India as Known to Panini
Vasudeva Saran Agrawala, For his research degrees made a Cultural study of Panini's Astadhyayi under Dr. R. K. Mookerji. His researches on the Astadhyayi are contained in India as Known to Panini: a study of the cultural material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, University of Lucknow, 1953 - India - 549 pages.
- 1 Topics of interest
- 2 Ch. II, Section-4: Janapadas
- 3 Ch. II, Section-5: Towns and Villages
- 4 Ch.II, Towns in the Gaṇas
- 5 Chapter III: Social Life
- 6 Ch. III, Section 5: Social Formations
- 7 Chapter IV: Economic Conditions
- 8 Chapter VII: Polity and Administration
- 9 Ch. VII Section 5, Political Sangha or Gana
- 10 Ch. VII Section 6, Gana Polity
- 11 Ch. VII Section 7, Ayudhajivi Sanghas
- 12 Ch. VII Section 8, Names of Republics
- 13 Reference to Yavanani
- 14 Panini and the Parsus
- 15 Gupti
- 16 Appendix-II
- 17 IV Place Names
- 18 Jats as known to Panini
- 19 Jata Jhat Sanghate
- 20 See also
- 21 References
Topics of interest
Some of topics of our interest are indexed as under:
Chapter II: Geographical Data.
Section-1: Introductory, p.34
Section-2: Country-37, Geographical Horizon-37, Divisions of the Country-39
Section-3: Mountains, Rivers, Forests-39, Forests-41, Rivers-42, Desert Regions-46 :
Mountains-39 ...Himalaya (हिमालय) (p.39), Antargiri (अन्तर्गिरि) (p.39), Trikakut (त्रिककुट) (Sulaiman Mountains) (p.39), Vidura(विदुर), Kiṁsulakā-giri (किंसुलका गिरि), Śālvakāgiri (शाल्वका गिरि) (p.39), Añjanāgiri (अंजना गिरि) (p.39), Bhañjanāgiri (भंजना गिरि), Lohitāgiri (लोहिता गिरि) (old name of Hindukush) (p.39), Kukkuṭāgiri (कुक्कुटा गिरि), Hindukush (Rohitagiri) (रोहित गिरि) (p.40)
Forests-41...Puragāvana (Pataliputra) (p.41), Miśrakāvana (Sitapur) (p.41), Sidhrakāvana (p.41), Sārikāvana (p.41), Koṭarāvana (p.41), Agrevana (p.41), Śaravana (p.41), Ikshuvana (p.41), Plakshavana (p.41), Āmravana (p.41), Kārshyavana (p.41), Khadiravana (p.41), Piyūkshāvana
Rivers-42...Suvastu (Swat) (p.42), Gauri (Panjkora) (p.42), Kabul (p.42), Pushkarāvatī (p.42), Udumbarāvatī (p.42), Vīraṇāvati (p.42), Maśakāvati (p.42), Ikshumat (p.42), Drumati (p.42), Ikhan (Kalindi) (Farrukhabad) (p.43), Sindhu (p.43), Dāradī Sindhu (p.43), Kubha (p.43), Kurram (p.43), Gambila (Tochi) (p.43), Varnu (p.44), Vipasha (Beas) (p.44), Bhidya (Baī in Jammu) (p.44), Uddhya (Ujha in Jasrota) (p.44), Iravati (p.44), Devikā (Deg) (Sialkot and Sheikhupura) (p.45) Ajiravati (Rapti) (p.45) Sarayu (p.45), Rathaspā (p.45) Ṡarāvatī (p.46) Charmanvati (p.46) Rumaṇvat (Rumā in Sambhar) (p.46)
Ch. II, Section-4: Janapadas
[p.48]: An important geographical term used by Panini is Janapada, which was both a state and cultural unit, its cultural counting more than geography. The citizens of the same Janapada were known as Sajanapadāḥ (VI.3.85). The Janapadas known to Panini are following:
2. Prakaṇva (प्रकण्व) (VI.1.153) - It is corollary to Praskaṇva which is a country (Ferghana). Herodotus calls it Parikanioi as people, who are said to have formed part of empire of Darius . Prakaṇva was situated immediately to north of Kamboja or Pamir region. (p.49)
3. Gandhāra (गंधार) - Gandhāra extended from Kabul Valley to Taxila. Two towns of Gandhāra mentioned are - Takshasila, its eastern capital and Pushkalavati western. The Greeks refer to it as Peucelaotes (modern Charsadda, situated near the junction of the Swat with the Kabul). Pushkala refers to people of this region. The country between the Rivers Suvastu and Gauri was known as Uḍḍiyāna. (p.49)
4.Sindhu (सिंधु) - Sindhu was originally the name of a river which gave its name to the country. The term Sindhu was corrupted to Hi(n)du in old Persian Inscriptions of Darius I (516-485 BC) and to Indus by Ionian (=Panini's Yavana) Greeks. Sindhu as janapada may be identified with Sind-Sagar Doab, the region between Jhelum and Indus. Most of it is now sandy desert of Thal. (p.50)...
5.Sauvīra (सौवीर) (IV.1.148) - Panini mentions Sauvira and gives valuable social history of the region.It was home of many Gotras - Phāṇṭahṛiti, Mimata, Bhāgavitti, Tārṇabindava, Akaśapeya, Yamunda and Suyāmā. Bhāgavitti may be identified with the present Bugti tribe on the northern border of Sind. Panini mentions Śarakarā (modern Sukkur on the Indus) as a town (IV.2.83). Pali literature mentions Rauruka (modern Rori in Upper Sind as the capital of Sauvira. (p.50)...
6. Brāhmaṇaka (ब्राह्मणक) (V.2.71) - It is described as land of Brahmans who were Ayudhajivins or the followers of military art. The Greeks call them Brachmanoi and locate them in middle Sind (Arrian, VI.16) of which the capital is still called Brahmanabad. (p.50).
8. Pāraskara (पारस्कर) - The name corresponds with Tharaparkar (Thara being the Sindhi form of Thala meaning dry country or desert, as opposed too Kachchha or Jangala country). Paraskara in name of mountain and term Pārakara for non mountainous region such as Tharparkar. (p.51)
9. Kachchha (कच्छ) - Kachchha represented the water-logged portions in the south as against dry area of north. Kachchha was historically connected with Sindh forming province in 7th century when Yuan Chwang visited the country. The inhabitants of Kachchha were called Kāchchhaka. (p.51)
11. Madra (मद्र) (IV.2.131) - Madra was a part of Vahika country with its capital at Sākala = Sialkot. Mahabharata mentions Sākala as the chief city of Vahikas on the Āpagā River. Panini does not explain the derivation of Vahika but Katyayana derives it from Bahis, outside, with the sufiix īkak (IV.1.85.5). This seems to agree with the epic description of Vahika as the country of five rivers but lying outside the pale of Aryan society, devoid of religion and impure (Karnaparva, 44.7.32). (p.52)
[p.53]: Panini mentions three divisions of Vahika Country, viz Kekaya, Uśīnara and Madra. Fourth division to be added to Vahika country is Śavasa. Of these Kekaya and Śavasa may be located between Jhelum and Chenab, the first in the south and second in north respectively; Madra and Ushinara between the Chenab and Ravi River in the north and south respectively. (p.53)
The Divyadana refers to the Shvasas in Uttarapatha with headquarters at Takshasila to which Ashoka was deputed by his father Bindusara as Viceroy to quell their rebellion. The name of Savasa or Shvasa seems to be preserved in in the modern name Chhiba comprising of Punchh, Rajauri and Bhimbhara. In literature Ushinaras are often associated with the Śibis (greek - Siboi) whose chief town Śibipura has been identified with Shorkot in Jhang district. (p.53)
13. Ambashṭha (अंबष्ठ) (VIII.3.97) - It is a janapada under a monarchy. Mahabharata locates them in the north-west and describes them as a kingship. Ambashṭhas may be taken as Greek Abastanoi or Sambastai on the lower course of the Chenab. (p.53)
14. Trigarta (त्रिगर्त) (V.3.116) - It is mentioned by Panini as ayudhajivi sangha, and a confederation of six states known as Trigarta-Shashtha. The name Trigarta denotes the region drained by three Rivers: Ravi, Beas & Satluj, and corresponds to the Jalandhar group of states which had retained their geographical identity all these years. It contains Pātānaprastha (=Paithan or Pathankot) situated at the entrance of Kangra Valley. (p.53)
[p.54]: The central portion of the Trigarta formed by the Valley of the Beas was also named Kulūta (same as the Uluka of Sabhaparva (27.5-16), now known as the Kulū. Its ancient capital was at Nagara on the Beas. Maṇḍamatī was perhaps Maṇḍi, lying to south of Kuluta. Panini mentions special mention of Bhārgāyaṇa Gotra in the Trigarta Country (IV.1.111). (p.54)
15. Kalakūṭa (कलकूट)/(कालकूट) (IV.1.173) - Sabhaparva calls it Kālakūṭa (कालकूट) and makes it a part of Kulinda conquered by Arjuna. Panini's Kuluna seems to be same as Kulinda and later Kuṇinda. Kulinda (Greek: Kulindrini was known to Ptolemy as an extensive country including the region of lofty mountains wherein the Beas, the Satluj, the Yamuna and Ganga had their sources. The Kalakūṭa lay some where in this area, with possible traces of its name in modern Kalka in Simla Hills. (p.54)
16. Kuru (कुरु) (IV.1.172) - It was known to Panini as a janapada and a Kingdom. Hastinapura (VI.2.101) was its capital. The region between triangle of Thanesar, Hisar and Hastinapur was known by three different names. Kururashtra proper between Ganga River and Yamuna with its capital Hastinapur; Kurujangala equal to Rohtak, Hansi, Hisar; and Kurukshetra to the north with its centres at Thaneswar, Kaithal, Karnal. (p.54)
17. Sālva (शाल्व) (IV.2.135). It was confined to limited geographical horizon in the central and north eastern Punjab. Shalva may coincide with the territory extending from Alwar to north Bikaner. Salvas were ancient people who migrated from west through Baluchistan and Sindh where they left traces in the form of Śālvakāgiri, the present Hala mountain, and then advancing towards north Sauvira and along the Saraswati and finally settled in north Rajasthan. (p.55)
- Sālveyaka (शाल्वेयक) - Shālveyakas are mentioned as separate people in Mahabharata, grouped with Matsyas in their fight with the King Susharma of Trigarta (Virataparva.29.2). They must be same as Shalvaputra mentioned in Udyogaparva (4.24). The name Sālvaputra may still be traced in Alwar region. The Sālveyas stood in relation to Shalvas as the Mādreyas to Madras. (p.56)
- Sālvāvayava (साल्वावयन) - Several members were grouped in this confederacy which include, 1. Udumbara, 2. Tilakhala, 3. Madrakāra, 4. Yugandhara, 5. Bhūliṅga, 6. Śaradaṇḍa (p.56)
- Udumbara (उदुम्बर) - The Udumbara territory is fixed by the find spots of their coins in the Kangra Valley, between Ravi River and Beas, and at Pathankot in Gurdaspur at its mouth. Udumbarāvati might be tributary river flowing through Udumbara country on which the town of the same name was situated. (p.56)
- Tilakhala (तिलखल) - Meaning 'the threshing floors of tila', identifies area south of the Beas comprising Hoshiarpur district. Tilakhala and Udumbara were immediate neighbours. Tilakhala is same as Tilabhāras of Bhismaparva (10.51) (p.56)
- Madrakāra (मद्रक) - Madrakāra signifies the warrior troops of Madras (kāra in old Parsian means army). Madra princess Savitri married with Salva prince Satyavan (Vanaparva, 279.15). Consequent to this marriage three new small kingdoms came into existence. 1. Sāvitrīputrakāḥ, 2. Madrakāraḥ and 3. Śālvasenyaḥ. Sāvitrīputrakāḥ represents hundred sons of Savitri and Satyavan. Putra denoted a clan such as Shakyaputras. Senā in Sanskrit denotes kāra in Iranian. (p.57)
- Madrakāra (मद्रकार) and Bhadrakāra (भद्रकार) are same. It seems that Bhadra situated on the Ghaggar near the north-eastern border of Bikaner was their old home. (p.57)
- Yugandhara (युगंधर) - Yugandhara should be somewhere in the region of Yamuna. It may be located in Ambala district between the Saraswati and upper Yamuna, where Jagadhari probably is a relic of old home.(p.57)
- Bhūliṅga (भूलिङ्ग) - Bhūliṅgas should be identified with Bolingae of Ptolemy settled in the north-west of Aravallis. Bhūliṅga seems to be same as Kulinga of Mahabharata (Bhismaparva,10.38) (p.58) and the Ramayana on the route connecting Saketa and Kekaya at the point where Śaradaṇḍa river was crossed. (p.58)
- Śaradaṇḍa (शारदंड) - Śaradaṇḍas must be settled along the Śaradaṇḍa River as mentioned above. Nothing is known about it. But the name indicates it is same as Saravati, which may be identified with the Drishadvati or Chitāṅg. (p.58)
- Ajamīḍha (अजमीढ़) and Ajakranda - Here prefix Aja is deity Asura Ajaka with whom king Shalva was identified as its incarnation. (Adiparva, 61.17) (p.58)
- Bodha (बोधा) - The Bodha also occur in the list of Bhishmaparva (10.37-38) in the same group as Kulingas, Sālvas and Mādreyas. [[Shalva] country had a special breed of bulls known as s Sālvaka. (p.58)
18. Pratyagratha (प्रत्याग्रथ) (IV.1.173) - Hemachandra refers to Pratyaga-rathas as belonging to Ahichchhatra region (Abhidhanachintamani,4.22). Panini mentions the River named Rathasthā (Ruhut or Ramaganga, 'that which brings chariot to a halt' a meaning suggested by Pratyagratha also. It may be taken as the 'chariot' of Aryans advancing towards east.(p.59)
19. Ajāda (अजाद) (IV.1.171) - Nothing is known about this janapda. It is connected with grazing of goats. It may be taken to be the Etawah district, the region between Chambal and Yamuna, famous for its goats. (p.59)
29. Kunti (कुंति) (IV.1.170) - Mahabharata speaks of Kunti as the region through which flowed the Ashva Nadi (Vanaparva, 308.7) a tributory of Chambal. Kunti is identified with Kontwar through which flows Kumari River. (p.60)
30. Aśhmaka (अश्मक) (IV.1.173) - Panini refers Avantyaśmakaḥ, showing their geographical proximity. Aśhmaka is named Assaka in Pali texts with its capital at Paithan Pratishthana on Godawari River. (p.61)
Panini refers to Taitila-Kadru (तितिल-कद्रु) (IV.2.42). Taitila country is known for horses. These horses came from Uttarakuru (north of Pamir in Central Asia). Taitila-Kadru is same as Tittirakalmāsha (तित्तिरिकल्माष) of Sabhaparva (II.28.6,19) (II.47.4). Taitila is synonymous with Kalinga , which may be identified with Titilgarh, south of Sambalpur in Orissa. (p.61)
In the above list the following janapadas mark the extreme points of Panini's geographical korizon, Kamboja in the north, Sauvira in the west, Asmaka in the south, Kalinga in the south-west and Suramasa in the east. (p.61)
[p.62]: Gaṇa-pāṭha furnishes some additional names of janapadas, viz.,
- Barbara (बर्बर) (IV.3.93), on the sea cost near the mouth of Indus where the port of Barbarika was situated; (p.62)
- Kashmira (कश्मीर) (IV.2.133, IV.3.93) (p.62)
- Uraśā (उरशा) (IV.3.93) = modern Hazara(p.62)
- Darad (दर्द)(IV.3.93) = modern Dardistan(p.62)
- Gabdika (गबदिक) (IV.3.93) = modern Gadderan, homeland of the Gaddi tribe beyond Dhaulidhar in the Chamba Valley. (p.62)
- Paṭachchara (पटच्चर) (IV.2.110) = probably modern Pataudi(p.62)
- Yakṛil-loman (यकृल लोमान)(IV.2.110) = mentioned in Bhishmaparva (9.46) and Virataparva (5.4), cooresponding to the region between Etawah in the north, Jalaun and Orai in the south, and Kalpi in the east.(p.62)
- Sarvasena (सर्वसेन) (IV.3.92) = described as a dry region(p.62)
- Rishika (ऋषिक) - The Rishika occurs in Mahabharata as part of Sakadvipa, Arjuna conquered Rishikas across the Vakshu (Oxus), which flowed through the Saka country. Rishikas were later known as Yuechis, whose language was called Ārśi.(p.62)
- Jihnu (जिहनु) - perhaps modern Jhind (p.62)
Ch. II, Section-5: Towns and Villages
[p.63]: Units of settlement comprised 1. nagara (town), 2. grāma (village), 3. ghosha (abode of herdsmen) (VI.2.85), 4. kheṭa (hamlets) (VI.2.126)
The Greek accounts testify to the existence of about 500 towns in the Vahika Country.
