intermediate spaces between the points of the compass; who destroyed the mass of darkness; who, being a sun that was always risen, was (ever) conferring upon (his) subjects confidence of the highest kind, that was fully justified, (and) was the result of the very various objects with which he busied himself (for their welfare), (and) was filled out with (constant) augmentation; who, being clever (on the one side) in determining peace and war and reconciliation (and on the other) in settling the euphonic joining of letters and the analysis of words and composition, was thoroughly well versed even in both the rituals of sovereignty and of Shâlâturîya, (the text-books on the one side) of those who give commands suitable to the rank (of their subordinates) (and on the other side) of those who apply substituted grammatical forms suitable to the places (that they are to fill), (and on the one side) of those who are eminent in refinement effected by the employment of an increase of virtue, (and on the other side) of those who excel in the perfection of language effected by the employment of the guna and vriddhi changes of vowels; who, though naturally valorous, possessed a heart that was tender through compassion; who, though well acquainted with sacred learning, was free from pride; who, though beautiful, was full of tranquillity; (and) who, though firm in friendship, repudiated people pervaded with faults.
- (L. 28.)-His son, whose forehead, resembling a portion of the moon, had on it a spot that was the mark caused by rubbing against the earth in performing obeisance to the waterlilies that were his feet, (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, Paramêshvara, and Chakravartin, the glorious Dharasêna (IV.),-who, in very childhood, had a speciality of sacred learning that was as pure as the beauty of the pearl-ornaments worn in (his) ears; who had the waterlilies that were (his) fingers besprinkled with the stream of (constant) liberality; who intensified the happiness of the earth by the lenient levying of taxes, as if he were intensifying the happiness of a maiden by tenderly taking (her) hand (in marriage); who, as if he were (the very personification of) the science of archery of bowmen, perceived at once all objects that should be aimed at; (and) whose commands were like the jewels in the locks of hair worn on the heads of all the chieftains who bowed down before (him).
- (L. 32.)-Of the son of the illustrious Shîlâditya (I.), who was the (elder) brother of his father’s father (Kharagraha I.), (and) who was, as it were, (the god) Śârngapâni,-(viz.) of the illustrious Dêrabhata, who performed obeisance with (his) limbs bowed down through attachment; whose head was always rendered pure, as if by (the river) Mandâkinî, by the very dazzling lustre, proceeding from the waterlilies that were his feet, of the jewels that were the nails of (his) feet; who, as if he were Agastya, was a royal saint, displaying courtesy on all sides; who with the exceedingly white circle of (his) fame, that adorned the points of the compass, formed a entire halo round the moon in the sky; (and) who was the lord of the earth which has (the mountains) Sahya and Vindhya for (its) lovely breasts, the nipples of which are (their) summits that are made of a dark-blue colour by the clouds (resting upon them),-the son (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Dhruvasêna (III.),-who accepted in marriage the goddess of royalty, just as if she were longing to choose (him) of her own accord, from the assemblage of kings, full of affection (for him) (and) wearing fine garments that were (their) resplendent reputations, which offered (her to him); who relied upon (his) heroism, which was never exerted in vain, as if upon a scimetar which bowed down the array of (his) fierce enemies; who in the autumn season, according to proper custom levied taxes from (his) enemies’ lands the quiet state of which was upset by (his) bow, the arrows of which were forcibly drawn out to the full; who, having (his) ears already decorated with an excess of sacred learnings, radiant with a variety of topics, had them (still further) adorned with the embellishment of jewels, as if it were (with that sacred learning) repeated again and again; (and); who,-holding up a fore-arm which, (covered) with gleaming bracelets and wings of beautiful insects and rays of jewels, was as it were a fresh sprout of a shaivala-plant looking charming in the waters that were (his) ceaseless gifts,-embraced the (whole) earth with (his) arms which, wearing great jewelled bands, behaved as if they were the banks of the shores of the ocean.
