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Map of Surashtra

Saurashtra (Hindi: सौराष्ट्र, Gujarati: સૌરાષ્ટ્ર) (referred to as Saraostus as well, by Greeks) is a region of Gujarat in India.

Variants of name


It is located on the Arabian Sea coast of state.

Genealogy of Vahlika

Ancestry of Vahlika as per Bhagavata Purana

Genealogy of Bahlika as per Bhagavata Purana[2] RikshaSamvarana (m. Tapati) → KuruJahnuSurathaVidurathaSaryabhaumaJaya SenaRadhikaAyutayuAkrodhanaDevatithiRikshaDilipaPratipaVahlikaSomadattaBhuri + Bhurisravas + Sala

Districts included in Surashtra

It consists of 7 districts of Gujarat:

Mention by Panini

Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]


Referred to as Surashtra and as some other names as well over a period of time, since the Mahabharata and Vedic period, this region is mentioned again as Syrastrene or Surastrene, or Saraostus in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Mention by Panini

Kunti-Surashtrah (कुंति-सुराष्ट्रा:) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [4]

Mention by Periplus

A map showing the ancient western trade routes serviced by this ancient and historical port. The gateway city of Bharakuccha is named on the map as Barigaza on the Gulf of Khambhat. The inhospitable mountains and deserts to the north of the Erythraean Sea suggests its importance in trade with ancient Axum, Egypt, Arabia and the sea-land trade routes via the Tigris-Euphrates valley and Ancient Rome.

Dwarka is mentioned by Periplus as Baraca in 'Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'. Bharuch was called by the name of Barygaza by Greeks/Romans. North India also traded with western and southern nations via Ujjain and Bharuch. Trade with the Indian harbour of Barygaza is described extensively in the Periplus. Nahapana, ruler of the Indo-Scythian Western Satraps is mentioned under the name Nambanus,[5]as ruler of the area around Barigaza:

41. "Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza."
—Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41[6]

Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD

Alexander Cunningham[7] writes that According to Hwen Thsang, the province of Su-la-cha, or Suratha, was a dependent of Balabhi. Its

[p.325]: capital was situated ut 500 li, or 83 miles, to the west of Balabhi, at the foot of Mount Yeu-chen-ta, or Ujjanta. This is the Pali form of the Sanskrit Ujjayanta, which is only another name for the Girinar hill that rises above the old city of Junagarh. The name of Ujjayanta is mentioned in both of the Girinar inscriptions of Rudra Dama and Skanda Gupta, although this important fact escaped the notice of the translators.[8] The mention of this famous hill fixes the position of the capital of Surashtra at Junagarh, or Yavana-gadh, which is 87 miles to the west of Balabhi, or very nearly the same as stated by Hwen Thsang. The pilgrim notices that the mountain was covered with thick forests, and that its scarped sides contained numerous chambers and galleries. This description agrees with the account of Postans,[9] who, in 1838, found the hill covered with " a thick jungul of the custard- apple tree," and a number of excavations at the base, consisting of " small flat roofed rooms, supported by square pillars without ornament."

The name of Surath is still known in this part of the peninsula ; but it is confined to a comparatively small tract, which forms one of the ten divisions of Gujarat.[10] In the time of Akbar, however, it was applied to the southern or larger half of the peninsula, which, according to Abul Fazl, extended from the port of Ghoga to the port of Aramroy, and from Sirdhar to the port of Diu.[11] The name of the district

[p.326]: is also preserved by Terry,[12] whose information was obtained at the Court of Jahangir. According to his account, the chief city of Soret was called Janagar, that is, Javanagarh, or Jonagarh. The province was small, but very rich, and had the ocean to the south. At that time also it would appear not to have been included in Gujarat, as Terry describes it as lying upon Gujarat. In the seventh century Hwen Thsang states that Surath, or Surashtra, was 4000 li, or 667 miles, in circuit, and touched the river Mo-hi on the west. This river has always been identified with the Mahi of Malwa, which falls into the Gulf of Khambay.[13] Accepting this identification as correct, the province of Surath in the time of Hwen Thsang must have comprised the whole of the peninsula, including the city of Balabhi itself. This is confirmed by the measurement of the frontier given by the pilgrim, which agrees exactly with that of the entire peninsula to the south-west of a line drawn from the Lesser Ran of Kachh to Khambay. In spite of the fame of Balabhi, the old name of Surath was still applied to the whole peninsula so late as A.D. 640.