Endings of place names:
1. Nagara (नगर) (IV.2.142), e.g. Mahanagara and Navanagara as names of towns 'not in the north' but in the east. Mahanagara is to be identified with Mahasthana, the capital of north Bengal or Pundra and Navanagara with the Navadvipa, the capital of west Bengal or Vanga.
[p.64]: In between Mahanagara and Navanagara lay Gauḍapura (VI.2.100), modern Gauḍa, an important town in route from Champa to Mahasthana and an important centre of guḍa manufacturing in the Pundra Country.
2. Pura (पुर) (IV.2.122) - Panini mentions following Pura ending names of towns e.g.
- Mārdeyapura (VI.2.100) - probably Mandawar in Bijnor district where the ancient route to Hastinapura crossed the Ganga River on the opposite bank.
- Nāndīpura (IV.2.104) - Patanjali mentions as Vahikagrama,
- Kāntipura (IV.2.122) -
- Śivadattapura (VI.2.99) and
3. Grama (ग्राम) (IV.2.142) - Patanjali mentions grama called Ashukāmaśami
4. Kheṭa (खेट) (VI.2.126) - a small hamlets; Hindi and Gujarati Kheṛa
5. Ghosha (घोष) (VI.2.85) - a settlement of of cowherds (abhīrā-palli)
6-9. Kūla (कूल), Sūda (सूद), Sthala (स्थल), Karsha (कर्ष) (VI.2.129) - Examples: Dākshikūla, Māhakikūla, Devasūda, Bhājīsūda, Dākshikarsha,
10-11. Tīra (तीर) and Rūpya (रूप्य) (IV.2.106) - The Kāśikā mentions
12-15. Kachcha (कच्छ), Agni (अग्नि) , Vaktra (वक्त्र), Garta (गर्त) (IV.2.106) - No examples of these found in Sutras and Patanjali, but there was a well known sea-port called Bhrigukachchha called Broach. Kasika instances Daru-kachchha and Pipalli-kachchha (Rajpipla near the mouth of Narmada; under agni again Kāṇḍāgni and Vibhujāgni (modern Bhuj); under vaktra Indravaktra and Sindhuvaktra; under garta Bahugarta and Chakragarta.
Standing at the head of Gulf of Cambay, we have to our left Pippalli-kachchha, the sea cost of Pippali comprising the delta area of Sabarmati, Mahi River, Narmada, and Tapti Rivers of which the old name is preserved in Pipla or Rajpipla. To our right is the sea cost of Kathiawar, literally equivalent of Daru-kachchha (Dāru=kāshṭa).
Agni refers to a burning sandy tract, equivalent to Skt Iriṇa or Rann. Vibhujāgni refers to Rann of Cutch-
Of the names ending with garta, Bahugarta and Chakragarta: Bahugarta refers most likely to the valley of Sabarmati Skt Śvabhramatī, literally the river of holes or pits (Śvabhra=hole, pit). Chakragarta refers to the region of Chakratirtha on the Gomati River near Dwarka in Prabhasa-kshetra.
Panini refers garta-ending names again in sutra IV.2.137 and separately mentions Trigarta.
16. Palada (पलद) (IV.2.142) - Palada is found in such names as Dākshi-palada. This word in atharvaveda denotes straw. It may indicate a place in vicinity of which stumps of weeds and grasses are found.
17. Arma (अर्म) (VI.2.90) - Panini mentions Bhūtārma,
[p.67]: Adhikarma, Sanjivarma, Madrarma, Ashmarma, and Kajjalarma, to which the Kasika adds Dattārma, Guptārma, Kukkuṭārma, Vāyasārma, Brihadārma, Kapinjalārma, Mahārma, Navārma. The word arma indicates a village in ruins and deserted.
18. Vaha (वह) (IV.2.122) - Panini mentions Piluvaha (Pilwa ?) in sutra VI.3.121 on which the Kasika adds Rishivaha, Kapivaha, Munīvaha, Pindavaha (=Pindwara?), Daruvaha and Phalgunivaha (probably modern Phagwara, IV.2.122). Patanjali adds name Kukkuḍivaha as a Vahika-grama.
20. Prastha (प्रस्थ) (IV.2.122, IV.2.110) - Panini mentions Karkīprastha and Mālāprastha in sutra VI.2.87-88, and in the Ganapatha adds: Maghī-prastha, Makarī-prastha, Karkandhū-prastha, Shami-prastha, Karīra-prastha, Kaṭika-prastha, Kavala-prastha, Badarī-prastha, Shālā-prastha, Shoṇā-prastha (Sonepat), Drākshā-prastha, Kshaumā-prashtha, Kanchi-prastha, Eka-prastha, Kāma-prastha.
In Pali text Prastha denotes a place outside the grama, a waste land not used by men either for ploughing or sowing. It may be noted that places ending with the Prastha (Hindi=pat) are confined mostly to Kuru Country, such as Panipat, Sonipat, Baghpat, Tilpat etc. and to the region of Himalayas watered by Ganges.
Kanthā was a Saka word for a town as in the expression kadahvara= kanthāvara occurring in a Khroshthi inscription. "Here belongs Sogdian expression kanda- "city" and Saka kantha "city" earlier attested in Markantha". H W Bellew also points out that Persian word Kand, Khotanese Kanthā, Sogdian, Buddhist Sanskrit kndh Pasto Kandai, Asica (the dielect of Rishikas or Yuchi) kandā are all akin to Sanskrit Kanthā.
It may be noted that in the time of Panini and as stated by Darius I, in his Inscriptions, the Shakas were living beyond Oxus. That region naturally still abounds in Kanthā-ending place names, such as Samarkand, Khokand, Chimkand, Tashkent, Panjkand, Yarkand, all indicating Saka influence.
The Mahabharata speaks of the Sakas as living in this region, named by it as Sakadvipa, and particularly mentions places like Chakshu (=Oxus), Kumud (=Komedai of Herodotus, a mountain in the Shaka country), Himavat (=Hemodan mountain), Sita (=Yarkand River, Kaumara (=Komarai of Herodotus), Mashaka (=Masagetai of Strabo, Rishika (=Asioi, Tushara (=Tokarai).
[p.69]: How a string of kanthā-ending place names was found in Ushinara country in the heart of Punjab, is an unexplained problem. It points to an event associated with Shaka history even before Panini, possibly an intrusion which left its relics in place names before the Saka contact with India in the second century BC. Katyayana mentions Shakandhu and Karkandhu, two kinds of wells of the Shakas and Karkas (Karkians), which may be identified as the stepped well (vāpī) and the Persian wheel (arghaṭṭa) well respectively.
Ch.II, Towns in the Gaṇas
[p.72]: The gaṇas (गण) mention the names of about 500 towns. Of these more famous are noticed here, while a full list is given in Appendix.
1. Saunetra (सौनेत्र) - modern Sunet in Ludhiana district, three miles south west of Ludhiana town, with a large mound and other ruins indicative of an old city; here were found Yaudheya, Āgreya and other coins of the pre-Christian period.
4. Śrāvastī (श्रावस्ती) (IV.2.97) -
5. Vārāṇasi (वाराणसी) (IV.2.97) -
6. Kauśāmbī (कौशाम्बी) (IV.2.97) -
8. Saubhūta (सौभूत) (IV.2.75) - usually identified with the kingdom of Sophytes mentioned by Greek writers. The place is especially noted for the breed of dogs whose fame spread to Greece before Alexander's time. The Ramayana also refers to similar dogs in the Kekaya Country in the Salt Range. It describes them as bred in the Royal kennels, stron like tigers, big in size and with big teeth. It was probably this breed of dogs that was referred to by Panini Kauleyaka (IV.2.96). Saubhūta was thus part of Kekaya in the Salt Range.
Madranagara (मद्रनगर) in the north (VII.3.24); and
[p.73]: According to Greek writers Punjab was full of towns, centres of Industry and economic prosperity. Many of these figured as forts of centres of defence such as the famous town of Massage (Maśkāvatī) or Aornos (Varṇā) in the country of Ashvakas.
The free clan called the Glaukanikoi (identical with the Glauchukāyanakas of Kashika on Panini IV.3.99) whose country lay in the fertile and populous regions lying in the south of Kashmir (the Bhimber and Rajauri districts) between the upper courses of the Jhelum and Chenab and the Ravi River, had as many as 37 cities, the smallest of which contained not less than 5000 inhabitants and up to 10000. Strabo affirms that in the territories of nine nations situated between Jhelum and Beas, such as the Malloi, Oxydrakai and others, there were as many as 500 cities.
[p.74]: The accounts of Greek historians are not exaggerated as only list attached to two sutras IV.2.75 and IV.2.80 we have about 500 names, and these may be further augmented if we add the testimony of other ganas as those headed by Suvāstu (IV.2.77), Varaṇa (IV.2.82), Madhu (IV.2.86), Utkara (IV.2.90) , Naḍa (IV.2.91), Kattri (IV.2.95), Nadī (IV.2.97), Kashi (IV.2.116), Dhūma (IV.2.127), Karkī (IV.2.87), Chihaṇa (IV.2.125), etc. This makes about 750 towns, a case of curious coincidence with Greek writers. Probably both Panini and Greek Geographers depended on a common source of tradition. The grammatical literature is now a valuable source of information regarding the old and forgotten cities of cities of India. This literature like Xuanzang's travels has preserved land marks in the light of which archaeological old sites may be verified. It may be further noted that certain names of tribes and gotras as recorded in the ganas point to places with which they were connected.
Chapter III: Social Life
Chapter III: Social Life - Section 1: Caste
[p.75]: Society in Panini's time was based on Varnashramadharma i.e. on Castes and Ashramas or stages into which life was divided. Panini twice uses the vedic term Varna for caste (V.2.132), (VI.3.184), which is more often referred to by the specific term Jāti adopted in later legal texts. (II.1.63, VI.3.41).
Brahmanas : There were four principal castes which Katyayana mentioned as Chuturvarnya (V.1.124). These were to be mentioned in their order of status, as pointed out definitely by Katyayana in varttika on Panini (II.2.34) as Brahmana - Kshatriya - Viṭ - Shudrah (Bhashya, I.436). Thus Brahman was the highest caste.