- (L. 39.)-His elder brother (was) the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara, the illustrious Kharagraha (II.), who, in a very clear and suitable manner, had the second name of Dharmâditya-whose slender body was embraced in a very public fashion by the goddess of fortune herself, who was minded, as it were, to destroy the pollution of the touches of other kings; who surpassed all (other) kings by the greatness of (his) exceedingly brilliant achievements, who had the waterlilies that were (his) feet studded with the rays of the jewels in the locks of hair on the tops of (their) heads of the whole assemblage of chieftains who bowed down when they had been subdued by the violence of (their) excessive affection (for him); who broke the pride of the multitude of (his) enemies with the large and lofty staff of (his) arm; who scorched the whole race of (his) foes with (his) very hot brilliance that spread itself abroad; who delivered over (all his) wealth to the ranks of (his) favourites; who had a mace that he hurled, and a nice-looking discus that he threw; who discarded childish sports; who never treated the twice-born with contempt; who acquired the (whole) surface of the earth by (his) prowess alone; who approved not of making his couch among stupid people; who was one of the best of men of a kind that was unprecedented; who, as if he were the personification of religion, properly regulated the practices of the different castes and stages of life; whose lofty and excellent white banner of religion was hailed by the three worlds that were gladdened by (his) collecting together, in the joy of (his) very upright disposition, and then assenting to (the continuance of the enjoyment of), even those grants to gods and Brâhmans that had been confiscated by previous kings, who were made avaricious by a little greed; who glorified his own lineage; (and) who, having done worship to the gods and Brâhmans and spiritual preceptors, filled all the circuit of the regions with the continuity of (his) excellent reputation acquired by (their) satisfaction produced by (his) settlement of liberal grants of the udranga and other (rights) which were ceaselessly made (by him) according to the merits (of the recipients.)
- (L. 47.)-Of his elder brother, the illustrious Shîlâditya (II.),-who made all the regions white with (his) fame, as if with the light of the full-moon that makes the beauty of the waterlilies to develop itself; (and) who was the lord of the earth, the bulky breasts of which are the Vindhya mountains of a dark-blue colour like cakes of ointment made of pounded aloe-bark,-the son (was) the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, the glorious Shîlâdityadêva (III.),-who by day by day increased (his) circle of accomplishments, like the new cold-rayed (moon) day by day increasing (its) digits; who adorned the goddess of sovereignty, like a young lordly lion adorning a forest on a mountain; who, like (the god Kârttikêya) who has the banner of a peacock, was adorned with a beautiful lock of hair on the top of the head, and was possessed of excessively great energy and majesty; who was [full of glory (and) possessed ample treasures], like the approach of autumn, [which is full of warmth (and) causes the waterlilies to bloom]; who used to part asunder in battle the elephants of (his) enemies, just as the young sun, hot (even) in (its) rising, parts asunder the clouds]; [who used to steal in war the lives] of (his) enemies; who was a most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; (and) who meditated on the feet of the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, (his) glorious uncle.
- (L. 51.)-His son (was) the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, the glorious Shîlâdityadêva (IV.),-[who achieved] supreme lordship [by engaging in the creation of another world]; the diffused fire of whose great prowess played about on the temples of (his) enemies’ elephants, which were split open by the blows of (his) sword that was drawn in anger; who acquired a firm position on the earth by encircling it about with a rampart; whose umbrella was constituted by the canopy of (his) fame, white as the clusters of foam of the ocean of milk when it was stirred about by the shaking of the churning-stick, which hung out from a mighty staff that was his own arm, (and) which enveloped the whole circumference of the earth; who was a most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; (and) who meditated on the feet of the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, (his) glorious father.
- (L. 53.)-[His son] (was) the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, the glorious Shîlâdityadêva (V.),-the waterlilies of whose feet were tinted by being covered over with the rays of the jewels in the locks of hair on the tops of the heads of all the chieftains, who did obeisance through the affection (produced) by (his) splendour; who was a most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; (and) who meditated on the feet of the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, (his) glorious father.
- (L. 55.)-[His son] (was) the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, the glorious Shîlâdityadêva (VI.),-who allayed the pride of the strength of (his) enemies; who was the auspicious asylum of great victory; whose breast dallied with the embraces of the goddess of fortune; whose unrestrained energy exceeded (even) that of (the god Vishnu) who assumed the form of the man-lion; who effected the protection of the whole earth by eradicating the hostile kings; who was the best of men; who tinted the faces of all the women that are the distant regions with the rays of the nails of (his) feet shining with the rubies in the tiaras of the powerful princes who bowed down before (him); who was a most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara; (and) who meditated on the feet of the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, (his) glorious father.
