Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i)

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Kings of Kashmira

Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita: Vol.2 (p.105-219)

By Jogesh Chunder Dutt


London: Trubner & Co.

Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i): (p.105-219)

Prince Simhadeva's coronation 1125 AD

[p.105]:The king Sussala, who was indifferent in mind and wished to resign his kingdom brought from Lohara, his son who had just then passed his boyhood. He had made Bhagika, Prajji's brother's son, lord of Mandala and employed him at Lohara, and thus guarded the country and its treasury. When his beloved son arrived at Varahamula, he advanced and embraced him with joy as well as with grief. The prince was grieved, when after three years he returned to his country and found his father in that condition. With his face humbled with sorrow, he entered the ruined city (capital), as the cloud charged with water enters the burnt forest. His father crowned him on the first of Ashada, and with tears in his eyes he taught him in the ways and policies of kings. " Bear thou the weight which is now placed on you, and which your father and your uncle could not bear ; they sank under it." Over-powered by fate, the king made his son bear the royal insignia and bestowed on him his possessions. No sooner was the prince installed than the siege of towns, drought, diseases, and annoyances by robbers abated, and the earth became so full of corn that the famine was over in the month of Shravana.

In the meantime Simhadeva, (the prince just crowned,) had been destroying the enemies in battle. But the king was told by informers that he intended to rise against his father. When the prince heard this, he, in his anger

[p.106]: and without judging rightly at first sent away from him the son Kayya, with his friends. He had anticipated this, and he now determined to remain unshaken before his father, terrible in his frowns, and he obeyed the orders of the king. On the next day Simhadeva, without taking food on account of grief, and much afflicted, was coming to his father in order to gain his confidence. He was afraid that since his father's suspicion was roused, the ministers would not be able to assuage him. But his father caused him to return form the way, by false assurances. The king after much deliberation decided that he would confine Simhadeva in prison. Fie to the kingdom for which father and son suspect each other and cannot live at ease, even at night. Who can know whom the king will trust, when he distrusts his son, wife, friend and servant?

In a village known by the name of Sāhya, near Kugrāma, there lived the son of one Sthānaka, a keeper of asses. In his younger years he was brought up in tending animals and was taught in arms with the Damara boys, and he gradually became a constant attendant of Tikka. From the year 1 (=1125 AD), Utpala, — such was his name, was employed as messenger, and became the confidant of the king who was then trying to create a division among his enemies. The king told him to murder Tikka and Bhikshachara, and promised to give him wealth and the house belonging to Tikka. Utpala too promised to commit the crime, and the king bestowed on him

[p.107]: large gifts and the title of Ganjapati. He for some time wavered between the hope of enjoyment and wealth and the fear of committing the murder of his master ; and he could not decide whether to do or to decline the act. In the meantime his wife gave birth to a son, and the king sent her presents suited to the occasion, as if he were her father. Alarmed at this, she anxiously enquired of her husband, the reason of those gifts, and he told her every thing.

"Do not rise against your master, for if you do, even this Sussala will kill you, as being the murderer of your master. On the contrary, if you can, gain the confidence of Sussala and kill him. Your master, his son, relatives and others will give you wealth."

On receiving these instructions from his wife, which were contrary to his own ideas, he stopped executing his plans, and divulged everything to Tikka. The king was overcome by fate, and trusted Utpala who was constantly visiting him, as he was his son. What disasters do not overtake him whose good fortune has waned ? He mistrusted his son, and trusted a creature of the enemy ! Or is it that fools and those blinded by selfishness do not think of danger, as those who are greedy after honey do not think of the sting of bees?

Utpala caused Ṭikka to be harassed by Prajji and humbled by the king, and made Tikka give up his son as hostage. The king left Devasarasa which he had conquered in the month of Karttika and went to the

[p.108]: village of Vaṣhṭuka in the province of Kheri. In the great battles which took place near Kalyanapura, he put to shame the great warriors Bhikshu, Koshteshvara &c and in the midst of the battle, he captured alive, from amongst Bhikshachara and others, the great, the resplendent hero Sujji of the family of Kaka. The king first defeated the prosperous Vijaya and then burnt his house at Kalyanapura ; and when Vaḍausaka was burnt, Bhikshachara was left without shelter, and he left that place and stopped at the village of Kākaruha in Shamala. The younger brother of the prosperous Vijaya took shelter with the king in fear, but the king imprisoned him in anger. Having placed Rilhana with a large army at Shurapura, he threatened an attack even on Rajapuri. By these energetic actions he dispersed the powerful Damaras, and there was very little left towards the subjugation of the enemies. Bhikshachara and the Lavanyas found their power weakened, and their enemies gaining strength, and they thought of going to some foreign countries through fear. Some unknown misfortune fell on the party of Bhikshu, since though they lived in sadness, they appeared dead.

The king did not forget the dishonesty of Somapala who had now returned from his intended attack on Rajapuri end determined to turn Rajapuri to a field of the dead, after the expiration of the cold season. When the rebellion was well nigh over, it was thought that the king was powerful enough to carry his arms to

[p.109]: the sea. One in a hundred of those who had rebelled now survived, and to such men a year seemed as long as a yuga. The reign of this king was grievous to all on account of the distress, fear, poverty and death of beloved friends. Success rests with Fate, and what but valor, severity and the wiles of man effect ? Some people deserted him in his presence, like men shunning darkness. Some went to a distance and turned round like a lion to look at him in defiance. Some who were near slighted him, as if they were frogs who would over leap him. Irregularities were thus clearly visible. The king had deprecated Uchchala &c. for having trusted others ; and he lived constantly with drawn sword, even when listening to the narrations of the historians ; and even when he was dallying with his wives, and he told them the tales of Viduratha &c, he did not look on them with confidence!