Kanaksen emigrates to Saurashtra

Kanaksen or Kanaka was a King, who, in the second century, abandoned his native kingdom, Kosala, and established the race of Surya in Saurashtra.[14]

At least ten genealogical lists, derived from the most opposite sources, agree in making Kanaksen the founder of this dynasty ; and assign his emigration from the most northern of the provinces of India to the peninsula of Saurashtra in S. 201, or A.D. 145. [15]

Identification: James Tod comments that Sen means, 'army'; kanak means, 'gold.' so Kanaksen is entirely mythical. It has been suggested that the name is a reminiscence of the connexion of the great Kushan Emperor, Kanishka, with Gujarat and Kathiawar (BG, i. Part i. 101). [16]

Legend of Kanaksen: James Tod[17] writes that By what route Kanaksen, the first emigrant of the solar race, found his way into Saurashtra from Lohkot (Lahore), is uncertain : he, however, wrested dominion from a prince of the Pramara race, and founded Birnagara in the second century (A.D. 144).

Four generations afterwards, Vijayasen, founded Vijayapur, supposed to be where Dholka now stands, at the head of the Saurashtra peninsula. Vijayapur has been doubtfully identified with Bijapur in the Ahmadabad district (BG, i. Part i. 110).

Vidarba was also founded by him, the name of which was afterwards changed to Sihor.

But the most celebrated was the capital, Valabhipura, which for years baffled all search, till it was revealed in its now humbled condition as Walai, ten miles west of Bhavnagar. The existence of this city was confirmed by a celebrated Jain work, the Satrunjaya Mahatma. The want of satisfactory proof of the Rana's emigration from thence was obviated by the most unexpected discovery of an inscription of the twelfth century, in a ruined temple on the tableland forming the eastern boundary of the Rana's present territory, which appeals to the ' walls of Valabhi ' for the truth of the action it records. And a work written to commemorate the reign of Rana Raj Singh opens with these words : "In the west is Sorathdes, (Saurashtra) a country well known : the barbarians invaded it, and conquered Bal-ka-nath ; all fell in the sack of Valabhipura, except the daughter of the Pramara."

And the Sandrai

[p.254]: roll thus commences : " When the city of Valabhi was sacked, the inhabitants fled and founded Bali, Sandrai, and Nadol in Mordar des (Marwar)." (Marwar) These are towns yet of consequence, and in all the Jain religion is still maintained, which was the chief worship of Valabhipura when sacked by the ' barbarian.' The records preserved by the Jains give S.B. 205 (A.D. 524) as the date of this event.

The date of the fall of Valabhi is very uncertain (Smith, EH I, 315, note). It is said to have been destroyed in the reign of Siladitya VI., the last of the dynasty, about A.D. 776 (Duff, Chronology of India, 31, 67, 308).

The tract about Valabhipura and northward is termed Bal, probably from the tribe of Bala, which might have been the designation of the Rana's tribe prior to that of Grahilot ; and most probably Multan, and all these regions of the Kathi, Bala, etc., were dependent on Lohkot, whence emigrated Kanaksen ; thus strengthening the surmise of the Scythic descent of the Ranas, though now installed in the seat of Rama. The sun was the deity of this northern tribe, as of the Rana's ancestry, and the remains of numerous temples to this grand object of Scythic homage are still to be found scattered over the peninsula ; whence its name, Saurashtra, the coutry of the Sauras, or Sun-worshippers ; the Surastrene or Syrastrene of ancient geographers ; its inhabitants, the Suros of Strabo.

There is possibly a confusion with the Soras of Aehan (xv. 8) which has been identified by Caldwell (Dravidian Grammar, 17) with the greek....? of Ptolemy, and with the Chola kingdom of Southern India. Surashtra or Saurashtra, ' land of the Sus,' was afterwards Sanskritized into ' goodly country ' (Monier Williams, Skt. Diet. s.v. ; BG, i. Part i. 6).