[p.76]: Panini knows of the practice of Brahmanas being named after the localities to which they belonged by birth (V.4.104) of which the Kashika cites following examples : Avanti-Brahmanah and Surashtra-Brahmanah. Such names are precursors of the later terms like Kanyakubja, Sarasvata, Maharshtra and Gurjara Brahmanas. A degraded Brahman was called ku-bramah (V.4.105), while a brahmana preeminent in his duties was called maha-brahmah (V.4.105)
Kshatriya: Panini mentions Kshatriya caste in connection with Gotras, Janapadas and Sanghas. For example the Kuru Gotra appeared both in Brahmanas (IV.1.151) and Kshatriyas (IV.1.172). If the father was a Brahmana, he and his young (yuvan) son were both called Kauravya but if Kshatriya they would be Kauravya and Kauravyāyaṇi (II.4.58, Kashika). Andhaka and Vrishni were Kshatriya Gotras. As to Kshatriyas associated with the janapadas, they as original founders gave their name to the region where they settled down (IV.1.168), the ruling families being designated as janapadins (IV.3.100); e.g. Panchala country named after Panchala Kshatriyas; similarly Dardistan from Darads, Johiyawar (Bahawalpur) from Yaudheyas; Malwa (in Ferozpur-Ludhiana) from ancient Malavas (now called Malavais). Panini especially mentions the Vahika Sangha (V.3.114), some dominated by Brahmans as ruling caste (Gopalavas), others by Rājanyas and called Rājanyaka (IV.2.53), most likely referring to Ranas of Hill states. The majority were Kshatriya sanghas, as Kshudrakas, Malavas (V.3.114, Kashika), Vṛikas (V.3.115), Yaudheyas (V.3.117). Distinguished Kshatriya heroes had become objects of religious bhakti (IV.3.99) before Panini time, referring to the popular cult of hero worship.
Rājanya - In the Samhitas Rājanya is a synonymous term with Kshatriya. Panini had retained the old sense of the word in sutra (IV.2.39), where as he has used it in a new constitutional significance in sutra VI.2.34 (Rajanya-bahuvachana-dvandve Andhaka- Vrishnishu), where as Kashika defines Rājanya as a member of such families in Kshatriya tribe as were consecrated to rulership (abhishikta-vaṁśya kshatriya)
Sudra: Panin refers some Sudras living within the pale of
[p.78]: the Aryan society (anirvasita, II.4.10), implying that there were other sudras, probably aboriginal peoples, who were yet to be assimilated in the Aryan society.
Patanjali makes clear makes clear the social status of the sudras in his time. Firstly there were sudras who were not excluded from Aryavrata but were living within its social system. Secondly, there was another class of sudras who were living outside Aryavrata and its society. He cites as examples (1) Kishkindha-Gabdikam (2) Shaka-Yavanam and (3) Saurya-Krauncham. Of these Kishkindha may be identified with Pali Khukhunndo in Gorakhpur, Gabdikā with Gaddis of Chamba, who were deemed as living outside the limits of Aryavrata, Saurya with Saureyya or Soron in Etah district and Krauncha with the later Krauncha-dvara some where in Garhwal.
The Shakas and Yavanas were who are termed sudras were not yet parts of Aryan society and were outside and were outside Aryavrata in Patanjali time. The Aryan society was at pains to repel the invasion of the Yavanas (Greeks under the leadership of Demetrius and Menander and this hostility must have emphasized the cleavage between them. The Shakas geographical were living outside the borders of India in the second century B.C. But in the first century B.C. we find Shaka settlements springing up Takshashila, Ujjayini and Mathura.
Thirdly, there were sudras who had separate settlements of their own within Aryan colonies (aryanivasa), such as grāma (village), a ghosha (cattle ranch), a nagara (town), a saṁvāha (caravana camp). Examples of such sudras are Mṛitapas (undertakers), Chāṇdālas, who were of the lowest grade.
Fourthly, there was another class of sudras who were entrusted with some of the work connected with yajñas or sacrifices as carpenters (takshā), metal workers (ayaskāra), washermen (rajaka) and weavers (tantuvāya).
There were also sudra untouchables who had to take their food in their own utensils and note in those of house hold, while there were others who were not subject to this restriction as
[p.79]: being more closely associated with the household (II.4.10, I.475).
Arya and Dasa: ....
[p.80]: Mixed caste: Panini uses term anuloma and pratiloma (V.4.75) which are well known in later smritis texts. The Ashtadhyayi mentions names Ambashṭha and Āmbashṭha (VIII.3.97). These were a republican people in Punjab. They are taken to be a mixed caste in the smritis, as the offspring of a Brahman husband Vaishya wife.
Panini also knows a class of people called udakahūra (or udahāra, VI.3.60) 'drawer of water', who may be taken as a caste (Hindi kahāra).
It may be noted that Katyayana also knows of a special caste mahasudra with its female mahasudri. The Kashika explains the term to mean Ābhīras regarded as higher sudras.
Chapter III: Section-2, Ashramas.... [p.80-84]
Chapter III: Section-3, Marriage.... [p.85-]
[p.85] The house holder's life began with marriage. Its ceremony was performed round the fire as witness. Panini refers to marriage by word upayamana (I.2.16), which he explains as sva-karaṇa, i.e. 'the bridegroom making the bride his own' (I.3.56). The marriage ceremony was solemnized by pāṇigrahaṇa, 'the holding by the bridegroom of the bride's hand'.
[p.88]: Wife - The bride is called janī and the maids in attendance who conducted her to the prospective husband janyāḥ. The newly wedded bride was called by the vedic name sumaṅgalī, which Panini as current in later in later sanskrit also. The term jāyā was used for the wife with reference to ideal to the ideal of motherhood, where as Patnī as stated above denoted her religious function (IV.1.33). She is also called Jānī.
Mother: The practice of naming sons after their mothers was also known to Panini. Sometimes son is extolled for the virtues of his mother, e.g. bhadramātura, a son of a noble mother (IV.1.115) and kalyāṇineya, son of a beautiful mother (IV.1.126). In case of doubtful parentage, the son was names according to the mother's Gotra, e.g. Gārgika, son of Gārgī a female descendant of the Garga gotra; but such names after the mother involved social opprobrium (kutsana, IV.1.47).
Civic status of women: women were distinguished as members of largser associations than the family. They were
[p.89]: were known by the Gotras and the janapdas or states to which they belonged, e.g. Avantī (the lady of Avanti janapada), Kuntī (of Kunti), Kurū (of Kuru) (IV.1.176); Bhārgī (of Bharga janapda, a part of Trigarta Country), Yaudheyī (woman of Yaudheya janapda) and similarly Pānchālī, Vaidehī, Āṅgī, Vāṅgī, Mṅgīgadhi, hailing from those eastern janapadas implied in the Sutra (IV.1.178). The Ganapatha adds other names such as Kārūshī, Kaikeyī, Kashmīrī, Sālvī, Shubhreyī, Shukareyī, Bhāratī, Aushinari etc. It is also laid down that female plural names derived from Gotra and janapada should be distinguished in their formation from those of the male members, and this distinction was brought out by retaining the female denoting the suffix e.g. a bevy of woman of Yaska gotra was named as Yāskyāḥ (II.4.63) and Āṅga woman as Āṅgyaḥ (II.4.62). A peculiarity of names of women in the eastern country was the addition of the suffix āyana (IV.1.17), e.g. a female descendant of Garga Gotra was called Gārgyāyanī in the east corresponding to modern Gargāin, a feature preserved specially Bhojpuri district.
Ch. III, Section 5: Social Formations
[p.91]: These include in the descending order the following –
1. Janapada (जनपद), 2. Varṇa (वर्ण), 3. Jāti (जाति), 4. Gotra (गोत्र), 5. Sapiṇḍa (सपिण्ड), 6. Sanābhi (सनाभि), 7. Jñāti (ज्ञाति), 8. Saṁyukta (संयुक्त), 9. Kula (कुल), 10. Vaṁśa (वंश), and 11. Gṛihapati (गृहपति)
Janapada (जनपद) - Panini is acquainted with a number of Janapadas or States. To start with, a wandering Jana which was a Kshatriya clan, settled down in a particular region (Jana-pada), which came to be named after it. In times, other people also came to settle in it, whence arose the conception of common citizenship binding them to the Janapada. It marked the evolution from racial (Jana) to the territorial (Janapada) basis of citizenship embracing a variety of peoples. The citizens bound in loyalty to a common Janapada were called Sajanapadas (VI.3.85), nationals of the same state.
The Vedic Bharata Jana, for instance, became settled in the region called Bharata, where were also settled later on other people giving rise to the territorial conception of citizenship replacing clan. Thus it marked a great progress in political evolution.
The Governing class of each Janapada, how ever, was distinguished from the the rest of its citizens by the designation Janapadins (VI.3.100), or the citizens proper as an elect body or nucleus representing the original settlers.
A typical Janapada was peopled by four principal castes and other mixed castes so that its population was heterogeneous.
Varṇa (वर्ण) and Jāti (जाति) – Panini mentions members of the same as Savarṇa (from samāna varna, VI.3.85) . However, term Jati is more is used more often for caste. In early Vedic texts it had only the sense of family.
[p.92]: In Ashtadhyayi an individual member of a caste is designated bandhu in relation to his Jati. ‘The affix chha is added (īya) is added to a word ending in the word jati, when it denotes a bandhu’. The term bandhu implies relationship, thus pointing to the fact that the jati had evolved out of the common bond of mutual kinship.
The Gotra name of a person on the basis of his Gotra must have been a matter of considerable practical importance. In the Jatakas we often find the Gotra name of a person asked along with his personal name. This is shown by Panini having prescribed elaborate rules for the formation of gotra names, e.g. Father – Garga, son Gārgi , grandson – Gārgya, great grandson – Gārgyāṇa.
Sapiṇḍa (सपिण्ड) – The word Sapinda is peculiar to the Sutra literature but there is no trace of it either in Samhitas, or the Brahmanas and Aranyaka. Dharmshastra works explain Sapinda as blood relations up to the 7th degree on the father’s and 5th degree on mother’s side (Manu, V.60). Panini writes that a great grandson was called yuvan, when a more elderly Sapinda i.e either his uncle or grand-uncle was alive.
Sanābhi (सनाभि) – Sanābhi is equal to samāna nabhi, i.e. those connected with a common nabhi or umbilical cord (VI.3.85) , thus bringing within its fold all the blood relations of different degrees.
[p.93]: In Manu Sanābhya is taken as Sapinda.
Jñāti (ज्ञाति) – Jñati mentioned in Sutra (VI.2.133) is explained by the Kashika as comprising ‘all relations on the mother’s and father’s side’. (Jñātayo mātri-pitri sambandhino bāndhavāḥ, VI.2.133). Panini considers Jñati to be synonymous with sva i.e. kinsmen and paternal relations (I.1.35).
Saṁyukta (संयुक्त) – Jñati and Samyukta occur in the same Sutra (VI.2.133), the latter formed a smaller social unit than the former. The Kashika says that the Samyuktas included relations on the wife’s side only, as brother-in-law and others, which means that the wife’s Jñatis were the Samyukta relations of the husband. Among Samyuktas Panini himself mentions śvasura-śvaśurū i.e. father-in-law and mother-in-law (I.2.71) , and śvaśurya, i.e. or brother-in-law (IV.1.137)
Family (Kula) (कुल) - The family was considered to be fundamental unit or nucleus of society in ancient India. Society was an aggregate of families, each comprising several members under the headship of the father, or in his absence elder brother, and as far as possible partaking a common household. Panini calls family a Kula (IV.1.139, IV.2.96).
The word Kulīna (कुलीन) ‘of eminent family’ (IV.1.139) indicated high descent. The epithet Mahākula was indicative of still higher family status. Panini refers to the members of these distinguished families as Mahākulīna, and Mahākula (IV.1.141).
[p.94]: Vaṁśa (वंश) – Vaṁśas could be both natural and cultural in their character. The spiritual lineage is called by Panini Vidyā-sambandha, and natural lineage Yoni-sambandha (IV.3.77, VI.3.23) . The spiritual lineage is represented by a succession of teachers and pupils. The natural lineage is traced both on the father’s and mother’s sides as pointed out by Patanjali. (IV.1.147, II.261).
It was the duty of the pupils to recite the succession lists of the teachers of Schools to which they belonged. A few such genealogies are preserved in Vedic works.
Family pedigrees also seem to be carefully preserved by counting the number of its generations from the original founder. Patanjali cites ekaviṁshati-Bhārdvājam, meaning that there were 21 descendants in the line of Bhārdvāja (I.499).
A second instance is tripañchāsad-Gautamam (Pat. I.499 on II.4.84), meaning that there were already counted 53 generations of the descendants of Gautamas. These numbers afford valuable chronological data for computing their time allowing 25 years to a generation. Thus the first Bhārdvāja should be dated to about 20x25 = 500 years earlier and the first Gautama to about 52x25 = 1300 years earlier than the time when the two illustrations were adopted. It may be noted as a striking resemblance that the Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad also knows only of 57 generations of teachers. It may be surmised that perhaps this stock-example of 53 Gautamas dates from the time when the Vamsa lists were being
[p.95]: compiled in Brahmana period. We may also note that the Gautama family with which this example is connected was an important family famous for its learning as represented in its several descendants like Aruṇa, Uddālaka Aruṇi, and his son Śvetaketu Āruṇeya in the Upanishads.
The Sutra IV.1.163 mentions the two terms Vaṁsya and Yuvā which denoted the great grand-father and the great grand-son respectively as being alive at the same time. As stated above, suffixes were added to indicate these distinctions as in the series of Garga-Gārgāyaṇa.
Gṛihapati (गृहपति) – The smallest social formation was Gṛiha, its master being called Grihapati (IV.4.90), in whom vested the supreme authority of the family. Generally father was the Grihapati, but after him his eldest son. Sutra IV.1.164 points out that the younger brother was called yuvā, when he was under the guardianship of his elder brother as the head of the family.
The family system was called Gārhapata, of which Panini cites the example of Kuru-Gārhapatam (VI.2.42) i.e. the family system in the Kuru Country, to which Katyayana adds another example, viz., Vriji-Gārhapatam i.e. the family system in the Vriji Country.