Utpala's treachery towards the king Sussala

Who but Fate deceived him into the confidence which he reposed on Utpala as on a relative ? Tikka and others told Utpala that if the king or Sujji happened to die, they would consider him as the murderer. Sujji never trusted Utpala, and Utpala was ready to murder the king, but found no opportunity. Now the accomplishment of his promise to the king to murder Tikka, was being delayed, and the king became angry with him. Utpala, in order to gain the king's confidence, brought his son from Devasarasa, and placed him as hostage, and told the king that he would accom

[p.110]: plish his purpose through his fierce friends Vyāghra, Prashastarāja, &c, who were the king's enemies. One day he selected from among the infantry, one hundred brave men, and set out from his house. The murderer then sought an opportunity and frequently came near the king, but his purpose was several times defeated by the gift of food &c, which the king made to him. Now, there was in the capital a horse named Mandurāchakravarti which was ill. The king who loved horses sent Lakshmaka, son of Kayyaka, and others who were near him, to cure it. At this time the king was accompanied by a few attendants. Shringāra, son of Lakshmaka, heard, from his trustworthy men, of Utpala's purpose, and informed the king of it. A man whose end is nigh, regards his enemy as his friend, even when the fatal work has commenced, just as animals look complacently on the place of slaughter. The enraged Rishi had with his terrible look and fierce expression foretold the speedy extinction of Krishna's line, and the fulfilment of the curse could not be avoided. Who can escape what is ordained, oven if he knows it beforehand? The king rebuked Shringara and told him that it was false. He pointed out Shringara to the men who were present there, and told them that Shringara was the son of a rebel, and that either on his own account or on the instigation of other evil men, he had called Utpala, a wicked man, as soon as he had found a suitable opportunity, in order to disturb

[p.111]: his (king's) peace. They smiled and hid their faces in their stupidity and said, " You have stated ! king ! what we should have said." When they were gone, the king, as if slightly afraid, ordered through his door-keeper, two or three chief warriors to remain with him.

He was unsettled in mind, and so he sighed and thought of something and wept and did not care to attend dancing or singing. Laboring under a misapprehension, the king suspected his trusty men, as if they were foreigners, like one who is about to be expelled from heaven on the expiration of the period of enjoyment earned by his virtue. The friends of the king apprehended that their master was possessed by the devil. Some of them wished that he might be exorcised, and others, foolish as they were, sought other masters. Such is the fatal influence of time, that beings possessed of full knowledge of duty, forget to perform it. Utpala and others spent two days in fear, looking after opportunities.

Murder of the king Sussala 1127 AD

On the third day, they who were watching for an opportunity when the king would be alone were invited by the king to dine in his house after he had performed his bath early in the morning. Having finished his daily prayer and worship and being alone, the king sent messengers at noon, to call Utpala. As the king was alone, Utpala thought that his object would now be accomplished. He came to the king, his followers being detained at the door. The king allowed Utpala's younger brother Vyaghra, who was detained at the door, to come in, while the other

[p.112]: attendants were told to wait outside. Some of the king's faithful men loitered there, whereupon the king said in anger that " he who remains here is a traitor." Only two remained there, the betel-bearer, an old man, and the learned Rahila, the minister for peace and war. At this time Aghadeva and Nishtavaishya, two spies of Tikka, came from him not knowing what Utpala was about. Utpala said to the king that " Sukharaja, a Damara, inhabitant of Vaḍḍautsa and a partisan of Bhikshu, will go about his own work after bowing at your feet." Thus for his own safety, Utpala secured the presence of the Damara along with his soldiers who were not far. Thus when the king was seated, Utpala soon caused Prashastaraja to enter, telling the king that he had some business with him. Prashastaraja on entering the room saw that there was none [capable of defending the king] either within the room or outside, and he shut the door unperceived. The king had lately bathed and his hair was yet wet, and as it was cold, he had wrapped a sheet all round his body and was sitting with his weapon resting on the seat of kusha grass. When Vyaghra saw the king in this state, he told Utpala that such an opportunity will never occur again, so submit your prayers to the king now." After he had thus given the hint, Vyaghra, on the pretence of bowing at the feet of the king, came before him and removed the weapon from the king's scat, and drew it out of the scabbard. At the sight of this, king was amazed and cried out, " O ! fie treason ! " But no sooner had he said so than

[p.113]: he was struck on the right side and then Prashastaraja, struck him on his head. Vyaghra then wounded him on his breast, and then both of them struck him several times. Utpala however did not strike twice ; he thought that the first blow which had broken the king's ribs, had torn his entrails and that he was dead. Rāhila attempted to kill the enemies, but was in the meantime struck twice or thrice by Vyaghra on the back, with an instrument used for piercing elephants' ear, and he died within two or three danḍas. The poor betel bearer left the place and fled, and he was saved by Utpala from his men out of pity.