[p.255]: Besides these cities, the MSS. give Gayni as the last refuge of the family when expelled Saurashtra. One of the poetic chronicles thus commences : " The barbarians had captured Gajni. The house of Siladitya was left desolate. In its defence his heroes fell ; of his seed but the name remained."

Gaini, or Gajni, is one of the ancient names of Cambay (the port of Valabhipura), the ruins of which are about three miles from the modern city. Other sources indicate that these princes held possessions in the southern continent of India, as well as in the Saurashtra peninsula. Talatalpur Patan, on the Godavari, is mentioned, which tradition asserts to be the city of Deogir ; but which, after many years' research, I discovered in Saurashtra, it being one of the ancient names of Kandala. In after times, when succeeding dynasties held the title of Balakarae, though the capital was removed inland to Anhilwara Patan, they still held possession of the western shore, and Cambay continued the chief port. [For the identification of Gajni with Cambay see I A, iv. 147 ; BG, vi. 213 note. The site of Devagiri has been identified with Daulatabad (BG, i. Part ii. 136 ; Beal, Buddhist Records of the Western World, ii. 255, note).

Scythic (Jats) Invaders of Saurashtra

James Tod[18] writes that These invaders were Scythic, and in all probability a colony from the Parthian kingdom, which was established in sovereignty on the Indus in the second century, having their capital at Saminagara, where the ancient Yadu ruled for ages : the Minnagara1 of Arrian, and the Mankir of the Arabian geographers. It was by this route, through the eastern portion of the valley of the Indus, that the various hordes of Getae or Jats, Huns, Kamari, Kathi, Makwahana, Bala and Aswaria, had peopled this peninsula, leaving traces still visible. The period is also remarkable when these and other Scythic hordes were simultaneously abandoning higher Asia for the cold regions

1 The position of Minnagara has occupied the attention of geographers from D'Anville to Pottinger. Sind being conquered by Omar, general of the caliph Al-Mansur (Abbasi), the name of Minagara was changed to Mansura, " une ville celcbre sur le rivage droit du Sind ou Mehran." " Ptolemee fait aussi mention de cette ville ; mais en la depla9ant," etc. D'Anville places it about 26°, but not so high as Ulug Beg, whose tables make it 26° 40'. I have said elsewhere that I had little doubt that Minnagara, handed down to us by the author of the Periplus as the (....) (greek), was the Saminagara of the Yadu Jarejas, whose chronicles claim Seistan as their ancient possession, and in all probability was the stronghold (nagara) of Sambos, the opponent of Alexander. On every consideration, I am inclined to place it on the site of Sehwa. The learned Vincent, in his translation of the Periplus, enters fully and with great judgment upon this point, citing every authority, Arrian, Ptolemy, Al-Biruni, Edrisi, D'Anville, and De la Rochette. He has a note (26, p. 386, vol. i.) which is conclusive, could he have applied it : " Al-Birun [equi-distant] between Debeil and Mansura." D'Anville also says : " de Mansora a la ville nommee Birun, la distance est indiquee de quinze parasanges dans Abulfeda," who fixes it, on the authority of Abu-Rehan (surnamed Al-Biruni from his birthplace), at 26° 40'. The ancient name of Haidarabad, the present capital of Sind, was Nerun (...arabic) or Nirun, and is almost equi-distant, as Abulfeda says, between Debal (Dewal or Tatta) and Mansura, Sehwan, or Minnagara, the latitude of which, according to my construction, is 26° 11'. Those who wish to pursue this may examine the Eclaircisfiemens sur la Carle de Vlnde, p. 37 et seq., and Dr. Vincent's estimable translation, p. 386. [The site of Minnagara, like those of all the cities in the delta of the Indus, owing to changes in the course of the river, is very uncertain. Jhajhpur or Mungrapur has been suggested (McCrindle, Ptolemy, 72, Periplus, 1086 f.). Nirun has been identified with Helai, a little below Jarak, on the high road from Tatta to Haidarabad (Elliot-Dowson i. 400).]