Chapter IV: Economic Conditions
Section-1: Vritti (Economy),p.194
Chapter VII: Polity and Administration
Section-3:Law and Justice-416
Section-5:Political Sangha or Gana-424
Section-7: Ayudhajivi Sanghas-434
Section-8:Names of Republics-443
Monarchy – Titles and terms :Panini refers to a monarchical state as Rājya (VI.2.103), derived from Rājan or king, as distinguished from Sangha or Republic. The term Ishvara in the Ashtadhyayi denotes a Raja. In early literature Isvara meant an earthly king and not God. The Nighanṭu makes rāshṭri, arya, niyutvān and ina as names of Ishvara. Of these arya is referred to by Panini synonymous with svami (III.1.103). (p.398)
Another title of Rājā in Panini is Bhūpati (VI.2.19) . It means ‘lord of the earth’. The word Adhipati mentioned along with svami and Ishvara (II.3.39). (p.398)
The words Samrāj and Mahārāja were old kingly titles. (p.399)
Mahishī (महिषी) (Queen) – (IV.4.48) : The queen had a official position in Hindu polity. She was crowned jointly with the king. Panini mentions the Chief Queen as Mahishi. (p.404)
Crown Prince – The general term for ‘prince’ in the Ashtadhyayi is Rājaputra (राजपुत्र) (IV.2.39) and Rājakumara (VI.2.59). Of all his sons the king selected the son of the Chief Queen as Crown-prince or Yuvarāja. In this connection Panini makes an important reference to Arya-Kumāra, i.e. Chief Prince. Samudragupta was addressed as Arya by his father at the time of his selection to the throne. In Jatakas the crown-prince is called uparājā. In one instance, of the two brothers, one is made uparaja and the younger one senāpati. On the death of the king uparaja the uparaja becomes raja and senapati becomes uparaja. (Jat.VI.30) (p.405)
Ch.VII, Section 2 Government – The king was the head of the Govt in monarchical state or ekarāja state. He was assisted in his work by a ministerial council or Parishad, and also possessed a larger body called Sabhā. The Chief Minister (Arya-Brahmana), Chief Priest (Purohita), the Crown-Prince (Arya-Kumara, same as Aryaputra of the minor rock edict of Brahmagiri), and the commander of the army (Senapati) have received mention in the Ashtadhyayi. (p.408)
Administrative Officers – Ayukta (आयुक्त) was a general term for Govt servants. (II.3.40). When they were assigned special jobs they were called Niyukta (नियुक्त). (p.408)
Other special officers whose names ended in agāra were Devāgārika for temples, Bhāndāgarika for stores, Personal attendants such as Chhatradhāra, bearer of the royal umbrella, Tūṇidhāra, bearer of the quiver of arrows, and Bhringāradhāra, bearer of king’s spittoon, were of the niyukta class. (p.408)
The most important officers were Adhyakshas mentioned in Sutra (VI.2.17). They were heads of the Govt Departments. (p.409)
Yukta – Class of subordinate officers whom Panini calls Yuktārohī (VI.2.81). (p.409)
Panini mentions some other subordinate officers like – Gopāla, cowherds; Tantipāla, goatherds; and yavapāla, the guards of barley fields. (VI.2.78). Tantipala is also mentioned in Virata Parva (XI.8) (p.409)
The Pālas of Panini (Pāle, VI.2.78) form a class of officers, of whom Kautilya mentions – nadīpāla, dravyapāla, vanapāla, nāgavanapāla, antapāla, durgapāla, and the Mahabharata refers to Sabhāpāla (Adiparva, 222.16), in addition to Gopala and Tantipala, known also to Panini. Later we get vihārapāla, ārāmapāla, and dhammapāla in the Buddhist traditions. (p.410)
Kshetrakara, an officer for surveying fields, and lipikara, a scribe, (III.2.21), with the variant form of libikar, were both subordinate officials were known in Mauryan Administration. (p.410)
Duta – The Dūta or emissary was named after the country to which he was deputed. The term Pratishkasha also denoted a messenger. Couriers were called Jaṅghākara (III.2.21), corresponding to Jaṅghārika of Kautilya (Arth, II.1, p.46). (p.410)
Panini refers to a special term yaujanika, to denote a courier travelling one yojana (V.1.74) (p.410)
Secret means employed in the espionage office were called upanishat, a pejorative sense of the original word Upanishad, which denoted occult or mystic doctrine (I.4.79). (p.413)
Sources of Revenue – Panini makes a general reference to Sources of Revenue as āyasthāna. (p.413)
Panini himself refers to the payment of imposts called shulka (V.1.47). (p.414)
Specific mention is made of śauṇḍika or income derived from excise. (IV.3.76). Kautilya states that the excise department was maintained as a state monopoly. śuṇḍika was the name of distilling plant, so called from the elongated condenser tube (Shundika) attached to the pot. Several specimen have been found at Takshasila from Kushana level. (p.414)
In śuṇḍikadika gana we find reference to other heads of income, as platforms (sthaṇḍila), probably let out in market places, wells (udapāna), stone quarries (upala), ferries (tirtha), land (bhumi), grasses (triṇa), leaves (parṇa), the last two items indicating to what limits the sources of revenue were exploited. (p.414)
Art of war – The Āyudhajīvīns were warrior tribes organized on a military basis into Sanghas, occupying mostly the Vahika or Punjab. Their member were known as Āyudhīya, ‘making a living by the profession of arms’ (Āyudhena jīvati, IV.4.14). We know that these soldiers put up the stoutest resistance against the Greeks in the 4th century BC. (p.422)
The Ashvakayanas of Masakavati and the Malavas, all ayudhajivins, constituted the finest soldiery, which extorted the admiration of foreigners. The Kshudrakas and Malavas (Ganapatha of IV.2.45) , we are informed by Katyayana, (p.422)
Ch. VII Section 5, Political Sangha or Gana
Chapter VII: Part-2, Republics in Panini, Section 5, Political Sangha or Gana:
Janapada and Janapadins: [p.424]: The Country was divided in to Janapadas, demarcated from one another by boundaries (IV.2.124). In Panini Janapada stands for Country and Janapadins for its citizens. The derivative meaning of the term Janapada points to the early stage of land taking by the Jana for a settled way of life. This process of the first settlement on the land had completed its final stage prior to the time of Panini. The Janapadas which were originally named after the peoples settled in them, dropped their tribal significance and figured as territorial units or regions. We find from Panini’s own statement that in the majority of the ancient Janapadas their original
[p.425]: Kshatriya settler still held sway and the political power was concentrated in their hands.
In this connection sutra VI.1.168, Janapada-shabdāt-kshatriya-añ, is important. Grammatically it teaches that the affix añ comes in the sense of a descendant after word which is both the name of a country and a Kshatriya tribe. Here the identity of the Janapadas and powerful Kshatriya clans settled there is repeated. These ruling Kshatriyas inhabiting the Janapadas were, as we are informed by Katyayana, governed by two fold constitutions; some were monarchies and some were Sanghas or republics.
Besides these names included in the sutras, there might be others which were implied in Panini’s rules, of which Patanjali mentions Videha, Panchala, Anga, Darva, Nipa, Sauvira, and Ambashtha, the latter two being mentioned in Ashtadhyayi in a different context. The Kings who ruled over these Janapadas were Kshatriyas, and the same word denoted both a descendant of Kshatriyas. i.e. a citizen and their king.
For example, Panchala was the name of a Kshatriya descendant of the Panchala tribe and also of the king of that Janapada. Similarly, Panchalah in the plural was the name of the country as well as name of the Kshatriya clan. Although a Janapada consists of other castes also besides the ruling Kshatriya caste, still the political sovereignty was in the hands of dominant Kshatriya clan who had founded that Janapada. This was a fact so patently recognized that Katyayana questions the advisability of including the word Kshatriya in Sutra IV.1.168. His point is that only the descendants of ruling tribe were designated by the apatya –denoting suffix added after the name of Janapada.
[p.426] : Patanjali definitely states that such words as Kshaudrakya and Mālavya denoted only a member of the Kshatriya caste, and not other sections of the population, such as the labourers and slaves living there (II.269) . No doubt there were Brahmans and other castes also inhabiting these Janapadas, but the political power was centred in the hands of Kshatriyas, and only in exceptional cases of any other caste.
Saṅgha – We have seen above that Katyayana takes Saṅgha as form of government distinct from Ekarāja, where sovereignty vested in one (ekādhīna) and not in many as in the Saṅgha (gaṇādhīna). This meaning is also born out by the rules of Panini. Panini speaks of Saṅgha as a generic term, applied to the following:
Firstly Saṅgha means ‘a multitude’ as in the expression –grāmya pashu sangha, a herd of domestic cattle. In the same sense it is applied to a multitude of human beings.
Secondly, a Saṅgha was a term for a nikāya, which is defined by Panini as a corporate body where the distinction of upper and lower does not exist (Saṅghe chānauttarādharye, III.3.42). This applied to a religious Sangha functioning as a fraternity without distinctions of high (uttara) and low (adhara).
Thirdly there is the sutra Saṅgha-odghau gaṇa-praśaṁsayoḥ (III.3.86), which speaks of the political Saṅgha technically known as Gaṇa. Sangha and Gana were used as synonymous for a republic. Panini speaks of the Yaudheyas as a Saṅgha, where as they refer to themselves as a Gana on their coins, albeit in the post Paninian period.
The religious Saṅgha – Panini mentions the religious Saṅgha as nikāya, as we have seen. The religious Sangha was a perfect copy of the political model except in one important respect. We shall presently see that the Kshatriya tribes organized as Sanghas, the political power vested in the hands of those families which were eligible for regular coronation and consecrated to ruler-ship.
[p.427]: by that ceremony. Other castes in the Gana did not share the political power, although they owed allegiance to Janapada and the Janapadins (IV.3.100). This distinction between castes did not obtain in the sphere of religious Sangha based on equality. Infact different orders in the religious Saṅgha or Church were known as nikayās, of which Buddhist Saṅgha in course of time developed 18. Not only Buddha but other religious teachers who were his contemporaries, e.g. Purāna Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, and others have been called Sanghino, heads of Saṅghas, Gaṇino, heads of Ganas, and Gaṇācharyo, teachers of Ganas. The Saṅgha spirit in Panini’s time had influenced every sphere of public life, political, economic, religious, social and educational. Like the political Sanghas, even Gotras and Charaṇas had their aṅka and lakshaṇa.
Ch. VII Section 6, Gana Polity
Rajanya as a Ruling caste in a Gana – [p.428]: The term Rājanya denoted Kshatriya descendant of a Raja, where as the others were called Rājana (IV.1.137). For example in the Andhaka-Vrishni Sangha, only some members bore the title Rajanya, as the descendant of Shvaphalaka, Chitraka, Sini, and Vasudeva, where as others like the Dvaipyas (inhabitants of the islands near sea cost) and Haimāyanas did not have that status although they too belonged to the Sangha (VI.2.34) . The Kashika defines Rajanya as abhishikta-vaṁshya Kshatriyas, i.e. leaders of families consecrated to ruler-ship. It appears from this that not all the members of a Sangha were entitled to exercise political power, which was the privilege of only the Governing class. It appears that the descendants of pioneer Kshatriyas who had settled on land and founded the Janapada State, treated political sovereignty as their privilege which was transmitted in their families from generation to generation. In spite of grown of population in a Janapda, the centre of power was not altered and the main authority continued to vest in Kshatriya hands. These Kshatriyas in a Sangha bore the title of Raja which was applied to the head of each family who represented his Kula in the Sangha assembly. The constitutional practice in the Sabhaparva (gṛihele gṛihe Rājānaḥ, 14.2) had reference to this feature of Sangha polity, the opposite of which was a Samrat Government. ....
The Lichchhavis are said to have comprised 7707 rajans living in Vesali, and it is stated in Lilita-vistara that each one of them thought: I am King, I am King. Panini mentions that Vrijis, of whose confederation
[p.429]: the Lichchhavis formed part. There is reference in the Jatakas to the Lichchhavi rulers consecrated to rulership by sprinkling sacred water on them (Jat. IV.148). A similar custom prevailed among the Andhaka-Vrishnis and other Sanghas.
Kula – The phrase Gana-Rajakula used in connection with Sangha of the Vrijis shows that political Sangha called Gana was composed of various Rajakulas or royal families and that the heads of these Rajakulas constituted the governing body of that Gana. This is confirmed by the Mahabharata which says that the members of Gana were equals of one another in respect of birth and family (Shantiparva, 107.30). Kautilya also states that Kula was the unit of a Sangha.
The Kula basis of the tribes appears to be vitally connected with a number of Paninian Sutras dealing with Gotrāpatya and yuvan descendants. Apart from those names which were Rishi gotras Panini also includes a number of tribal names in the lists dealt with in the Gotrapatya chapter. For example, in the very first sutra (IV.1.98) Kunja and Bradhna were not names of Rishi Gotra but of Vrātas, a class of rudimentary Sanghas of the Ayudhajivi pattern (V.3.113). The need for distinguishing the gotra-descendant from the yuvan-descendants should be understood clearly. In-fact in the social as well as political sphere, the family was the unit of representation, which was exercised through the head of each family, called Kula-vriddha (Shantiparva, 107.27). In grammatical literature, Panini refers to him as Vriddha, which was a pre-paninian term for Gotra. Panini in his grammar substituted Vriddha mostly by Gotra, stating that all the descendants of an ancestor in a family except the son of the founder were called Gotra (Apatyaṁ pautra-prabhṛiti gotram, IV.1.162).
[p.430]: During his life time the eldest male member who represented the family was the Gotra and the junior members were called Yuvan. Panini also uses a third term, viz. Vaṁśya, to designate him; this also appears to be a pre-paninian saṁjñā incidentally retained (IV.1.163).
Each individual was given his personal name and a Gotra name. The latter came in for special attention of grammarians owing to its importance in social and political life. According to Panini only one member in the family at a time was to retain the title Gotra, the rest were Yuvan. This implies that only one person, usually the oldest male member, represented his Kula on all important occasions and functions.