When this disturbance was raised in the inner apartments, the rebellion's and armed Tikkaka and others who were in the outer apartments commenced plundering. The king's soldiers believed that the king had killed Utpala and so they attacked the soldiers of Utpala's men who were outside. In order to give them hope, Utpala came out and showed himself besmeared with blood and told them that he had killed the king with his iron club, and that they should not spare the king's soldiers. When the servants of the king heard this bad news, they fled in fear, and the rebels being emboldened remained in the courtyard. When the rebels went out of the house, they killed the powerful Nāgaka, a servant of the king, who with drawn sword was entering the door. A servant of the king, Trailokya, of the dynasty of Shakyapala, who remonstrated against

[p.114]: this treason, was killed by Tikkaka and others who were at the door. Sahajapala, the ornament of the line of Bhavuka, of superior prowess among the spiritless servants of the king, ran with sword and shield ; and when the rebels saw him, they went out by a side way. But this powerful man was wounded by their servants, and he fell on the ground. The shame of the Rajpoots was washed by his blood. The learned Nona went before them, and though a native of the country, resembled the Rajpoots in person, and so they mistook him for Rajpoot and killed him. When the soldiers saw the rebels go towards the village unwounded, they did not pursue them in anger, but remained stationary like painted figures. The fat bodied Rajpoots, beloved of the king, kept themselves quiet, and crowded in the courtyard which was a while ago deserted. It has been a burden to us to speak of these cowardly men from the time of king Harsha. We dare not pronounce the names of these sinful men through fear of contamination with their sins, and out of grief. Thinking it an act of great manliness to walk from the courtyard to the house, some of the principal men among these sinful people went to see their murdered master. They saw the king, his teeth pressed on his lower lip over which the blood was issuing and which seemed to be quivering, as if the king was giving utterance to his grief at his being deceived. He was motionless and dead, but his eyes looted as when he was alive. His face was darkened by tears, as if caused

[p.115]: by the smoke of the fire of his anger at the time of its extinction. There were the clear marks of sandel and saffron on his face, as if he was marked with blood from the wounds. His hair was clotted with thick blood, and he lay naked on the ground. His hands and feet were stretched out, his neck was hanging on his shoulders. They did not do anything befitting the occasion; they only said " enjoy the fruit of being alone ;" and thus reproached him. They did not take him on horse or on carriage, nor could they burn him, for they fled to save their own lives. Nor was the body placed by any one afterwards on wood and burnt ; each took one of king's horses and fled ; and the soldiers, as they went into villages, were plundered by the Damaras. On the way which was covered with snow, neither sons protected their fathers, nor fathers saved their sons, whether they died or were killed or plundered. There was no warrior who thought of his dignity when menaced by his enemies on the road, and did not cast away his clothes and arms. But three died bravely. They were Lavaraja and Yashoraja, two Brahmanas who were well up in gymnastics, and Kāndaraja. Utpala and others saw from the neighbourhood, the soldiers thus fleeing and they entered the house, cut off the head of the king and took it away. When they had gone to Devasarasa, the headless king, like a murdered thief, became an object of sight to the villagers. Thus in the year 3 (1127 AD), in the month of phalguna, on the day of the new moon, was the king killed by treason, at the age of 55 years.

Ascension of Simhadeva to the throne

[p.116]: Lament of Simhadeva: It was when Simhadeva was lying at base, that the son of his nurse told him this evil news. Unarmed as he was, he felt all the anger of an armed man. Recovering from a long swoon, he regained his recollection, and impatient with grief, he lamented half aloud and half in whisper. " "You, O ! great king ! who governed the country for me, and cleared it of all enemies, for what an insignificant cause have you died? Did the foes approach you, destroyer of enemies ! when you were looking on them unarmed? You skilled your enemies and thereby pleased your father and your brother in heaven ; but alas ! your son cannot please you in the same manner. Think not for a moment that the world is like a wilderness and that there lives none in it like Kripa, Drona and Jamadagnya who extirpated the dynasties of their foes [to revenge the insult offered to their parents.] It is sad that grief has settled on you ; king ! But I will be revenged for it.

I am not sorry that the three worlds are the objects of my assault. "When you beheld me, your countenance became affectionate, smiling and sweet with kind words, — that face is still before me." When he had lamented thus and more, he kept his deportment unchanged, owing to his gravity, and saw before him his father's faithful men, dumb through shame, grief and fear. His usual courtesy checked what anger suggested to him, yet he addressed them thus in harsh and reproachful words.

" Perform the funeral rites, and spend riches as befits his dignity. Fie to you ! Fie to arms ! that all this has come upon my

[p.117]:father. You, honorable men, have not now boon able to do what the vulgar people did when my uncle died !"

When he was thus rebuking, two or three ministers came to him, and he listened what they said for his benefit. Some advised him to leave the country and to go to Lohara without delay, as they apprehended mischief in the country from Bhikshu, at the dawn of day. Others calmly advised him to take over to his side, Garga's son, Panchachandra who was at Lohara, and to continue the civil war.

Bhikshu's intention to enter the capital : Now that Sussala was dead and Bhikshu purposed to enter the capital, none thought it advisable to remain in his own house. The ministers had no confidence in Simhadeva who told them that they would witness on the following day what would happen. As time went on, the king's grief for his father's death became manifest. He now ordered trusty guards to watch the treasuries &c. The city became clamorous, the dust surrounding it on sides, and the people went hither and thither and talked to one another. All the people feared the night, as they feared demons, or, as if it was the last night of the kalpa. Surrounded by the lamps that did not flicker, there being no breeze, and by ministers who did not move, the king thus thought within himself. "My father, like a helpless man, has been murdered in a dark room without doors, while the wind was blowing hard, and I am yet alive. His death is intolerable. How shall I meat the proud in an assembly as long as this disgrace is not

[p.118]: wiped off? And how will the leaders of my armies come through hostile countries and roads covered with impassable snow? Thus he meditated and gave vent to his excessive grief and fear, and the terrible night dawned after much trouble.