[p.256]: of Europe and the warm plains of Hindustan. From the first to the sixth century of the Christian era, various records exist of these irruptions from the north. Gibbon, quoting De Guignes, mentions one in the second century, which fixed permanently in the Saurashtra peninsula ; and the latter, from original authorities, describes another of the Getae or Jats, styled by the Chinese Yueh-chi, in the north of India.1 But the authority directly in point is that of Cosmas, surnamed Indikopleustes, who was in India during the reign of Justinian, and that of the first monarch of the Chinese dynasty of Leam.2 Cosmas [219] had visited Kalyan, included in the Balhara kingdom ; and he mentions the Ephthalites, or White Huns, under their king Golas, as being established on the Indus at the very period of the invasion of Valabhipura.3

Arrian, who resided in the second century at Barugaza (Broach), describes a Parthian sovereignty as extending from the Indus to the Nerbudda.4 Their capital has already been mentioned, Minnagara. Whether these, the Abtelites5 of Cosmas, were the Parthian dynasty of Arrian, or whether the Parthians were supplanted by the Huns, we must remain in ignorance, but to one or the other we must attribute the sack of Valabhipura.

1 See History of the Tribes, p. 107, and translation of Inscription No. I. Vide Appendix.

2 Considerable intercourse was carried on between the princes of India and China from the earliest periods ; but particularly during the dynasties of Sum, Leam and Tarn, from the fourth to the eventh centuries, when the princes from Bengal and Malabar to the Panjab sent embassies to the Chinese monarchs. The dominions of these Hindu princes may yet be identified. [Cosmas flourished in the sixth century a.d., and never reached India proper {EB, vii. 214).]

3 [Gollas was Mihiragula (Smith, EHI, 317).]

4 [Ibid. 230 f.]

5 D'Herbelot (vol. i. p. 179) calls them the Haiathelah or Indoscythae, and says that they were apparently from Thibet, between India and China. De Guignes (tome i. p. 325) is offended with this explanation, and says : " Cette conjecture ne pent avoir lieu, les Euthehtes n'ayant jamais demeure dans le Thibet." A branch of the Huns, however, did most assuredly dwell in that quarter, though we will not positively assert that they were the Abtelites. The Haihaya was a great branch of the Lunar race of Yayati, and appears early to have left India for the northern regions, and would afford a more plausible etymology for the Haiathelah than the Te-le, who dwelt on the waters (ab) of the Oxus. This branch of the Hunnish race has also been termed Nephthalite, and fancied one of the lost tribes of Israel [?].

In Mahabharata

Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.40), (III.86.16-20), (V.72.14), (VI.10.47), (VI.20.14), (VIII.30.73),(XIV.84.12),

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's victory march towards south: kings and tribes defeated. Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.40).[19].....And the prince (Sahdeva), after this, with great efforts brought Ahriti, the king of Saurashtra and preceptor of the Kausikas under his sway. The virtuous prince, while staying in the kingdom of Saurashtra sent an ambassador unto king Rukmin of Bhishmaka within the territories of Bhojakata, who, rich in possessions and intelligence, was the friend of Indra himself. And the monarch along with his son, remembering their relationship with Krishna, cheerfully accepted, O king, the sway of the son of Pandu.

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 86 mentions the sacred tirthas of the south. Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.40), (III.86.16-20).[20].....I shall now, O lord of men, describe the sacred spots, and asylums, and rivers and lakes belonging to the Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) (III.86.16) country! O Yudhishthira, the Brahmanas say that on the sea-coast is the Chamasonmajjana (चमसॊन्मज्जन) (III.86.17), and also Prabhasa (प्रभास) (III.86.17), that tirtha which is much regarded by the gods. There also is the tirtha called Pindaraka (पिण्डारक) (III.86.18), frequented by ascetics and capable of producing great merit. In that region is a mighty hill named Ujjayanta (उज्जयन्त) (III.86.18) which conduceth to speedy success. Regarding it the celestial Rishi Narada of great intelligence hath recited an ancient sloka. Do thou listen to it, O Yudhishthira! By performing austerities on the sacred hill of Ujjayanta in Surashtra, that abounds in birds and animals, a person becometh regarded in heaven.

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 72 mentions Kings of races known for the destruction of their kinsmen. Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (V.72.14).[21].... Ajabindu among the Sauviras, Kusharddhika among the Surashtras, Arkaja among the Balihas, Dhautamulaka among the Chinas....