This family basis of Gana polity preserved the hereditary character of its ruler-ship vesting in the same families. The number and names of these families comprising the ruling class were carefully preserved as in the case of Lichchhavis whose number is stated 7707 in Pali literature. In the capital of Cheta state mention is made of 60000 khattiyas all of whom were styled Rājāno (Jat. VI.511), and must have represented so many Kshatriya members constituting that State. The craze for constituting new republics had reached its climax in the Vahika country and north-west India where clans consisting of as many as one hundred families only organized as Ganas, as in the case of 100 sons of Savitrri establishing themselves as Kshatriya clan under Saviti-putras with the title of Raja applied to each one of them (Vanaparva 297.58, Karnaparva V.49, and Panini in Dāmanyādi group V.3.116).
Bhakti – Panini takes Bhakti to denote loyalty of the citizen to the State either a kingdom or a republic. The Kashika mentions, as examples of this kind of Bhakti or loyalty, 1. Angaka, 2. Vangaka, 3. Sauhmaka, 4. Paundraka, 5. Madraka, 6. Vrijika.
[p.433]: State emblem – Aṅka and Lakshnaṇa – As mentioned in Sutra IV.3.127, a Sangha had its Anka and Lakshnana. The Lakshnana denoted the heraldic symbols or marks of a Sangha which they employed on their coins, seals and banners. The Mahabharata takes Anka as a symptom of Lakshnana in describing the census of the royal cattle by branding them with proper marks (Vanaparva, 240.5), But in Panini’s sutra, anka seems to stand for the legend adopted by the states, like Mālavānām jayaḥ, or Yaudheya gaṇasya jayaḥ, as found on their coins. Lakshnana is the same as lāñchhana or heraldic crest of later Sanskrit.
Jaya – In the Sutra Jayaḥ karaṇam (VI.1.102) Panini refers to Jaya as a technical term in implying an instrument of victory, which was distinguished from the other word jaya denoting victory by an acute accent on its initial vowel. This term is found on many Gana coins and must be interpreted in the new light received from Panini’s rule. For example, the formula Yaudheya ganasya jayah on the coins of Yaudheya republic, proclaims the coin as a symbol of the authority. The issuing of coins was an exclusive prerogative of their sovereignty over that territory.
Ch. VII Section 7, Ayudhajivi Sanghas
- (1) Āyudhīya prāyāh, those mostly comprising soldiers, and
- (2) Shreni prāyāh, comprising guilds of craftsmen, traders and agriculturists. The former (and also his sastropajivins) correspond to Panini’s Ayudhajivi Sanghas, which were the same as Yodhajiva of Pali literature.
Four kinds of Ayudhajivins – Panini classified his material of the Ayudhajivin Sanghas under several heads, viz.
- 1. Sanghas in Vahika (V.3.114),
- 2. Sanghas of Parvata (IV.3.91),
- 3. Pūgas, organized under their Grāmaṇi in to some form of Sangha Govt (V.3.112), and lastly
- 4. Vrātas living by depredation and violence (V.3.113, V.2.21), and having only semblance of Sangha.
The most advanced Ayudhajivin Sanghas belonged to the Vahika Country (V.3.114), which comprised the region from Indus to the Beas and and the Sutlej (Karnaparva, 44.7; Hindu polity, 1.34). These are the Yaudheyas, Kshudrakas and Malavas etc.
[p.435] Evidently this parvata region must have been outside the plains of the Vahika Country, which brings us to the highlands of north-west as the homeland of the ayudhajivins. The Kashika mentions Hrdgoliyas Hridgola, probably Hi-lo of Yuan Chwang (modern Hidda south of Jalalabad); Andhakavartīyāḥ of Andhakavarta, perhaps Andkhui, a district in the north-east Afghanistan and Rohitagiriyas of Rohitagiri, which last is important as reminiscent of Roha, old name of Afghanistan. All this portion of the country is up to the present day peopled by hardy and warlike Mountaineers.The Markandeya Purana refers to mountain-dwellers of the west, including such names as Nihāras (Nigrahāra of Vayu, same as Nagarahāra or Jalalabad where Hṛidgola or Hiḍḍā is situated) and the Haṁsamārgas (modern Hunza in the north of Dardistan). Thus country of mountaineers extended from Kashmir to Afghanistan and most of the people settled in these mountains and their valleys were of the Ayudhajivin class. The Bhishmaparva specially mentions Girigahvaras (गिरिगह्वर) (VI.10.66), dwellers of mountain caves, as a people of the north-west (Bhishmaparva, 9.68, Udyogaparva, 30.24), and this epithet appropriately applies to the tribes of the north-west. They were the same as Sanghah girichāriṇaḥ and girigahvara-vasinah (Dronaparva, 93.48).
Arrian mentions these mountainous Indians as fighting in the army of Darius against Alexander at Arbela (Anabasis, III,8.3-6). It was these Parvatiya Ayudhajivin that offered stout resistance to Alexander in Bactria and Gandhara.
The approximate location of these Parvatiyas should be sought for in the region of the Hindukush on both sides of it. Roha, of medieval geographers, Rohitagiri of Panini, the ten Mandalas of Lohita (Sabhaparva, 24.16) and Rohitagiriyas of Kashika, all together point to the mountainous regions of the central and north-east Afghanistan as being the Parvata Country, which name survives in Kohistan.
- (1) The Ayudhajivins of Vahika from the Indus upto the Beas and the Sutlej, of whom a special group occupying the mountainous Kangra region was called Trigarta-Shashṭha (V.3.116);
- (2) Pugas, under the leadership of Gramanis, settled on the right bank of Indus (Sabhaparva,32.9), corresponding in all probability of present “Tribal Areas” to the west of the Indus;
- (3) Parvatiyas, or the highlanders of Afghanistan and Hindukush, who included the tribes of Dardistan. These contained many living only in the Vrata stage of existence. It is evident that the Sanghas in the inner most belt were the best organized owing to Aryan contact and proximity and those in the outlying parts were much less civilized.
But besides Sanghas there were other elementary forms of democratic institutions in existence amongst those Ayudhajivins, three of which as Shreni, Pūga and Vrāta are particularly noteworthy. The word Shreni possessed a political significance. The Mahabharata also knows of Shreni as political institution. It mentions Shrenis fighting on the side of Duryodhana (Karnaparva, 5.40)
[p.437]: Pūga – Puga was less developed than a regular Ayudhajivi Sangha, but better organized than a Vrāta. Kashika makes Puga a species of Sangha composed of members of different castes without any regular occupation, but probably of a peaceful character intent on earning money (V.3.112).
Grāmanī constitution of Puga - Sutra (V.3.112) throws light on the nature and constitution of Puga. It shows that Pugas derived their names in two ways; some were named after their leader or Gramani and some from other circumstances. The Kashika mentions Lohadhvaja, Chātaka and Sibi as Pugas whose names were not derived from those of their leaders. But Devadattaka and Yjñadattaka are given a typical names of Pugas called after the name of their Gramani. Thus those who recognized Devadatta as their Gramani were called Devadattakaḥ.
[p.438]: This custom is still prevailing in the north-west. Many of the Pathan tribes or khels are named after their ancestral leaders corresponding to ancient Gramanis. Isazai, Yusufzai both living on the banks of the Indus, are names of this type. The name of Puga as derived from its original Gramani founder continued later on through generations.
The association of Puga with Gramani in Panini’s Sutra points to their definite geographical area. We are told in Mahabharata that the warlike Grāmaṇīyas, i.e. clans named after their Garamanis, lived on the banks of Indus and they fought against Nakula in his western campaign. (Sindhu-kulasrita ye cha gramanya mahabala, Sabhaparva, 32.9).
We may thus locate the Puga type of Sanghas organized under Garamani leaders in the tribal area to the west of the Indus. Panini names some of these war like tribes of the north-west frontier, e.g. Aśani (V.3.117), Shinwāris with their parent stock of the Kārshbuns, to be identified with Kārshāpaṇas in the same Gana, the Āprītas or Aparītas (IV.2.53) , same as Greek Aparytai, modern Afridis.
The Pathans are an ancient people, settled in their original homeland, the country of Pakthas or Pakteys (country Paktyike) mentioned as being in the north-west India by Herodotus, from which Pakhtun is derived.
Several ancient Sanskrit names in Ganas correspond to name of these clans, e.g. Pavindas (IV.1.110) corresponding to modern Powindas settled in Gomal valley, armed tribesmen formerly occupying the Wana plain, and Vanavyas (IV.1.99, people of the Vanāyu country), corresponding to the people of wide open Wana Valley in the north of Gomal River.
These clans (Pugas) are still governed by their council of Elders.
[p.440]: Vrātas = Vrātyas: The Vratas seem to have been same as Vratyas. They are said to used a kind of very small wagon covered with a plank for seat and useful for driving along trackless paths (vipatha; also phalakāstīrṇa, from which Hindi word phirak, a dialectical word still in use), a string less bow not using arrows but probably sling balls or pellets, below like skin quivers as used by Shakas, a silver disc around neck, goat-skin or postīn (āvika), tilted cornate turban, and a kind of cloth woven with black thread or of a different colour, but fringed with streaks of black colour, and called kadru . Panini’s reference to Taitila-Kadru (VI.2.42) is very likely to the Kadru cloth of the Taitila Country. Kautilya mentions Taitila as a breed of horses which from its association with other names of north-western countries as Kambhoja, Sindhu, Bahlika, Sauvira, and Vānāyu (Wana Valley) should be taken as being imported from north-west India. This gives an indication of the place of origin of the Taitila-kadru, if the rendering of kadru as the name of a fabric in use amongst the Vratya be correct.
The Vratyas were more backward in their political organization than Pugas. They were subordinate to a leader distinguished by his nishka ornament of silver. Like the Pugas, their leader also seems to have been called Gramani (V.3.112)
[p.441]: Vratya-stomas - Earnest attempts were made to reclaim these people to the Aryan fold by the performance of some easy rituals called Vratya-stomas, considered adequate to purify them, to put an end to their stigma, and to entitle them to social intercourse. These social formations indicate a vigourous movement to absorb in the Hindu society elements that were outside the Aryan pail. In Panini’s time social movements of this type were in brisk operation as evidenced by certain words in the Ashtadhyayi. Sometimes even after transition of a particular people from the Vrata stage to Sangha, pockets of Vrata soldiery continued to exist. This was true of Andhaka-Vrishni Sangha, about which Krishna says that ‘contingents, 18000 strong, are organized still as Vratas in our Kula organization’(Sabhaparva, 13.55).
Ch. VII Section 8, Names of Republics
Ayudhajivi Sanghas – [p.443]: Panini mentions Ayudhajivi Sanghas by name in sutra V.3.115-117 and in the three Ganas of these sutras, Dāmanayādi, Parśvādi, and Yaudheyādi. The chapter opens with a reference to such Sanghas in the Vāhīka country, the cradle land of martial tribes who cultivated military art as a way of life. Mostly they were Kshatriyas, But Sutra V.3.114 shows that some of them were Brahmans also, e.g. the Gopālavas, and others called Rājanyas, which most likely correspond to those Hill States whose ruling classes designate themselves as Ranas. The Śālaṅkayanas are stated by Kashika to have belonged to the Rajanya class, and they seem to be an ancient community, as even Patanjali mentions them by the name Trika (V.1.58; II.352), probably on account of their League of three states (on the analogy of Shashtha as applied to League of six Trigartas, V.3.116).
Names of Sanghas in the Sutras – The following ayudhjivi Sanghas are mentioned in the Sutras:
1. Vṛika (V.3.115) - An individual member of this Sangha was called Vārkeṇya, and the whole Sangha Vrika. This name standing alone in the Sutra with a suffix peculiar from the rest is hitherto untraced. It is stated to be Ayudhajivin, but not necessarily associated with Vahika. It should probably be identified with Varkaṇa, the old Persian form in the Behistun inscription of Darius, mentioned along with Pārthava or the Parthians (Behistun inscription Col. II.1.16). There is a striking similarity between the Sanskrit and old Persian forms of the name, e.g. Vārkeṇya equal to Vārkaṇa in the singular number , and Vrikah equal to Varkā in plural as in the expression Sakā Hauma-Varkā. The Country of Vrikas seems to have
[p.444]: being the same as Hyrcania lying to the north of Parthia and on the eastern corner of the Caspian (mod. Persian gurgan, from Vrika=Gurg, in the valley of River of that name in the fertile district of Astarabad. The Persians distinguished the Varkas and infact all the northern war like equestrian people as Sacas (Persepolis Tomb Inscription, Sakā para-daria).
The name Vrika was known throughout the north-west as shown by its derivatives found in the several languages near Panini’s homeland, e.g. Ishkashmi werk, Yidgha wurk, wurg etc. The title Bakanapati or Barkanapati, the chief of Varkanas, is applied to a Saka Governor of Mathura who was associated with the foundation and repair of Devakula of Wima Kadphises (JRAS,1924, p.402; JBORS, xvi,p.258), whom Jayaswal identified as Hyrcanian Saka. Panini’s acquaintance with a branch of Sakas is not surprising, since he uses Saka word Kantha meaning 'town' in six sutras. The Sakas were very ancient race referred to in the old Persian Inscriptions of Darius and settled both in Sakasthana and on the borders of Parthia which were connected with Bahlika and Gandhara. Katyayana also has the expression Saka-Parthava in a varttika showing that in the 4th century BC he knew of Sakas and the Parthians, probably by way of commerce, previous to their political invasions.