On the morning he went to the courtyard to assuage the citizens, and thence he despatched horsemen in search of the soldiers who had fled. The clouds touched the ground and the hollows of the road were entirely covered with snow. Those who had been sent returned, but the king could not get even the names of the soldiers who had fled. After a moment's deliberation, he published in the town, by the beat of drum, that he did not wish to get back the things which had been taken away, and that he pardoned those who were guilty, and bad gone over to the enemy. When he had done this, the citizens flocked into the town from all sides and blessed the king. The proclamation which was in favor of those who had acted against the king bore its fruit on that very day. Simhadeva had about him less than one hundred followers only ; but men from all sides now flocked round him out of love. Lakashmaka obtained the post of prime minister for his kind and gentle words in presence of the king.

When the wise king had consolidated his government, by this policy, Bhikshu arrived with the intention of entering the capital just after midday. His army composed of Damaras, citizens, horsemen and plunderers appeared as usual. He had come to the capital, aspiring after the

[p.119]: kingdom, when he heard of the death of his enemy. To him Tilaka, son of Kaka, spoke thus. — "Sussala was disliked, by all, but now it so happens that he is dead, why should his subjects desert his worthy son? Therefore O king ! instead of entering the capital, come let us make haste and enter Padmapura within one day, in order to obstruct the way of the enemies. The armies of Sujji and of other great warriors have fled, and they themselves are now coming. If we can kill them or capture them with their arms and cnveyances, then surely within two or three days we shall be able to enter the capital. The inhabitants will themselves welcome your entry, and lay down their arms." Bhikshu, Koshteshvara and others said that these infirm councils were useless, and smiled and treated Tilaka with disrespect. The followers of Bhikshachara believed that they had already got the kingdom, and clamoured for obtaining posts and hated delay.

Much snow had fallen by this time, which benumbed Bhikshu's large army when he arrived on the skirts of the city (capital.) Taking advantage of this opportunity, Panchachandra, son of Garga, with a large army, came to the king who was then without soldiers. Panchachandra had set out with the Rajpoots to fight in order to expiate his sin for deserting his deceased master. No sooner the battle commenced than the soldiers of Bhikshu, thus unexpectedly engaged in fight, saw their own men falling on every side, and soon gave way, nor

[p.120]: could those who were fleeing be restrained. Bhikshu, Prithvihara and other great leaders were also, like common soldiers, struck with unusual panic. Had they been pursued by the king's followers, when they fled, surely none of them had been left alive, after a short time.

When they were routed through the prowess of the new king, Fate favored the distressed capital after a long while. The result of the contest between the two kings was different from what the people had expected. Fate hurls down some men in a moment, tying them by the leg, and lifts up others who were falling, even as a stream washes away a bank and raises another. The designs of Fate are curious !

Sujji's escape to the capital

Sujji quietly issued from the field of battle at the close of the day, like a serpent issuing from a hill, covered with forest-fire. He was in the village of Meghāchakrapura, when he heard of the fate king's death ; and after consultation, he stopped there for the night. He waited for Rihlana and other leaders of armies at Shurapura &c, and entered the town with them without opposition. They lighted lamps over their dwellings in the darkness, in order to convey information to the infantry as to their position. But there was difference of opinion among the infantry, they were, tired and they got separated during the night, and could not reach the place. On the morning Sujji marched out, but the Damaras never left him, they hung on his rear and attacked

[p.121]: him here and there. But, as a cowherd protects his animals, so Sujji went on protecting his army, keeping in the front those who were with him, and there wore many old persons, women and boys in his train. With fifty horsemen, he turned round and stood, and was for a short while able to protect his charge. The passage was obstructed by heaps of vine creepers and many trees, and infested by his fearless enemies. He lost his men at every step. But with a wish to pay off the debt which he owed to his late master, and to his master's son who was in danger, he saved his own life.

Of what use are those men who live like ravenous beasts, and who die without waiting for a fitting time. Sujji's soldiers were killed and the cruel Damaras of Khaṇḍduvī obstructed his way near Padmapura and waited there in order to kill him, as he was marching by that road. At this time Shrivaka left the village of Kherītalālasā with a large army and came marching this way. The Damaras mistook Shrivaka, coming with his followers, for Sujji, and fell on him and killed and plundered his soldiers. In this scuffle Meru and Sajjana, two horsemen, perished, and Malla, son of Vatta, was wounded and died in a few days. The place Udipapārnvāla had become dangerous, as the chasm there was filled with much water. Shrivaka marched out of Padmapura, fighting as he went, his army was surrounded, and some arrows entered his throat. When he was overcome with wounds, the Damaras found out that he was not Sujji, and they

[p.122]: desisted from plundering him for the sake of their old frendship with Shrivaka. The Damaras were grieved for having robbed Shrivaka and at the death of his soldiers, and went away. Sujji's passage thus became safe, as a lion is accidentally killed by a trap, and a traveller's passage is cleared.

Sujji silently marched with his army towards Padmapura, and when he had arrived near the chasm of Udipapura, the Damaras became aware of him. Sujji disregard the Damaras who plundered his infantry, treasures, arms, &c, and with this cavalry crossed the chasm and reached the place where the horses could move. Now, his fear of his enemies was gone, and he threatened them by contracting his brows, shaking his forefinger and by harsh words. He took his umbrella only and with his frightened men, he hastily entered the capital, and with tears in his eyes came to the king. On the approach of Sujji who was like the king's elder brother, the king shed tears in grief, he cast off his dread of the arrival of his foes, with the tears that he shed.