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.47)[22]....the Upavrisha-Anupavrisha, the Surashtra, the Kekayas; the Kuttaparantas, the Dvidheyas, the Kakshas, the Samudranishkutas;

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 20 describes the warriors in Bhisma's division. Surashtraka (सुराष्ट्रक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.20.14).[23]....That large force which was well protected by mighty car-warriors of the Vrishni and the Bhoja races, as also by the warriors of Nairritas, Surashtra well-armed and well-acquainted with the uses of weapons, and which was led by Kritavarman, proceeded towards the south of the army.

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 mentions the tribes who are not followers of Brahmanism. Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.30.73). [24]....The Panchalas observe the duties enjoined in the Vedas; the Kauravas observe truth; the Matsyas and the Surasenas perform sacrifices, the Easterners follow the practices of the Shudras; the Southerners are fallen; the Vahikas are thieves; the Saurashtras are bastards.

Aswamedha Parva, Mahabharata/Book 14 Chapter 84 mentions Arjuna's Rajasuya Ashvamedha journey. Surashtra (सुराष्ट्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (XIV.84.12).[25].....Subjugating those tribes without having to accomplish any fierce feats, Arjuna proceeded to the country of the Surashtras, his footsteps guided by the horse. Arrived at Gokarna, he repaired thence to Prabhasa.


सुराष्ट्र (AS, p.977): काठियावाड़ (गुजरात) तथा निकटवर्ती प्रदेश का प्राचीन नाम. इसे सौराष्ट्र भी कहते थे. महाभारत सभापर्व है 31,62 में सहदेव द्वारा सुराष्ट्राधिप पर विजय पाने का उल्लेख है. '.....' रुद्रदामन के गिरनार अभिलेख (150 ई. के लगभग) में सुराष्ट्र को क्षत्रप रुद्रदामन् द्वारा विजित प्रदेश बतलाया है, 'स्ववीर्यार्जितानामनुरक्त सर्वप्रकृतीनां पूर्वापराकरा वन्त्यनूपनी वृदानर्त सुराष्ट्र श्वभ्रभरुकच्छ सिंधु सौवीर कुकुरापरान्त निषादादीनां' (देखें सौराष्ट्र) [26]

सौराष्ट्र = सुराष्ट्र

सौराष्ट्र = सुराष्ट्र (AS, p.997): विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर [27] ने लेख किया है .... सौराष्ट्र, वर्तमान काठियावाड़-प्रदेश, जो समुद्र के भीतर आम्राकार भूमि पर स्थित प्रायद्वीपीय क्षेत्र है। महाभारत के समय द्वारिकापुरी इसी क्षेत्र में स्थित थी। सुराष्ट्र या सौराष्ट्र को सहदेव ने अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा के प्रसंग में विजित किया था। (दे. सुराष्ट्र) विष्णु पुराण में अपरान्त के साथ सौराष्ट्र का उल्लेख है।- 'तथापरान्ताः सौराष्ट्राः शूराभीरास्तथार्बुदाः' विष्णुपुराण 2, 3, 16. विष्णुपुराण 2, 24, 68 में सौराष्ट्र में शूद्रों का राज्य बताया गया है, 'सौराष्ट्र विषयांश्च शूद्राद्याभोक्ष्यन्ति'।

इतिहास प्रसिद्ध सोमनाथ का मन्दिर सौराष्ट्र ही की विभूति था। रैवतकपर्वत गिरनार पर्वतमाला का ही एक भाग था। अशोक, रुद्रदामन् तथा गुप्त सम्राट स्कन्दगुप्त [p.998]: के समय के महत्त्वपूर्ण अभिलेख जूनागढ़ के निकट एक चट्टान पर अंकित हैं, जिससे प्राचीन काल में इस प्रदेश के महत्त्व पर प्रकाश पड़ता है। रुद्रदामन् के अभिलेख में सुराष्ट्र पर शक क्षत्रपों का प्रभुत्व बताया गया है। (दे.सुराष्ट्र तथा गिरनार). जान पड़ता है कि अलक्षेन्द्र के पंजाब पर आक्रमण के समय वहाँ निवास करने वाली जाति कठ जिसने यवन सम्राट के दाँत खट्टे कर दिए थे, कालान्तर में पंजाब छोड़कर दक्षिण की ओर आ गई और सौराष्ट्र में बस गई, जिससे इस देश का नाम काठियावाड़ भी हो गया। इतिहास के अधिकांश काल में सौराष्ट्र पर गुजरात नरेशों का अधिकार रहा और गुजरात के इतिहास के साथ ही इसका भाग्य बंधा रहा।