- (L. 58.)-Victorious is his son, the glorious Dhrûbhata, born in a lineage of supreme kings of kings and supreme lords, (and) possessed of great happiness,-who is renowned for an abundance of heroism that is hard to be resisted; who is the abode of the goddess of fortune; who has striven to destroy hell; who has made it (his) sole resolve to save the earth; whose fame is as pure as the rays of the full-moon;-who is full of virtue through his knowledge of the three (Vêdas); who has conquered the ranks of (his) enemies; who is possessed of happiness . . . . . . . . . . . .; who always confers happiness; who is the abode of knowledge; who is a protector of the world whom all people applaud; who is attended by learned men; who is praised far and wide on the earth;-who is resplendent with jewels; who has a beautiful person; who is a very pile of jewels that are virtuous qualities; who is endowed with the choicest virtues of lordship and prowess; who is always employed in conferring benefits on living creatures; who, as if he were (the god) Janârdana incarnate, humbles the pride of wicked people;-who is always most skilful in disposing the array of elephants in war; who is the abode of religious merit; (and) whose great prowess is sung over the (whole) earth.
- (L. 63.)-[And he], the most devout worshipper of (the god) Mahêshvara the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, the glorious Shîlâdityadêva (VII.), who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhattâraka, Mahârâjâdhirâja, and Paramêshvara, (his) glorious father, issues a command to all people:-
- (L. 64.)-‘Be it known to you that, for the purpose of increasing the religious merit of (my) parents and of myself, (and) in order to obtain a reward both in this world and in the next, the village named Mahilabalî, in the Uppalahêta pathaka in the famous Khêtaka âhâra,-with the udranga (and) the uparikara; with (the right to) forced labour as the occasion arises; with the revenue of the bhûta and vâta; with (the fines for) the ten offences; with (its) enjoyments and shares; with the grain, and gold, and âdeya; (with the privilege that it is) not to be (even) pointed at with the hand (of undue appropriation) by any of the king’s people; (and) with the exception of previously-given grants to gods and Brâhmans,-is given by me, with copious libations of water, on the terms of a grant to a Brâhman, in accordance with the rule of bhûmichchidra,-to endure for the same time with the moon, the sun, the ocean, the earth, and the mountains; (and) to be enjoyed by the succession of sons and sons’ sons,-to the Bhatta Âkhandalamitra, the son of the Bhatta Vishnu, an inhabitant of the famous town of Ânandapura, belonging to the community of Chaturvêdins of that (place), a member of the Shârkarâkshi gôtra, and a student of the Bahvricha (shâkhâ),-for the maintenance of the rites of the bali, charu, vaishvadêva, agnihôtra, and atithi sacrifices, and other (ceremonies).
- (L. 69.)-"Wherefore, no one should behave so as to cause obstruction to this person in enjoying (it) in accordance with the proper conditions of a grant to a Brâhman (and) cultivating (it), (or) causing it to be cultivated, or assigning (it to another).
- (L. 70.)-"(And) this Our gift should be assented to and preserved by future pious kings, whether born of Our lineage or others, bearing in mind that riches do not endure for ever, that the life of man is uncertain, and that the reward of a gift of land belongs in common (both to him who makes it and to him who continues it)."
- (L. 72.)-And it has been said by Vyâsa, the arranger of the Vêdas:-The earth has been enjoyed by many kings, commencing with Sagara; whosoever at any time possesses the earth, to him belongs, at that time, the reward (of this grant that is now made, if he continue it)! These chattels, made into altars of religion, which have been formerly given here (on earth) by (previous) kings, (are) like the remains of offerings to gods, and like food that is vomited up; verily, what good man would take them back again? The giver of land abides in heaven for sixty thousand years; (but) the confiscator (of a grant), and he who assents (to an act of confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell! Those who confiscate a grant of land, are born as black serpents, dwelling in the hollows of dried-up trees in the Vindhya mountains, destitute of water!
- (L. 75.)--The Dûtaka in this matter (is) the Mahâpratîhâra, . . . . . . the Mahâkshapatalika, a member of the king’s household, the illustrious Siddhasêna, the son of the illustrious Sharvata; and (this charter) has been written by his deputy, the Pratinartaka, the high-born Amâtya Guha, the son of Hembata, who was deputed by him (to write it).
- (L.77.)-In four centuries of years, increased by forty-seven; on the fifth lunar day of the bright fortnight of (the month) Jyêshtha; (or) in figures, the year 400 (and) 40(and) 7; (the month) Jyêshtha; the bright fortnight; (the lunar day) 5. (This is) my sign-manual.
- From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 180-191.
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.511
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.43
- Roychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). Political History of Ancient India, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, pp.553-4
- Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594-6
- Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I, 2002, pp 177, 187.
- History and Culture of Indian People, Classical age, p 150, (Ed) Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar.
- Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594-6
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