Death of Ananda: On that day Ananta's son, Ananda the great, was killed by the Damaras at Lochanoḍḍāraka while on his march. He did many good acts and could undergo hard labor. Who was not grieved at his mishap? Bhāsa, a servant of Sujji, had escaped his enemies through the virtue of the people and being weary, entered the court-yard of god Avasvami at Avantipura. He and

[p.123]: Kshemananda who had quelled the rebellion at Kampana were surrounded by the angry Damaras of Holaḍa. Induraja, a commander in the army, born of the line of Kularaja was also surrounded by the same Damaras ; but by some pretext Induraja obtained the protection of Tikka at Dhyānoddāra. Pinchadeva and many other leaders of the army were besieged by the Damaras and they left Kramarajya. As when a large tree falls, the young ones of birds are thrown out of nests and are wounded and perish, so fared the followers of the king in those places. Many died in the way, having no protection for their feet which were benumbed by cold, their bodies were naked and they were oppressed with hunger. At that time none were seen on the roads leading to the capital but men covering their bodies with straw. Even Chitraratha and others who wore destined within short time to become great ministers, carried grass to make comfortable beds. On the second day, the clouds poured snow, and the thick shower, through which arrows could not penetrate, continued without ceasing for a moment.

Bhikshu was at Vanagrama, and at that place Dhanya left his army and went to seek protection of Simhadeva. When the soldiers of Bhikshu heard that the king had treated Dhanya well, they were eager to come to the capital.

Burning of the four queens:

Four queens took this opportunity of the enemy's weakness and set out to follow the late king to the next world. Fearing interruption, however, from an attack of the enemy, and deterred also by the exhaustion

[p.124] of their servants, they could not go to the distant Pitrikānana, but were quickly consumed near the temple of Skanda, not far from the palace. Queens Devalekha born at Champa and her mother-in-law Taralalekha, Rupollekha, and the accomplished Jajvalā born at Vallapura, and Rajalakshml daughter of Garga; — all perished in the fire. The Damaras believed that the snow fell on account of the accession of the new king to the the throne, and therefore named him Himarāja.

Sussala's head brought to Bhikshu

Bhikshu, to whom the head of Sussala was brought, viewed it with angry looks, as if he would burn it with the fire of his eyes. Koshteshvara, Jyeshtapala and others tried to perform the last rites to the remains of the late king, but Bhikshu, out of enmity to the dead, could not bear it, and prevented them from this act.

Bhikshu's speech: When the snow had ceased to fall, he intended to march to the capital, to fight. He knew that his servants sought too do him harm on account of his inaction, and he addressed them thus : —

"So long as Prithvihara lives, we shall be able to get the kingdom by force. We had thought that on the death of our enemy, Sussala, his successor would be in peril, but it has been otherwise decreed by Fate. Our enemy is dead, but we have not even a hope of obtaining the kingdom. I am aspiring to conquer the kingdom merely for the sake of enjoyment, for what duty could I perform, either towards myself or towards others, by obtaining the realm? He who had cast the heads of my ancestors to the ground is dead, and


his head is now rolling at my lion-gate. He had for ten months destroyed the peace of my ancestors, and I have given him similar trouble for ten years. Thus my duty has been partly fulfilled, and the grief of my mind has abated ; now I wish to devote in peace, the latter end of my life to some purpose."

When he had said these words and more, he went to Tikka who bowed to him. Bhikshu was pleased with him and gave him a golden vessel, a white umbrella, &c. He had confidence in Tikka, and his ambition for the kingdom revived ; he thought on the subject, but as he had an attack of cold, -he spoke nothing.

The corpse of the late king was impiously guarded [against cremation] by the Lavanya guards attached to Bhikshu. Sajjaka, a warrior, who lived in the city, thought of the corpse of his late master which had fallen into the hands of the enemy, and moved by gratitude, he came to Vashtuka, on the pretext of seeing the body. He defeated the guards and burnt the corpse. Sussala had destroyed many of his subjects from the year 94, under the mandates of the gods, as we learnt from those who had communion with spirits. And this was confirmed by the event which followed bis death. The man who had struck off his head, and had flourished it was found dead while sleeping. Bhikshu lost his sense of right and wrong, on account of his inhumanity. He sent the head of the late king to Rajapuri. Uchchala's daughter, Saubhagyalekha, caused those

[p.126] who had brought the head of her uncle to be killed by her followers ; and when Rajapuri became unruly, she went to her husband, Somapala, who was at a distance. The powerful lord of Khasha had, through indulgence in wine and in gross vices, become an object of pity, like a vulgar beast, and lost his senses. His courtiers acted properly or improperly without any restriction. Nagapala who lived in friendship with his brother could not brook the insult offered to the bead of his benefactor ; and farsighted men apprehended defeat from the Kashmirians and advised Nagapala to perform the last rites to his master's head. Even he who has a strong party is made helpless by Death ; when a lion is dead, the jackals laugh at him. At Gopalapura the head was burnt by the enemies with kala, aloes, sandal and pine wood. Many a time had Sussala got and lost the kingdom, many a battle had he lost and won, and many a danger had he encountered ; and his death was similarly strange. Whose remains have ever received the last rites by fire like his? The body at one place and the head at another !

Tikka and others loitered on their way to the capital via Avantipura, in order to destroy Bhāsa and others who had been besieged before. But they could not overcome the besieged by fight or by throwing stones or by fire or sword. Protected by the thick stone wall of the temple, the besieged killed the besiegers who could neither stay there nor flee from that place. In this opportunity

[p.127] caused by tho enemy's delay, the wise king brought over the Damaras of Khaṇḍūvī to his side by riches. He then sent without delay Sujji with Panchachandra and others who took money from him, for the relief of Bhasa and his party. But before Sujji arrived at Avantipura, Tikka and others had raised the siege, as soon as they saw the son of Kayya and others in the vanguard. Bhasa and his party issued out of the temple, pursued the flying enemies and killed them, and came back to Sujji.