2. Damani (V.3.116) – There is a strong resemblance between the name of this Sangha and a powerful warlike tribe still known as Damani and settled in the north-western portion of Baluchistan known as Chagai lying to the south of Chagai Hills (Imp Gaz. Vol X, p.117)
3. Trigarta-Shashṭha (V.3.116) – the league of six Trigartas. Trigarta stands for three valleys, viz. , those of the rivers Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. The Trigartas represented a second cluster of mountainous Sanghas being counted amongst Parvatāshrayiṇa, along with the Nīhāras,
[p.445]: Dārvas, Karṇa-Prāvaraṇas, etc., who formed the north-western group. In earlier times, this region, as now, was split up into a number of states. The Kashika mentions the six members of this confederacy as follows: 1. Kauṇḍoparastha (कौण्डोपरस्थ) , 2. Dāṇḍakī (दाण्डकी), 3. Krauṣṭakī (क्रौष्टकी), 4. Jālamāni (जालमानि), 5. Brāhmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त), and 6. Jānaki (जानकी).
4. Yaudheya (V.3.117) – Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing up to the time of Samudragupta. Their coins are found in the east Punjab (now Haryana) and all over the country between the Sutlej and Jamuna, covering a period of about four centuries, 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD. The Mahabharata mentions Rohitaka as the capital of Bahudhāñyaka Country, where a mint site of the Yaudheyas of Bahudhanyaka was found by the late Dr Birbal Sahani. Sunet mentioned by Panini as Sunetra was a centre of Yaudheyas where their coins, moulds and sealings have been found. The Yaudheyas do not seem to have come into conflict with Alexander, since they are not named by the Greek writers. The Johiya Rajputs who are found on the banks of the Sutlej along the Bahawalpur frontier may be identified as their modern descendants (ASR, xiv, p.114).
5. Parśu (V.3.117) – The whole tribe was called Pārśavaḥ, and a single member Pārśava. The Parshus may be identified with the Persians. The Parsus are also known to Vedic literature (Rigveda, VIII.6.46) where Ludwig and Weber identify them with the Persians. Keith discussing Panini’s reference to the Parsus proposes the same identification and thinks ‘that the Indians and Iranians were early connected’. Gandhara; Panini’s homeland, and Pārsa, both occur as
p.446: names of two provinces in the Behustun Inscription, brought under the common sovereignty of Darius (521-586 BC), which promoted their mutual intercourse. Panini knows Gāndhāri as Kingdom (IV.1.169). It seems that soon after the death of Darius Gandhara became independent, as would appear from the manner of its mention by Panini as an independent Janapada. Panini’s Pārśava is nearer to the old Persian form Parsa (cf. Behustun Inscription|The Behistun Inscription]]) denoting both the country and its inhabitants, and the king Darius calls himself as Pārsa, Pārshahyā pusa, ‘Persian, son of Persian’ (Susa Inscription, JAOS, 51.222).
Ayudhjivi Sanghas in the Ganapatha -
[p.446]: The three Ganas, Dāmanayādi, Parśvādi, and Yaudheyādi give some more names of Ayudhajivi Sanghas:
1. Dāmanayādi group (V.3.116) – The names which are supported both by Commentary on the Chandra and the Kashika are Aulupi, Audaki, Āchyutanti (or Achyutadanti), Kākādanti, Sārvaseni, Bindu, Tulabha (Kashika Ulabha), Mauñjāyana, and Sāvitriputra. Of these only the Sāvitriputras are mentioned in Mahabharata (Vanaparva, 297.85; Karnaparva, V.49) and should be located in the Punjab adjacent to Ushinaras. The Sarvaseni seem to be a branch of the Sarvasenas mentioned in the Śaṇḍikādi Gana (IV.3.72), like Gāndhāri-Gandhāra, Sālva-Sālveya. Kāra in Madrakāra meant army or troops, being an old Persian word. It is the same as Sanskrit Senā. The Madrakaras were a division of the Sālvas (IV.1.173), a significant name derived from their territory containing rich pockets of kāras or soldiery. This is just the idea of Sārvaseni also,
[p.447]: and it appears that this was the region of north Rajasthan, where we have already located the Sālva. This is confirmed by the Kashika counting it amongst three rain-less areas, viz. Trigarta, Sauvira, and Sārvaseni. Mauñjāyana (V.3.116, IV.1.99) seems to be Munjān in the upper Oxus region, the home of the Galcha dialect called Munjani (cf. Maunjayani in IV.1.73 gana). The Baijavāpi seem to be genuine reading in ganas.
2. Parśvādi (V.3.117) . There are 12 names in this gana:
(1) Bāhlīka – Identified as Balkh in the extreme north of Afghanistan, which must have been organized as an ayudhyajivi Sangha in Panini’s time. It was reckoned as a satrapy of the empire of Darius, a little before Panini’s time.
(2) Asura – It is a generic name but in this case may be identified with the name of the Assyrians, whose country formed part of the Persian empire in the 5th century BC and is mentioned in Behistun Inscription as old Persian Athurā, and Susian as Assura.
(3) Pisācha – Literally a people who were consumers of raw flesh. Grierson has conclusively shown that the inhabitants of the North Western Frontier, i.e. Gilgit, Chitral and Kafiristan, where of Pishacha tribe, were cannibalism, eating raw flesh, once prevailed and he also observed that in the south of the Kafir country, round about Laghman, are the
[p.448]: Pasai Kafirs whom Dr. Hoernle proposed to identify with Pishacha as a phonetically sound equation (Pishacha, JRAS, 1950, pp.285-288). They were originally Aryan people, who inhabited north west India and parts of Himalayas, and were closely connected with Khasas, Nagas and Yakshas. Pargiter agrees to this that they were the real human beings. The existence of Pishachi prakrit language is so well attested to by literary references.
(4) Rakshas – By adding the aṇ suffix in a pleonastic sense (svarthe) prescribed by this very sutra (V.3.117) we get the word form Rakshasa. They all appear to have been real people, probably of the north-west group and of the same racial character as the Pishachas. The Rakshasa, Nagas and the Pishachas fight also in the Bharata war on both sides (Pargiter, JRAS, 1908, p. 331). We find an important tribe named Rakshānis settled in Chagai district of north Baluchistan (Imp. Gaz., X, p.117).
(6) Aśani and (7) Kārsāpaṇa – We find corresponding Pathan tribes Shinwari and Karshabun, belonging to the same stock (Imp. Gaz., NWFP, p.79). The preservation of caste system, and the sanctity of cow among the Shins, settled in the eastern Hindukush region, north of Landi Kotal, point to their former religion being Hinduism. The mountain villages where Shins are in majority retain a trace of former idolatry in the sacred stones set up in one form or
[p.449]: another, in almost every hamlet (Afghanistan Gaz.p49). The change in religion has not yet brought about the seclusion of Shin women, who mix freely with men on all occasions, a survival of their days of freedom.
(1) Yaudheya, as explained above.
(2) Śaubhreya (शौभ्रेय), probably named after original ancestor Shubhra referred to in Sutra (IV.1.123). The name was possibly connected with the Sabarcae of Curtius, who are named as Sabagrae by Orosius.
After the battle with the Oxydrakai (Kshudrakas) near the old junction of Ravi River with Chenab River, Alexander, marched towards the Subarcae, a powerful Indian tribe where the form of govt was democratic and not regal (Curtius). Their army consisted of 60000 foot and 6000 cavalry attended by 500 chariots. They had elected three generals renowned for their valour and military skill. The above description points to the Sabarcae having been an ayudhajivi Sangha, which the Saubhreyas of Panini were. In this case Greeks particularly noted the form of Govt which was democratic and not regal.
The territory of the Sangha lay on the lower course of the Chenab after it mate the Ravi River. The tribe was settled near the river by which Alexander was returning with his fleet after his battle with Kshudraka-Malavas. Both banks of river were thickly studded with villages.
(4) Vārteya – May be identified with the Indian tribe Oreitai, settled to the west of the river Porali which now falls in to the Sonmiani Bay, west of Karachi. (cf. Saunamāneya in Subhrādi gana IV.1.123;IV.1.86). According to Curtius the tribe had long maintained its independence in those parts and it negotiated peace with Alexander through their leaders, which reflects its Sangha character.
On the east of river Arabis (old name of Porali) was another independent tribe which the Greeks called Arabitai, corresponding to Sanskrit Ārabhaṭa (the home of the Ārabhaṭi vritti), a word unknown in Paninian geography, but both of them as the Greeks noted, lay within the geographical limits of India.
(5) Dhārteya – unidentified, probably the same as the Dārteyas. The Greek writers mention Dyrta as a town of Assakenoi or the Āśvakāyanas of Massaga, and this may have been the capital of the Darteyas.
(6) Jyābāṇeya (ज्याबाणेय), a war like tribe whose bow-sting served arrow. The Vratyas of Tandya Br. (XVII.124) and Srautasutra appear to be the same as Panini’s Ashtadhyayi Sangha of Vrata type. Amongst them we have a feature called jyā-hroda, a king of bow not for shooting arrows ḍwhich seems to be a contrivance for hurling sling balls, most probably a pellet-bow. The Jyabaneyas seem to be section of these Vratyas. The Mahabharata specifically mentions the Mountaineers (Parvatiyas) as experts in fighting by hurling stone-blocks as big as elephant heads, and secondly by shooting stone balls with slings (kshepaṇīya, Dronaparva,121.34-35).
(7) Trigarta (त्रीगर्त) – It is mentioned here again although its
[p.451]: constituent states (Trigarta-Shashthas) have been referred to only in the preceding Sutra V.3.116
(8) Bharata (भारत) - This gana alone mentions Bharatas as an ayudhjivi Sangha. It must be some old tradition, otherwise Panini locates them in Kuru region, on the borderland of the Udichya and Prachya divisions of India. According to another sutra the Kurus lived under a regal form of government. It seems that these Bharatas lived round about Kurukshetra as a Sangha in Panini’s times.
(9) Ushinara (उशीनर) – already mentioned as a division of Vahika. It is likely that it was under Sangha government.
The above survey of the names of ayudhajivi Sanghas as found in Sutras and the Gana-patha shows the dominant fact that the Sanghas were clustered in the north-west regions of India and the Punjab, that they were mostly ayudhajivins or martial tribes, a feature retained by most of them to this day, and they were living in different stages of political evolution, ranging from the Vratas and Pugas to Shrenis and Sanghas, as represented by the wild Pishachas at one end and and the highly organized Yaudheyas on the other hand.
Some more republics – [p.451]: Besides the ayudhajivi Sanghas stated as such in the Ashtadhyayi, there were some other communities in Panini’s time, which as we know from other sources were republics. These were:
(1) Vriji (IV.2.131) - They are known as Vajji in the Buddhist literature and said to have included eight confederate clans of whom the Lichchhavis and the Videhas were the most important, both being described as republics in Buddha’s time.
(2) Rajanya (IV.2.53) – They are mentioned also by Katyayana and Patanjali and in Mahabharata. The abundance of their coins in Hoshiarpur district points to it as their region (vishaya or desha). According to Panini the country occupied by Rajanyas was called Rajanyaka. It appears
(3) Mahārāja – Panini refers to bhakti shown to Maharaja in Sutra IV.3.97. So far as the word form is concerned it is the same for the name of Maharaja as a people and as a deity. The existence of a Maharaja janapada is proved by their coins found in Punjab. Traces of the ancient name are probably still preserved in in the collection of four large villages in the Moga tahsil of Ferozpur district which is the head quarters of a Paragana and still called Maharaja, held by the Maharajki clan of Jats. The Maharajkians who own the surrounding country as Jagirdars form a distinct community, physically robust and opposed to subordination (Punjab Gazeteer, I.453)
(4) Andhaka- Vrishni (VI.2.34) – The Puranas make them identical with the Satvatas whom Panini mentions as a Sangha in the Ganapatha. The Mahabharata refers to them as a Sangha and so does Kautilya. Panini refers to Rajanya leaders amongst the Andhaka-Vrishnis, which as explained by Kashika denoted members of such families as were entitled to be consecrated to rulership (abhishikta vamsya) . The chief feature of Andhaka-Vrishni constitution appears to be a full-fledged party system. The party of Akrura and that of Vasudeva are referred to by Patanjali showing that the followers of each leader were designated in accordance with their respective party leaders, e.g., Akruta-vargya, Akrura-vargina, and Vasudeva-vargya, Vasudeva –vargina.
Names of some important tribes – Some tribes in the Ganapatha deserve to be mentioned as being of considerable importance. We are indebted to the Greek historians of Alexander for the information that most of these were republics.
[p.453]: (1) Kshudraka (IV.2.45) – [p.453]: Kshudraka is identified by Sir R.G.Bhandarkar with the Oxydrakai of Greek writers. Curtius refers to them as Sudracae (M’Crindle, Alexander’s Invasion, p.238).
(2) Mālava – (Greek: Malloi). According to the Greek writers both these communities were settled in the region where the Ravi River joins the Chenab. They are said to have offered the stoutest resistance to the Greek invaders.
(5) Madhumant – Panini mentions Madhumat as the name of a country in the region of Gandhara (Kachchhadi, IV.2.133; Sindhvadi, IV.3.99). The name occurs in Sutra IV.2.86 also as a deśa nāma. The Mahabharata mentions Madhumantaḥ as a people of the north-west (Bhishmaparva,IX.53). The Madhumants are clearly the Mohmands, who occupy the territory to the north of Kabul River, their homeland Dīr-Bajaur covering an area of 1200 squire miles (Afghanistan Gaz,.p.225). On the map one can notice at once the relative position of these two powerful tribes who who were close neighbours. What appears to be the ancient names of Dīr and Tīrāh are preserved in Patanjali, who refers to Dvīrāvatīko desah, Trīrāvatīko desah as pair names (Bhashya, I.4.1, I.301, II.1.20;I.382). The former is Dīr (land of the two rivers) so called from the Mohmand homeland between the Kunar and Panjkora rivers. Similarly the extensive Afridi-Tirah was Trira-vatika, from the three rivers Kabul, Bara and Indus (Kubha-Varā-Sindhu) which enclose it.
