Dravida

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Dravida (द्रविड़) or Dravira, was a Buddhist Kingdom visited by Xuanzang in 640 AD in South India.

Variants

Location

Jat clans

  • Danghad (दांघड़)[1] Danghar (दांघड़) is gotra of Jats. It is said to have originated from Dravida (द्रविड़). These people were inhabitants of Dravida province. [2]

History

Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD

Alexander Cunningham[3] writes that In the seventh century the province of Ta-lo-pi-cha, or Dravida, was 6000 li, or 1000 miles, in circuit, and its capital, named Kien-chi-pu-lo, or Kanchipura, was 80 li, or 5 miles, in circuit.[4] Kanchipura is the true Sanskrit name of Conjeveram, on the Palar river, a large straggling town of great antiquity. As Dravida was bounded by Konkana and Dhanakakata on the north, and by Malakuta on the south, while no district is mentioned to the west, it seems certain that it must have extended right across the peninsula, from sea to sea. Its northern boundary may therefore be approximately defined as running from Kundapur, on the western coast, via Kadur and Tripati, to the Pulikat Lake, and its southern boundary from Calicut to the mouth of the Kaveri. As the circuit of these limits is very nearly 1000 miles, the boundaries suggested may be accepted as very nearly correct.

During the pilgrim's stay at Kanchipura, about 300 Buddhist monks arrived from Ceylon, which they had quitted on account of political disturbances, consequent on the death of the king. By my reckoning, Hwen Thsang must have arrived in Kanchipura, about the


[p.549]: 30th of July, A.D. 639, and, according to Tumour's list of the kings of Ceylon, Raja Buna Mugalan was put to death in A.D. 639. From the information furnished by these monks, the pilgrim drew up his account of Seng.kia.lo, or Ceylon, which he was prevented from visiting by the disturbed state of the country.

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[5] mentions works done by various chiefs during the reign of king Jayasimha (1128 - 1155 AD) of Kashmir....The chief among the kings made his own matha a specially desirable object. He was without vanity, and gave away in gifts many villages, the principal among which was celebrated as Simhapura by those who knew of his gifts. In this place the son of the daughter of the lord of Kārapatha established a Colony of the twice-born who were going to Sindhu and of the rough out caste people of Dravida who formerly lived at Siddhachchhatra. (p.218-219)

In Mahabharata

Dravina (द्रविण) in Mahabharata (I.60.20).

Dravida (द्रविड़) in Mahabharata (II.28.48),(II.31.12),(III.48.18),(V.158.20), (VI.10.57),(VIII.4.46),


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 60 gives genealogy of all the principal creatures. Dravina (द्रविण) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.60.20).[6]....And Dhara had two sons, Dravina and Huta-havya-vaha. And the son of Dhruva is the illustrious Kala (Time), the destroyer of the worlds.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's march towards south: kings and tribes defeated. Dravida (द्रविड़) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.48).[7]....The hero brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from the Paundrayas and the Dravidas along with the Udra-Keralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas, and also the delightful city of Atavi (Roma) and that of the Yavanas.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 31 mentions the Kshatriyas who brought tributes on Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. Dravida (द्रविड़) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.31.12).[8].... and the Dravidas and the Singhalas and the king of Kashmira, and king Kuntibhoja of great energy and king Gauravahana,....


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 48 describes Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira attended by the chiefs of many islands and countries. Dravida (द्रविड़) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.48.18). [9]....I saw all kings, even those of the Vangas and Angas and Paundras and Odras and Cholas and Dravidas and Andhakas, and the chiefs of many islands and countries....


Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 158 mentions Dravida (द्रविड़) in Mahabharata (V.158.20).[10]...Having reached the Pandava camp, the gambler's son (Uluka) presented himself before the Pandavas, and addressing Yudhishthira said Duryodhana's words after Pandavas were defeated at dice....and which is protected by these kings like the gods protecting theirs in heaven, and which, swarming with the kings of the East, West, South, and North, with Kambojas, Sakas, Khasas, Shalwas, Matsyas, Kurus of the middle country, Mlechchhas, Pulindas, Dravidas, Andhras, and Kanchis, indeed, with many nations, all addressed for battle, is uncrossable....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Dravida (द्रविड़) is mentioned in the list of other Kingdoms in the south in Mahabharata (VI.10.57). [11].... They are the Dravidas, the Keralas, the Prachyas, the Mushikas, and the Vanavashikas; the Karanatakas, the Mahishakas, the Vikalpas, and also the Mushakas;....


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 4 mentions the warriors who are dead amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas after ten days. Dravidas (द्रविड़) are mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.4.46).[12]....the Malavas, the Madrakas the Dravidas of fierce prowess, the Yaudheyas, the Lalittyas, the Kshudrakas, the Mavellakas, the Usinaras,....

द्रविड़

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[13] ने लेख किया है ... द्रविड़ (AS, p.455) तमिलनाडु का प्राचीन नाम-- 'पांड्याश्च द्रविडांश्चैव सहितांश्चोंड्र केरलै: आंध्रास्तालवनांश्चैव कलिंगानुष्ट्रकर्णिकान्'- महाभारत सभा पर्व 31, 71. इस उल्लेख के अनुसार सहदेव ने द्रविड़ तथा अन्य दक्षिणात्य राज्यों पर दिग्विजय-यात्रा के प्रसंग में विजय प्राप्त की थी। वनपर्व 51, 22 में द्राविड़ों का चोलों और आंध्रों के साथ उल्लेख है। 'सवंगांगान् सपौंड्रोड्रानू सचोल द्राविड़ांध्रकान्। कहा जाता है कि द्रविड़ और तमिल शब्द मूलत: एक ही हैं, केवल उच्चारण के भेद के कारण अलग-अलग हो गए हैं। मनु के अनुसार द्राविड़ मूलत: क्षत्रिय थे।

References

  1. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.45,s.n. 1286
  2. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc,: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, p.256
  3. The Ancient Geography of India/Southern India, p.548-549
  4. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 118. See Map No. I.
  5. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i), p.218-219
  6. धरस्य पुत्रॊ द्रविणॊ हुतहव्यवहस तथा, धरुवस्य पुत्रॊ भगवान कालॊ लॊकप्रकालनः (I.60.20)
  7. पाण्ड्यांश च द्रविड़ांश चैव सहितांश चॊथ्र केरलैः, अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)
  8. द्रविडाः सिंहलाश चैव राजा काश्मीरकस तदा, कुन्तिभॊजॊ महातेजाः सुह्मश च सुमहाबलः
  9. यत्र सर्वान महीपालाञ शस्त्रतेजॊ भयार्थितान, सवङ्गाङ्गान सपौण्ड्र उड्रान सचॊल द्रविडान्धकान (III.48.18)
  10. 20 पराच्यैः परतीच्यैर अद थाक्षिणात्यैर; उदीच्यकाम्बॊजशकैः खशैश च, शाल्वैः समत्स्यैः कुरुमध्यदेशैर मलेच्छैः पुलिन्थैर द्रविडान्ध्र काञ्च्यैः (V.158.20)
  11. द्रविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः, उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)
  12. मालवा मद्रकाश चैव द्रविडाश चॊग्रविक्रमाः, यौधेयाश च ललित्दाश च क्षुद्रकाश चाप्य उशीनराः (VIII.4.46)
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.455