Influence of the Pratihara: When the powerful lord of Kampana entered the capital, Induraja with his followers left Tikka and came thither. The king made Chitraratha, Shriva, Bhāsa and others lords of Pādāgra, Dvara and Kheri ; even Sujji who had not given up the duty entrusted to him had to wait on the pleasure of the Pratihara, what shall I say of other ministers ! The Pratihara who was in the confidence of the Damaras created dissensions among the parties, and was an object of regard of the king. There was not one among the enemies who at the bidding of the Pratihara did not come or wish to come under the protection of the king. The wily king who was ill at ease did not even take his meals but at the desire of the Pratihara. Thus the Pratihara became powerful in the capital ; but his policy which had well nigh succeeded was defeated.

Bhikshu had collected all the Damaras at Vijayeshvara with the intention of taking the capital at the end of

[p.128] the winter. The Damaras saw the union of their army such as was never seen before, and they feared that the kingdom would come to the possession of Bhikshu. They began to deliberate whether Somapala would not rise in rebellion after seeing the strength, valor, friends and foes of each party, and whether he would not create a division in his own party at the time of the attack with the prospect of getting the kingdom. Thus meditating, they privately sent messengers to Somapala, with the view of giving the kingdom to him, and he also sent messengers to them. The Damaras looked on Somapala as a beast on account of his defective person and his behaviour ; and they believed that by his possessing the kingdom they would become masters. In this most sinful country, the object of the plunderers who were excited by the greed of enjoyment was frustrated through a mere chance. Is he who is unfit even to be a servant, who is ashamed of good habits, at all able to govern the country ? Can he who frightens the sparrows by burning grass in order to protect the shall crop, and in doing so, burns his own face, protect the forest trees which are broken by wild elephants ? Somapala's messenger who would not do any harm to Bhikshu, raised money from the Damaras on false pretences.

Battle on the Gambhira: In the month of Vaishakha, Sujji commenced his operations. He hastily issued out of the capital and came to the banks of the Gambhira. His encounter with the enemies was glorious, for he routed all the warriors

[p.129] engaged in battle. It is so ruled by destiny, that in battles where courage is displayed, sometimes one man conquers a hundred thousand, and sometimes a hundred thousand conquer one. There was no bridge over the river, and Sujji could not cross it, but saw the enemies on the other side discharge their arrows. For two or three days, both he and the enemies remained unmoved on the banks of that river ; those who were clad in mail looked for weak points in other men. The bridge was then made with the boats brought from Avantipura. Sujji crossed the river with his horse on a boat. When the soldiers of the enemies saw Sujji reach the other side, they moved, as the trees do in a wind. In order to see their movement, Sujji ascended the bank. In the meantime the bridge was completed, his soldiers crossed over to the other side and the enemies fled. Of the fleeing army not one swordsman or horseman or spearman or bowman could look behind. The strap of Koshteshvara's horse got loosened and his saddle became loose, so that the horsemen waited for a short time. When the saddle was tightened, and Sujji pursued them hotly, they soon disappeared, like dust driven by the wind. The enemies whose soldiers wore killed, robbed and overturned, collected their shattered forces at Dhyānoḍḍāra and other villages. Bhasa who was in the van crossed the bridge over the Vitasta at Vijayesha and caused the robbers to flee.

Change of governors of the different provinces

The enemies stopped that day at Vijayakshetra and then on the day following, they went to the lord of

[p.130]: Kampana leaving Dhyanoddara behind. At this place Sujji stopped for a few days, and was going towards Devasarasa, when the relatives of Tikka, on account of some difference with Tikka, came out and joined Sujji. Sujjj entered Devasarasa and set up Jayaraja and Yashoraja, principal men among the sons (clan) of Bhojaka, in place of Tikka. Owing to the sharp pursuit made by Sujji, Bhikshu and others were dispersed, and they went to Shurapura. Koshteshvara and others went to their respective countries. The messenger of Somapala fled in great terror and spoke ill of Somapala saying " where on earth did this son of a servant-woman send me " ) The messenger thought that Somapala's aspiration which could be attained after great effort, was like the wish of a jackal to do as a lion docs. Within a few months Sujji pacified the kingdom which had for a long time been distracted owing to the carelessness of the king, and bestowed it on the king's son. The king tried by gifts to bring over to his side Shamāla and other great Damaras and the citizens who wore in favor of Bhikshu. But they by common consent decided first to test the power of the king and then to decide what they should do, and so they fought against the king. As the dance of dancers can be seen through a screen, so the movements of the soldiers was visible through the dust. Many warriors perished in the battle which took place at Damodara. Sahajapala set at liberty his father who was captured by Koshteshvara and obtained great glory "

[p.131]: along with, his men. In this battle both the king and Bhikshachara labored very hard, but the latter saw that his defeat was clear. From that day the soldier who was found on the morning in Bhikahu's army wad not found there (i.e. deserted ) in the evening ; and he who was seen there to-day was not found the next day.

Retirement of Bhikshu

When the Damaras and the citizens deserted the, enemy and went over to the king and received befitting rewards, Manujeshvara and Koshta, both of whom aspired after reward from the king and wished for his friendship, quarreled between themselves, each wishing to go over first to the king. Bhikshu heard of this from the sooth-sayers, collected his attendants, and set out in the month of Ashada intending to go to some other country. The Damaras who followed him could not assuage his anger with pleasant words, nor make him turn back.

The vicious Koshteshvara, — himself a prostitute's son, — longed for the very beautiful wife of Bhikshu.