[p.454]: While describing Alexander’s campaign from Kapisa towards the Indus through Gandhara, the Greek historians mention three warlike peoples, viz., Astakenoi, with capital at Peukelaotis, the Aspasioi in the valley of Kunar or Chitral River and the Assakenoi settled between the Swat and the Panjkora rivers, with the capital at Massaga, and more especially in the mountainous regions of the Swat. The Paninian evidence throws light on these three names for the first time:
- (a) Aspasioi = Ashvayana; in Alisang or Kunar Valley
- (b) Assakenoi = Ashvakayana; in the Swat valley and highlands, with capital at Mashakavati
- (c) Astakenoi = Hastinayana; near the confluence of Swat with the the Kabul, with capital at Pushkalavati.
The Asvayanas and the Asvakayanas were the bravest fighters of all, being strongly entrenched in their mountainous fortresses. Alexander himself directed the operations against them. The Ashvakayana capital at Massaga or Masakavati is given in Bhashya as the name of a river (IV.2.71), that should be looked for in that portion of the Suvastu in its lower reaches where Mazaga or Massanagar is situated on it at a distance of 24 miles from Bajaur in the Yusufzai country. In times of danger the Asvakayanas withdrew into the impregnable defences of their hilly fortress which the Greeks have named Aornos. It appears to be same as Varaṇā of the Ashtadhyayi (see ante, p.69, for its identification with modern Uṇrā on the Indus). The Greeks also mention another of their towns, viz., Arigaeon, which commanded the road between the Kunar and Panjkora valleys, and is comparable with Ārjunāva of the Kashika (ṛijunāvām nivāso deshaḥ, IV.2.69).
Reference to Yavanani
[p.466]: the Ionian Greeks is first used in inscriptions of Darius I (516 BC). It must have been after this that the term Yavana came into circulation in parts of India which also formed part of the Achaemenian empire. It would not be right to suppose that the Macedonian Greeks who first came into India with Alexander about two centuries later first became known as Yavanas. In fact the Yavanas had been known much before Alexander who already found in the Kabul Valley a colony of Nysian Greeks. In the old-persian Inscriptions of Darius (521-485 BC) we find the term Yauna denoting Ionia and an Ionian, and Yaunā, Ionians corresponding to Sanskrit Yavanaḥ and Yavanāḥ (Sukumar, Old Persian Inscriptions, p.223).
Both Ionia and Gandhara, the home of Panini, formed part of the empire of Darius and also continued under the reign of Xerxes, who recruited to his army a contingent of Indians from Gandhara in his expedition against Greece about the year 479 BC. Thus was furnished a first hand opportunity for the Indians to become acquainted with the Greeks even before Alexander. As Prof Keith has observed : ‘If it is born in mind that Panini was a native of Gandhara according to Xuanzang, a view confirmed by the references in his grammar, it will not seem far fetched to consider that it was most probably from the older tradition that the name Yavanani was derived'. The word lipi borrowed from the Achaemenian dipi meaning edict is conspicuous by absence in the Buddhist canonical works and seems to have been borrowed from Achaemenian Iran. It may further be assumed that the Yavanani lipi was known only in Gandhara and the north-west at that time (ante, p.312).
Panini and the Parsus
[p.466]: Panini refers to a people called Parsus as a military community (Ayudhjivi Sangha, V.3.117). The Parśu corresponds to to the Old-Persian form Parsā as given in Behistun Inscription. The Babylonian form
[p.467]: of the name in the same Inscription is Par-su which comes closer to Panini’s Parśu (Behistun Inscription, British Museum,pp.159-166). It appears that Parsu was the name of a country as noted in the Babylonian version, and Pārśava was designation of an individual member of that Sangha, a form of the name which corresponds to Babylonian Par-sa-a-a. A part of India was already a province of Achaemenian empire under Cyrus and Darius, which it enriched with its military and material resources. Indians were already serving in the army of Xerxes and fighting his battles about 487 BC, while that very small part of India paid as much revenue as the total revenue of the Persian Empire. There was thus an intimate inter-course between north-west India and Persia, and Panini as one born in that region must have had direct knowledge of such intercourse.
Not only Gandhara but also Sindhu corrupted into Persian Hindu in the inscriptions of Darius (corresponding to the Sind-Sagar Doab of the western Punjab) came under the occupation of the Achaemenians at one time. (cf Hamadan plate inscription, JRAS, 1926, pp.633-6; Jour. Cama Ins. , 1927; Memoir ASI, No.34). (Cf.ante.p.445).
Similarly, there is also the possibility that another Persian tribe came to be known in India in Panini’s time who refers to Vrikas as an Ayudhajivi Sangha, a community that lived by the profession of arms. An individual member of this tribe was called in Sanskrit as Vārkeṇya, a term which seems to correspond to Varakāṇa of the Behistun Inscription. The whole tribe was called Vrikāḥ, which corresponds to Varkā in plural number in the same Saka-Haumavarkā in the Naksh-i-Rustam Inscription. The Vrikas thus appear to be a section of warlike Saka tribes. (Cf.ante,pp.443-4).
Panini notices kantha-ending place names as being common in Varṇu (Bannu Valley) and the Usinara country between the lower course of the Chenab and Ravi River, and also instances some particular names such as Chihaṇa-kantham and
The above data point to somewhat closer contacts between India and Persia during the reigns of Achaemenian emperors Darius (522-486 BC) and Xerxes (485-465 BC) as a result of their Indian conquests. This explains the use in India of such terms as Yavana, Parsu, Vrika, Kantha. To these we may add two others, viz. Jābāla (goat-herd) and hailihila (poison) mentioned by Panini (VI.2.38) which were really Semitic loan words.
[p.470]: Decline of Sanghas: The numerous Ayudhajivi Sanghas in the Punjab and North-west India points to political conditions as existed before the rise of Mauryan Empire. Panini treats of the development of Sangha polity as if it were at its zenith. Gradually Sanghas began to decline and the march of the Greeks through their land completely exposed their political weakness. This made the Sanghas unpopular and created a movement for their unification of which indications are found in Kautilya’s Aarthshastra. Panini lived in the peak period of the Sanghas, and an interval of about century should be allowed for their decline against the rise of a centralized monarchy or empire. This would assign a date to Panini a hundred years before the rise of the Mauryan Empire.
[p.486]: Defence (Gupti) ...The defence of the Greek city state was of the utmost concern to its rulers as well as the citizens. “The people ought to fight for the laws as for the walls of the city”, said Heraclitus.
The Mahabharata discusses in detail the defence of the Janapada (katham rakshyo janapadah, Shantiparva,69.1) and lays great stress on Gupti or the military preparedness of the fortified city and its citizens. It refers to Parikhā, Prākāra, etc, as parts of that defensive system which Panini also mentions.
The evidence in epic is naturally more elaborate, mentioning a full contingent of military and civil institutions needed for the defence of the realm, e.g. durga, gulma, nagara, pura, shakhanagara, arama, udyana, nagaropavana, apana, vihara, sabha, avasatha, chtvara, rashtra, balamukhyas, sasyabhihara, samkrama,
[p. 487]: prakanthi, akasa-janani, kadanga-dvaraka, dvaras, shataghni, bhandagara, ayudhagara, dhanyagara, asvagara, gajagara, baladhikarana, all leading to the complete defence of the janapda and its pura (Shantiparva, 61.1-71).
We are told by the Greek historians of Alexander how the impregnable nature of the defences of Massaga and Aornos forts (Mashakāvati and Varaṇā) helped the heroic Ashvakayanas of Gandhara in offering resistance to the invaders.
[p.497]I. Janapada names
1. Kachchha (कच्छ), 2. Sindhu (सिन्धु), 3. Varnu (वर्णु), 4. Gandhara (गन्धार), 5. Madhumat (मधुमत), 6. Kamboja (कम्बोज), 7. Kashmira (कश्मीर), 8. Salva (साल्व), 9. Kuru (कुरु), 10. Ranku (रंकु), 11. Anushanda (अनुषंड), 12. Dvipa (द्वीप), 13. Anupa (अनूप) , 14. Ajavaha (अजवाह), 15. Vijapaka (विजापक), 16. Kuluta (कुलूत).
1. Sindhu (सिन्धु), 2. Varnu (वर्णु), 3. Madhumat (मधुमत्), 4. Kamboja (कम्बोज), 5. Salva (साल्व), 6. Kashmira (कश्मीर), 7. Gandhara (गन्धार), 8. Kishkindha (किष्किन्धा), 9. Urasa (उरस), 10. Darad (दरद्) 11. Gabdika (गबदिका)
(4) Aishukari Gana (ऐषुकारि गण)(IV.2.54)
1. Aishukari (ऐषुकारि) 2. Sarasyayana (सारस्यायन) 3. Chandrayana (चान्द्रायण) 4. Dvayakshayana (द्वयाक्षायण) 5. Tryakshayana (त्र्याक्षायण) 6. Jaulayana (जौलायन) 7. Khadayana (खाडायन) 8. Sauvira (सौवीर) 9. Dasamitrayana (दासमित्रायण) 10. Shaudrayana (शौद्रायण) 11. Dakshayana (दाक्षायण) 12. Shayanda (शयंड) 13. Tarkshayana (तार्क्ष्यायण) 14. Shaubhrayana (शौभ्रायण) 15. Vaishvamanava (वैश्वमाणव) 16. Vaishvadhenava (वैश्वधेनव) 17. Vaishvadeva (वैश्वदेव) 18. Tandadeva (तंडदेव)
(5) Bhauriki Gana (भौरिकि गण)(IV.2.54)
(6) Rajanyadi (राजन्यादि)
1. Rajanya (राजन्य) 2. Daivayatava (दैवयातव) 3. Shalankayana (शालंकायन) 4. Jalandharayana (जालंधरायण) 5. Atmakameya (आत्मकामेय) 6. Ambarishaputra (अंबरीषपुत्र) 7. Vasati (वसाति) 8. Bailvavana (बैल्ववन) 9. Shailusha (शैलूष) 10. Udumbara (उदुम्बर) 11. Arjunayana (आर्जुनायन) 12. Sampriya (संप्रिय) 13. Dakshi (दक्षि) 14. Urnanabha (ऊर्णनाभ ) 15. Aprita (आप्रीत) 16. Taitila (तैतिल)
[p.500]III Sanghas (संघ)
(7) Damanyadi (दामन्यादि) (V.3.116)
Ayudhajivisanghat svarthe Chha: Damaniya(आयुधजीविसंघात् स्वार्थे छ:, दामनीय)
1. Damani (दामनि) 2. Aulapi (औलपि) 3. Kakadanti (काकदन्ति) 4. Achyutanti (अच्युतंति) 5. Shatruntapi (शत्रुंतपि) 6. Sarvaseni (सार्वसेनि) 7. Baindavi (बैन्दवि) 8. Maunjayana (मौंजायन) 9. Tulabha (तुलभ) 10. Savitriputra (सावित्रीपुत्र) 11. Baijavapi (बैजवापि) 12. Audaki (औदकि)
(8) Parshvadi (पर्शवादि) (V.3.117)
Ayudhajivisanghat svarthe An: Parshva(आयुधजीविसंघात् स्वार्थे अण्:, पार्शव:)
1. Parshu (पर्शु) 2. Asura (असुर) 3. Rakshas (रक्षस्) 4. Balhika (बाल्हीक) 5. Vayas (वयस्) 6. Marut (मरुत्) 7. Dasharha (दशार्ह) 8. Pishacha (पिशाच) 9. Ashani (अशनि) 10. Karshapana (कार्षापण) 11. Satvat (सत्वत्) 12. Vasu (वसु)
(9) Yaudheyadi (यौधेयादि) (IV.1.178)
IV Place Names
(10) Arihanadi (अरीहणादि) (22.214.171.124)[Chaturthic Vuyan Arihanakam (चतुर्थिक वुञ् । आरीहणकम्)]
(29) Sakhyadi (सख्यादि) (126.96.36.199)[Chaturthic Dhayan Sakheya (चतुर्थिक ढञ् । साखेय)]
1. Sakhi (सखि), 2. Sakhidatta (सखिदत्त), 3. Vayudatta (वायुदत्त), 4. Gohila (गोहिल), 5. Bhalla (भल्ल), 6. Chakrawala (चक्रवाल), 7. Chhagala (छगल), 8. Ashoka (अशोक), 9. Karavira (करवीर), 10. Sikara (सीकर), 11. Saraka (सरक), 12. Sarasa (सरस), 13. Samala (समल)
(30) Sankaladi (संकलादि) (4.2.75)[Chaturthic ayan Sankalah, Paushkalah (चतुर्थिक अञ् । सांकल:, पौष्कल:)]
1. Sankala (संकल) 2. Pushkala (पुष्कल) 3. Udupa (उडुप) 4. Udvapa (उद्वप) 5. Utputa (उत्पुट) 6. Kumbha (कुम्भ) 7. Nidhana (निधान) 8. Sudaksha (सुदक्ष) 9. Sudatta (सुदत्त) 10. Subhuta (सुभूत) 11. Sunetra (सुनेत्र) 12. Supingala (सुपिंगल) 13. Sikata (सिकता) 14. Putika (पूतिक) 15. Pulasa (पूलास) 16. Kulasa (कूलास) 17. Palasha (पलाश) 18. Nivesha (निवेश) 19. Gambhira (गम्भीर) 20. Itara (इतर) 21. Sharman (शार्मन्) 22. Ahan (अहन्) 23. Loman (लोमन्) 24. Veman (वेमन्) 25. Varuna (वरुण) 26. Bahula (बहुल) 27. Saddyoja (सद्योज) 28. Abhishikta (अभिषिक्त) 29. Gobhrit (गोभृत्) 30. Rajabhrit (राजभृत्) 31. Bhalla (भल्ल) 32. Mala (माल)
[Chaturthikah nya Sankalah, Sankashyah (चातुर्थिक: ण्य । सांकाश्य:)]
1. Sankāsha (संकाश) 2. Kampila (कम्पिल) 3. Kashmara (कश्मर) 4. Shūrasena (शूरसेन) 5. Supathin (सुपथिन्) 6. Supari (सुपरि) 7. Yupa (यूप) 8. Ashman (अश्मन्) 9. Kuta (कूट) 10. Pulina (पुलिन) 11. Tirtha (तीर्थ) 12. Agasti (अगस्ति) 13. Viranta (विरन्त) 14. Vikara (विकर) 15. Nasikā (नासिका)
[Chaturthika ijn, Sautangamih (चातुर्थिक इञ् । (सौतंगमि):)]
1. Sutangama (सुतंगम)
2. Munichitra (मुनिचित्र)
3. Viprachitra (विप्रचित्र)
4. Mahaputra (महापुत्र)
5. Shveta (श्वेत)
6. Gadika (गडिक)
7. Shukra (शुक्र)
8. Vigra (विग्र)
9. Bijavapin (बीजवापिन्)
10. Shvan (श्वन्)
11. Arjuna (अर्जुन)
12. Ajira (अजिर)
[Chaturthika an, Suvastu+an=Sauvastavah (चातुर्थिक अण् । सुवास्तु+अण् =सौवास्त्व:)]
1. Suvastu (सुवास्तु)
2. Varnu (वर्णु)
3. Bhandu (भंडु)
4. Khandu (खंडु)
5. Sechalin (सेचालिन्)
6. Karpurin (कर्पूरिन्)
7. Shikhandin (शिखंडिन्)
8. Garta (गर्त)
9. Karkasha (कर्कश)
10. Shatikarna (शटीकर्ण)
11. Krishnakarna (कृष्णकर्ण)
12. Karkandhumati (कर्कन्धुमती)
13. Gohya (गोह्य)
14. Ahisaktha (अहिसक्थ)
Jats as known to Panini
Rishikas: The Puranic Rishikas of the Sakadvipa are mentioned. He also mentions Arjun conquering the Rishikas across the Vakshu (Oxus) river, "which flowed through the Saka country". The Rishikas were later known as Yue-che whose language was called Arsi (Asioi of the Greeks).