सौराष्ट्र के कई भागों के नाम हमें इतिहास में मिलते हैं। हालार (उत्तर-पश्चिमी भाग), सोरठ (पश्चिमी भाग), गोहिलवाड़ (दक्षिण-पूर्वी भाग) आदि। सोरठ और गोहिलवाड़ के बीच का प्रदेश बबड़ियावाड़ या बर्बर देश कहलाता था. इसी इलाके में बब्बर शेर या सिंह पाया जाता है। सौराष्ट्र के बारे में एक प्राचीन कहावत प्रसिद्ध है–'सौराष्ट्र पंचरत्नानि नदीनारीतुरंगमाः चतुर्थः सोमनाथश्च पंचमम् हरिदर्शनम्'; इस श्लोक में सौराष्ट्र की मनोहर नदियों–जैसे चन्द्रभागा, भद्रावती, प्राची-सरस्वती, शशिमती, वेत्रवती, पलाशिनी और सुवर्णसिकता; घोघा आदि प्रदेशों की लोक-कथाओं में वर्णित सुन्दर नारियों, सुन्दर अरबी जाति के तेज़ घोड़ों और सोमनाथ और कृष्ण की पुण्यनगरी द्वारिका के मन्दिरों को सौराष्ट्र के रत्न बताया गया है।

पुरास्थल: गुजरात के काठियावाड़ प्राय:द्वीप में भादर नदी के समीप स्थित रंगपुर की खुदाई 1953-1954 ई. में 'ए. रंगनाथ राव' द्वारा की गई। यहाँ पर पूर्व हड़प्पा कालीन संस्कृति के अवशेष मिले हैं। यहाँ मिले कच्ची ईटों के दुर्ग, नालियां, मृदभांड, बांट, पत्थर के फलक आदि महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं। यहाँ धान की भूसी के ढेर मिले हैं। यहाँ उत्तरोत्तर हड़प्पा संस्कृति के भी साक्ष्य पर्याप्त मात्रा में मिलते हैं।[28]


सोरठ (AS, p.995) = सौराष्ट्र ( काठियावाड़, गुजरात) का पश्चिमी भाग. यह नाम सौराष्ट्र का ही अपभ्रंश है. हिंदी का प्रसिद्ध संत सोरठा इसी देश से ही संबद्ध माना जाता है. सोरठ नाम का एक प्रसिद्ध राग भी है. [29]


स्वराष्ट्र (AS, p.1004): संभवत: सुराष्ट्र या सौराष्ट्र (काठियावाड़) का नाम भेd. इसका उल्लेख महाभारत भीष्म पर्व 9,48 में इस प्रकार है--'अटवीशिखराश्चैव मेरुभूताश्च मारिष। उपावृत्तानुपावृत्ताः स्वराष्ट्राः केकयास्तथा'[30]

शिवि गण

डॉ. धर्मचंद्र विद्यालंकार[31] ने लिखा है....शिवि गण ने राजस्थान में जाकर सिरोही (शिवि रोही) और मेवाड़ तक में अपना शिवि जनपद बसाया था; जिसके मुद्रांक हमें उत्खनन में मिलते हैं. इसी नाम की एक जाति वहां पर वर्तमान में भी शिरवी कहलाती है. संभवत: मद्र-देश (स्यालकोट) से प्रवाजित होने के ही कारण उन्हीं का एक नाम मद्र से बिगड़ कर मेड और मेव तक भी हो गया है. शायद मेवाड़ नाम शिवि जनपद का होने के कारण हुआ होगा. अजमेर का भी पुरातन नाम मेरवाड़ा ही है. [p.16]: कठ कबिले ने ही ईसा की आरंभिक शताब्दियों में जाकर सौराष्ट्र या शकराष्ट्र को अपना काठियावाड़ नाम दिया था. शकों के राज्य की सूचना हमें केवल सुदर्शन झील के जीर्णोद्धार के अवसर पर अंकित चौथी शताब्दी के शकराज रुद्रदामन के अभिलेख से ही मिलती है. शकराष्ट्र से ही बिगड़ कर सौराष्ट्र नाम पड़ा था तो कठों के अधिकार के पश्चात ही काठियावाड़ नाम हुआ होगा.