But who could touch his wife, or hold the .... (?)* of an angry lion, or the jewel in the hood of a serpent or the flame of the fire?

When Bhikshu asked Somapala for shelter, he did not give it, because he had made his peace with the son of Sussala. The victor had every where made attempt to kill Bhikshu, consequently Bhikshu went to Sulhari, crossing over an unapproachable tract of that country. "There is kindness in Trigartta, good behaviour at Champa, -ifts (?)* at Madramaṇḍala and friendship at Darvvabhisara. When you stay away, the king,

* word is not clear

[p.132]: relieved of fear, will oppress the Damaras. They will then gradually welcome you and make you king." Though the ministers told him that it would be well for him to ask the help of the people for the conquest of the dominion of Naravarmma, Bhikshu did not accept their counsel ; he adopted the advice of his father-in-law, and his servants left him on the plea that their families at home were anxious for them.

The Damaras, in the splendour of theft wealth, entered the capital, like the procession of a bridegroom, in an auspicious moment. When the people saw that each of them had a horse and an umbrella and was more than a king, they regarded the forbearance of the son of Sussala as cruelty. Koshteshvara in whom centered greatness, form, youth, dress and beauty was the special object of sight of the women. The country in which the civil war ceased, became now the scene of festivity and rang with the sound of music of the many Lavanyas (Damaras) who came in there. Lakshmaka too brought to the king Kshira and others with a large army from Maḍavarajya. The king loved the Pratihara, and the king's parasites therefore thought it a great favor if they could gain entrance within the Pratihara's door. The Lavanyas plundered the villages and a great famine ensued in consequence and which caused a great expenditure to the king.

While the people suffered out side the capital, the king took into his pay some of the Damaras who lived within the capital and increased his own staff. The king gave

[p.133]: befitting punishment to Tippa, Vaishyārdhadeva and others, his kindreds ; who had rebelled against his father. Within four months from his father's death, the present king reigned supremo in the realm. The citizens were powerless in the capital, but many king-like Damaras spread themselves over the country.

Panegyrics on the king Simhadeva

Not far, the powerful enemy remained firm, and both in and out of the court, the nobles from ministers to feudatory chiefs leagued with him. At that time there was none in the palace who could give good counsel all the servants were rebels and addicted to vice. Those who know traditions ought to remember now tho events which took place in the beginning of the reign of the king in order to understand what happened afterwards. While we are treating on the subject of this meritorious king, we will, by way of example, briefly say something about him though it has been told several times. The kings whose histories were told before from traditionary accounts, were not well understood ; but we shall be able to judge rightly the qualifications of this king whom we have seen. A man is not able to judge another, how then can one judge a king who is more than a man?...* an affectionate wife, the poet shares the prosperity...* adversity of the king. Such a poet who love...* and whose name is mentioned with that of the.... cannot judge of the extraordinary character of ....* as he is blinded by his misguided intellect When...* he has assumed what is right and what is

* some characters missing here

[p.134]: how can he afterwards arrive at a correct judgment? There are traits in the character of this king also which are not intelligible, and I reckon them as faults because I cannot comprehend their purport and aim. The lightning which dazzles the eye, expands some objects ; the loud and long peal of thunder gives birth to certain herbs ; thus no action of the cloud is without some benefit to some object or other ; but ignorant men see no other quality in the cloud save that it rains. After hearing of the more than human qualifications of this king whom we have seen, we will believe the deeds of the kings who were. He made the kings tremble without moving from his place, as elephants which support the earth shake the mountains by moving their hair. The army of his enemy and the other kings were in secret afraid of him, even as sea- bears are secretly afraid of the submarine fire. He is the sun among kings, and by his light the moon like fame of former kings became hid in the earth. They who see him think that they behold before them the reflection of a god. He never takes back whatever he gives save that he withdraws from his enemies, after their submission, the fear which he had imparted to them before. When he holds up his sword there stands nothing before him but his own reflection ; and when he raises aloud his voice no other sound is echoed. His words a are sharp in time of anger and mild when he bestows a favor, as the two edges of a sword are respectively sharp and blunt. As the leaves of the kalpa tree retain

[p.135]: their beauty for ever, so the dependants of the king shine in lasting fortune.

Rivalry of the Pratihara and Janakasimha :The people knew that the king's ministers were wise and possessed unlimited nobility of soul and power, and they served them in every way. But the Pratihara could not brook the advancement of other ministers, as the esha herb cannot bear the growth of trees by its side ; and he rooted out all the ministers except Janakasimha, like grass. Janakasimha had served the king from childhood and knew his habits and he could not therefore be ruined. Janakasimha wished to establish peace with the king by a marriage alliance, but his son Chhuḍḍa was disgraced on account of his pride and insolence. The king watched for alight faults, and he hated both the father and the son for the behaviour of the son, and became angry with both of them. Both Janakasimha and the Pratihara became very haughty in the reign of this king, as they were both of the same age with the king and were well known to the queen-mother. They knew not to act according to the time. In the capital they used carriage and pair, and in bath and food and furniture they behaved like the king. It is ridiculous to live in the same style with one's own master, because they all attained prosperity through him. It is like the attempt of the frogs to overleap the tall lotus stock. The enemies of Janakasimha and of the Pratihara biased the king against them and against all their party ; and made them appear in the eyes of the king, as a portrait of envy drawn on the wall.

[p.136]: Murder of Utpala: At this time, in the mouth of Shravana, the grateful king went to Vijayeshvara to welcome the victorious lord of Kampana. In the meantime Utpala who was coming from Pinchadeva at Shurapura was murdered by the lord of Dranga in a mountain cavern. He was returning from Pushpananada in order to serve Pinchadeva, when he was found out by the lord of Dranga who was secretly looking out for him. But the lord of Dranga was thrown on the ground and was on the point of death. His knee was pierced with arrow. He killed a soldier of the enemy's party whom he found by him.