Kantha: Agarwala further mentions a number of towns with names ending with Kantha, (the Central Asian-Kand) and comes to the conclusion that these Saka cities in the heart of Punjab in the fifth century B.C., can be explained only by the fact of their arrival in India in pre-Panini times.201 In the second century B.C. it was a second wave of Sakas which came to India and later on as Kusanas. He has quoted Katyayana to show that Sakandhu and Karkandhu-two kinds of wells of the Sakas may be identified as the stepped well (vāpi) and the Persian wheel named Arghattu well respectively. Thus the Sakas of Central Asia were the originators of the stepped well and the Persian wheel well; just as the Kangs were the originators of the canal system in Central Asia in seventh century B.C. Agarwala has also quoted an authority to show that the name of places/cities, ending with Kand are of Scythian origin. Modern Samarkand, Tashkand, etc. are the examples in Central Asia of such towns.202
201. India as Known to Panini, pp. 68-69.
202. See H.W. Bailey, ASLCA, Transactions of Philological Society, 1945, pp.22-23.
Vrika: Another important tribe of the Jats mentioned by Panini is Vrika.204 He has identified the Vrikas with the Persian Varkana mentioned in the Behistun inscription of Darius205 and Varka in the plural form, of the expression Saka Hauma Varka. The country of the Vrikas was called Virkania, (Hyrcania by the Greeks) and was situated on the north of Parthia and East of Caspian Sea. The Persians considered them as Sakas (see Persepolis Tomb inscription). Agarwala also states that in Afghanistan area the word is written as Werk or Wurk. As he rightly mentions, the Virks are a section of the Jats in the Punjab who were originally Scythians.206 This name of the Jats is still existing and their mention by Panini takes their antiquity to fifth century B.C., the period of Panini.
Kundu and Dandha: A couple of Jat tribes are also mentioned in Kasika. While mentioning the six members constituting the Trigarta confederacy, the Kasika identifies two tribes as Kaundoparatha and Dandaki. Their modern descendants are still called by these names and they are the Kundu and Dandha Jats in India.
Parsawal: The Parsvah of Panini are the modern Parsawal Jats. V.S. Agarwala quotes Rig Veda (VIII, 6, 46) to show that they were known at that time also.207 His identification of Paravah with the Persians may well be correct but it only shows the long association of the Parswal Jats with Iran.
Maharajaki: Yet another tribe of the Jats called Maharajaki are also mentioned by V.S Agarwala. The Maharajki Jats of Moga area, whose coins have also been found in the same area are physically robust and opposed to subordination.208
Indianisation of the Sakas: It is important to note that deliberate and systematic efforts were made to assimilate the Jats into Brahmanical fold on their arrival in India as conquerors. The famous Vrata Stomas were specifically prescribed for Indianisation of the foreigner Sakas. As mentioned by Agarwala these Stomas were very easy to perform and seem to be a mere formality, so that the foreigners who became overlords of the country may be Hinduised under priestly power. A further process in the same direction was taken by deliberate
203. op. cit., pp. 1-5.
204. ibid., p. 77.
,,06. ibid., p. 444.
207. Rig Veda, VIII. 6,46.
208. Punjab Gazetteer, Vol. T, p. 453.
[Page-74]: attempts at Sanskritisation of their clan name. It was under these processes that the Solgis were called Suliks/Saulikas in the Puranas, etc. The clan name Pawar was similarly changed into Parmar but the most important clan which was thus changed was the Sahrawat.
Sahrawat: The process under which the Persian title "Satrap" was Sanskritised into "Ksatrapa," was applied to Sahrawat also and this important clan of the Jats was written as Ksaharat (क्षहरात). The well known western Satraps of Saurastra, Kathiawar, Gujrat, Ujjain, Mathura, etc. belonged to this clan. The great Satraps, Chaṣṭan and Rudradaman belonged to the Sahrawat clan of the Jats. Mr Bansi Lal, former Defence Minister of India belongs to this clan. 208. It is well known to the historians that this clan of the Jats was ruling western central India for about 500 years and it was another Jat clan, namely, Dharan, misnamed as Guptas, who under Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya, incorporated these states under central rule.
Kśaharāt : The first letter in both the words Satrap and Saharavat is 'S' and when these words became common in India, both these words were Sanskritised by changing the initial 'S' into 'Ksa' (ar). Therefore the clan name was written as Kśaharāta. But it is a matter of gratification that the Jats have retained almost all their clan names in their original form, and Saharavat is still written and spoken as such. The suffix, wat, is only partly Indianised and it may be original also.
Gurlawat: We find that another Jat clan is called Gurlet in Central Asia, whereas it is called Gurlawat in India. The Kśaharāt and Sahrawat difference can be explained on this analogy. It is worth noting that E.J. Rapson while mentioning the coins of Satrap Bhumaka, writes both these words with an initial 'Ch' in Kharoshhi script and with an initial 'Ksa' in the Brahmi script.209 A reference to Sten Konow's article will be illuminating. First of all, Konow mentions that the Kusanas were in reality Sakas. While stating this Konow seems to have been dragged into the unnecessary controversy about the difference between the Sakas, Kushanas, Yue-che, etc.210 This controversy is quite futile and needless. There was no difference between
209. In JRAS, 1904, p. 372.
210. His article in IHQ. 1938, Vol. XIV, p. 137.
[Page-75]: these people called by various names. The main point however, that we want to refer to, is the belated and futile attempt by Dr Banerji and Jayaswal to Sanskritise the name of Nahapāṇa into Nahavana or Nakhapana or Nabhahpana. Konow has ably refuted the theories of Dr Banerji and Jayaswal by pointing out that Nahapana is an Iranian word meaning, "people protecting".211 His son-in-law was also named as Usavadata who was son of Dinaka. In the first name the last syllable is 'Data' meaning "Law". And the second name Dinaka is formed from the Persian word "Deena" meaning "religion", from which the modern 'Din' of Din-e-Ilahi of Akbar has been derived. Similarly the name of another Satrap, viz., Chaṣṭan (चष्टान) is also of Iranian origin. It may be related to Pusto word "Chastan" meaning "Master".
Therefore, we see that the names of the Satraps as well as the title itself, are not of Indian origin, despite the efforts made earlier and now, to Sanskritise the same. It is interesting to note that when the Muslims came to India, they took the title of Sultan. But in the Indian records these Muslim Sultans of Delhi were called Sakas and Turushkas and their title was written as Suratrana or Svararatana. Even the name Mohammad was written as Mahamanda. So this process of Sanskritising the foreign name continued even up to the Mughal period (seethe inscription of 1335 V.S. found at Boher, district Rohtak). 212
Therefore the Jat clan Sahravat was sought to be Sanskritised perhaps deliberately and with intention. We find that there is no clan name called Kshaharata in any section of the Indian population. Sten Konow'S idea that it may be a title is not correct.213 Sahravat is not a title but a clan name, originally written as Sahrauta. They now hold 24 villages in Gurgaon district, including the town of Hodal.
- The Kangs: The Kang Jats are also a clan of remote antiquity. They are mentioned as early as seventh century B.C. The Chinese mention them as, Kiang-nu. R. Sankrityayana says that the Kangs were branch of Massagetae. 214 He traces the word Massagetae from Massaga which in turn is taken from Mahasaka. In the Ramayana
211. JRAS, 1906, p. 211.
212. JASB, Vol. VLIII, pt. I, p. 108 and EI, Vol. XX, p.79.
213. Op. cit.
214. MAKI, p. 75; also see Bergermann, Les Scythes.
[Page 76]: the Mahi-Sakas are mentioned with Rishikas.215 Kasika on Panini says: ऋषिकेषु जात आर्षिक:, महिषिकेषु जात: महिषिक (Arshikas are born of Rishikas and Mahi-Sakas are born of Mahishikas). This also establishes the connection of the Massagetae, viz., the great Jats with the Sakas. About the Kangs, R. Sankritayayana says that the founders of the canal system in Central Asia were the ancestors of the Kangs, viz., Massagetae.216 These canals of the Jats in Central Asia are now being excavated by the Russians. The ancient canals are practically intact, only filled with sand of the nearby deserts. Numerous cities of the Kangs are being uncovered. Coins, images, and even inscriptions of the Kang language have been found in Toprak Kala.217
These findings refute the theories of the barbaric nature and nomadic living habits of the Jats in Central Asia. Cities, languages, coins, images and canals, presuppose a well settled population in seventh century B.C. Of course, as is well known, the Jats had only two professions, viz., war or fighting and agriculture-cum-cattle breeding. That is why they had dug up a huge canal system for irrigation and that is why they had developed the stepped well and the Persian wheel well are mentioned by Agarwala.218 Of course, for grazing the cattle, the people used to cover extensive areas. This habit is still there and we find huge herds of cows, etc., coming to U.P., Haryana and Punjab areas from Jodhpur, Jaisalmer side almost every year during the dry seasons. Therefore, although a large portion of the population was definitely settled in villages and cities, a fairly large section were constantly on the move with their cows and horses and of course, their arms.
According to MAKI, the canals laboriously constructed by the Messagetae were covered by sand in 5th century A.D. or later. These were constructed prior to Akhamenian Empire or Persia and the Kangs refused to be defeated by Cyrus the Great. These canals are now lying in the womb of the desert of Kizilkun. 219 The same author says that Yue-che were linguistically Sakas. Further, Wusun, Saiwang, Kang and Parthian (Pahlva) are dialects
215. Kishkindha Kanda, 41.10. अब्रवंतीम् अवंतीम् च सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत । विदर्भान् ऋष्टिकान् चैव रम्यान् माहिषकान् अपि ॥४-४१-१०॥
216. op. cit.
217. ibid., p. 162, and Archaeology in USSR.
218. op. cit.
219. MAKI, p. 160.
[Page-77]: of Saka language.220 That is why the Chinese traveller, Changkian writes that from Fargana to Parthia, the same language was spoken.221 Parthian was in fact a minor Saka tribe and helped by the Kangs and other clans, the Parthians established their empire up to Caspian sea.222 It was during this Parthian Empire that many Sakas from the Yue-che lands were established in Eastern Iran and the area of their settlement was named after them as Sakasthan, modern Siestan. That is why the Sakas and , the Parthians, though bitterly fighting among themselves outside and inside India also, were treating each other as brothers during peace time. After the start of the Christian era, they gave many royal houses to India such as the Sahravat, the Kasvans, the Dharan (Guptas), etc. And it is not only to India that they gave such royal dynasties. At least three dynasties of China were established by these people. As is well known, a number of Chinese ladies were married by these people and for centuries this process was continued. It was due to the mixing of Chinese blood in this manner that these people acquired in the later periods of history some Mongoloid features.
Jata Jhat Sanghate
jaT(a) [ जट ] — सङ्घाते (Saṅghāte) IAST: Jaṭa Saṅghāte
See on the site - http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.d.../i_jaTa_a.html
jhaT(a) [ झट ] — सङ्घाते (Saṅghāte) IAST: Jhaṭa Saṅghāte
||स्वरांकित पाणिनीयधातुपाठः ||
अथ भ्वादयः |
१. १ भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्तः परस्मैभाषः ||
अथ टवर्गीयान्ताः | Meaning words ending with 't'
३४३ झट सङ्घाते
URL address is - http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/...atha_unic.html
||पाणिनीयधातुपाठः सूची स्वरविरहित ||
||अथ धातुपाठसूची ||
जट् | भ्वा० सेट् प० | जट- [सङ्घाते]१. ३४२ ||
झट् | भ्वा० सेट् प० | झट सङ्घाते १. ३४३ ||
URL address is - http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/...ndex_unic.html
Meaning of Jata jhata sanghate is that jata and jhata dhatus are used for sangha
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