Notable persons

External links


  1. Dharmchandra Vidyalankar: Patanjali Ke Jartagana or Jnatrika Kaun The,p.15-16
  2. A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, Benares,1901,p.212
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.61
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.61
  5. Anjali Desai, India Guide Gujarat, India Guide Publications, 2007, page 160, ISBN 978-0-9789517-0-2
  6. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea,s.n.41
  7. The Ancient Geography of India/Gurjjara, p.324-326
  8. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bombay, vii. 119, " the Urjayata hill ;: p. 123, "Urjayat ;" and p. 124., " the Jayanta mountain," should all be rendered Ujayanta.
  9. Journ. Royal Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1838, pp. 874, 876
  10. Eastwick, ' Handbook of Bombay,' p. 424.
  11. ' Ayin Akbari,' ii. 66.
  12. 'Yoyage to East India,' p.80.
  13. As the Mahi rier lies to the north-east of Gujarat, we must either read east, or suppose that the pilgrim referred to the western bank of the stream.
  14. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, [[James Todd Annals/Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races}Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races]],p.100
  15. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Annals of Mewar, p.251
  16. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Annals of Mewar, p.252,fn-3
  17. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Annals of Mewar, p.253-255
  18. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, Annals of Mewar,p.255-256
  19. सुराष्ट्र विषयस्दश च परेषयाम आस रुक्मिणे, राज्ञे भॊजकटस्दाय महामात्राय धीमते
  20. सुराष्ट्रेष्व अपि वक्ष्यामि पुण्यान्य आयतनानि च, आश्रमान सरितः शैलान सरांसि च नराधिप (III.86.16) चमसॊन्मज्जनं विप्रास तत्रापि कथयन्त्य उत, प्रभासं चॊदधौ तीर्थं तरिदशानां युधिष्ठिर (III.86.17) तत्र पिण्डारकं नाम तापसाचरितं शुभम, उज्जयन्तश च शिखरी कषिप्रं सिद्धिकरॊ महान (III.86.18) तत्र देवर्षिवर्येण नारदेनानुकीर्तितः, पुराणः शरूयते शलॊकस तं निबॊध युधिष्ठिर (III.86.19) पुण्ये गिरौ सुराष्ट्रेषु मृगपक्षिनिषेविते, उज्जयन्ते सम तप्ताङ्गॊ नाकपृष्ठे महीयते (III.86.20)
  21. अज बिन्दु: सुवीराणां सुराष्ट्राणां कुशर्थ्धिकः, अर्कजश च बलीहानां चीनानां धौतमूलकः
  22. उपावृश्चानुपावृश्च सुराष्ट्राः केकयास तदा, कुट्टापरान्ता दवैधेयाः काक्षाः सामुद्र निष्कुटाः (VI.10.47)
  23. महारदैर अन्धकवृष्णिभॊजैः; सौराष्ट्रकैर नैरृतैर आत्तशस्त्रैः, बृहथ्बलः कृतवर्माभिगुप्तॊ; बलं तवथीयं थक्षिणतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.14)
  24. बराह्मं पाञ्चाला कौरवेयाः सवधर्मः; सत्यं मत्स्याः शूरसेनाश च यज्ञः, पराच्या दासा वृषला थाक्षिणात्याः; सतेना बाह्लीकाः संकरा वै सुराष्ट्राः
  25. तुरगस्य वशेनाथ सुराष्ट्रान अभितॊ ययौ, गॊकर्णम अपि चासाद्य प्रभासम अपि जग्मिवान
  26. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.977
  27. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.997-998
  28. भारतकोश-सौराष्ट्र
  29. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.995
  30. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.1004
  31. Patanjali Ke Jartagana or Jnatrika Kaun The,p.15-16

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