The king, after he had bestowed favors on the lord of Kampana, was on his return. He stopped at the gate of Avantipura when Sura of Dranga bowed to him. He was the scourge of his enemy, — he assuaged the anger and the grief of the king. In his first expedition he destroyed his enemies, and the people thought that he had exterminated his foes. When he entered the city, some of the guilty men fled, and Janakasimha and some others were thrown into prison. Koshteshvara and others became his Sura's enemies, through fear of the king. In the month of Karttika, the accomplished king went to Shamala, and there by fierce fighting, he harassed the unfriendly villages. The village of Hāḍi, where the power of king Sussala and others had been broken, was burnt by the powerful Sujji.

Reappearance of Bhikshachara

Oppressed by the king, Koshtaka and others invited Bhikshachara who was ambitious of obtaining the kingdom

[p.137]: and he came again. In one day he traversed fifteen yojanos and reached the village of Shilikākoṣhta situated on the hills. Eager after conquest, Bhikshu did not mind the trouble which arose from hunger, thirst, fatigue, fear of enemies and travelling, but remained, silent. He who is opposed by Fate in his desire to conquer sees his endeavours bear contrary results, even as a banner is borne backward by the wind, although the car runs forward. Some succeed in their work as soon as they commence it ; while others fail though they be assiduous. The Amrita was brought up from the sea in a moment by the hill Manthara, although the Himalaya, though long used for the purpose, failed in the attempt. The river running from its source falls into the sea, although flood-tides seem to roll tho water backwards ; even so the man whose Fate is adverse, struggles in vain against his, fall. Even at the time of Bhikshu's prosperity , adverse fat worked against success. At this time the younger brother of Prithvihara was defeated, his finger was cut, and not knowing the approach of Bhikshu he took shelter with the king. Koshteshvara and Prithvihara went to Bhikshu and there remained like two serpents made inert by charm. They led Bhikshu to another place and assuaged the fatigue of travelling. He then went to Sulhari by the way leading to Kārkoṭadraṅga. Arrived there, Bhikshachara, in the excess of his pride, kept himself warm with the thought of attacking Kashmira. As the water which has increased

[p.138]: in bulk seeks to enter some cleft, even so did Bhikshu for an opportunity. But the king on the other hand entered the capital and devised means to oppose Bhikshu's plan.

The Pratihara's machinations against Sujji: The first minister, the Pratihara, unable to bear the pride of Sujji, began to find some pretext against him. Now at this time, the elder brother of Dhanya had purified himself by bathing in the Ganges, and returned to this country, and came to the king when he was walking alone. He and his party were welcomed by the king who talked long with them. But they had no appointments and were oppressed with anxiety. In time of work, the king depended on his father's ministers, but they too had their hidden purpose, and they waited for opportunity. The Pratihara who was bent on ruining the great Sujji persuaded them that violent acts were commendable. When a few months had thus passed away, it so happened that the king was suddenly attacked with an inflammation caused by the urine of spider. The life of the king being endangered by boil, intumescence, diarrhea and indigestion, the country was thrown into anxiety. In this state lay the sole king of the realm ; and there the powerful enemy and the Damaras on the side of the enemy believed that the kingdom had become weakened. Now Sujji with the view of preserving the [reigning] dynasty, and after deliberating what should be done, thought of crowning Parmaḍi, son of queen Shrigunalekha, who was then a little under five

[p.139]: years old. He consulted with Garga's son, the maternal uncle of the boy.

The Pratihara got hold of this pretext against Sujji and thus told the king : — " Now that you are in this condition, Sujji with his son, is today constantly holding council with Panchachandra and others with the purpose of rising against you."

Dhanya and others also spoke to the king to the same effect, and the king too believed it. Clever men try to excite the curiosity by describing strange things, and kings are mostly like children of little sense, and arc easily led. Their understanding is not guided by rules. The born slaves who are like evil spirits, who live in dirty places and who are adept in deceiving, enter into the minds of senseless men and possess them. How can good proceed from a king thus possessed? The rogue comes to the king with smiles which have no meaning, and the king with smiling eyes asks him his purpose. His purpose is dark, and at times he says something which is injurious to all honorable men, and which falls like thunderbolt on the honor, the life and the merits of the proud. Such a favourite who comes and leaves according to the gestures of the king, who speaks at random to his master, looks on the world with supercilious eyes of contempt and understands favors and frowns by the movement of the muscles of the king's fate, is deserving of contempt. Will there ever be a king whoso intellect is well balanced, and is not moved by the cunning people, like a puppet on a machine ? Ignorance of the minds of

[p.140]: servants has ruined all. ! Fie ! that owing to the sins of subjects such a source of evil is not removed.

Sujji, as before, came to enquire whether the king was recovering But when he saw the guards stationed, he thought that he was suspected and was sad. He saw in the ring, as if reflected in a mirror, that the royal favor was against him, and he went back. In his disappointment he came less and less frequently to the palace, and the king's favor which was on him was removed. Even Sujji's servant, the wily Chitraratha, son of a court Brahmana, did Sujji harm, and accompanied his act with, words of an injurious character. When the king recovered, Sujji out of etiquette came to the palace, and was seen to distribute wealth to the people, and afterwards to go towards the houses of the beggars. But the king did not favor him but devised plans to attack him. Sujji had a large body of retainers. The king then judged that if he deposed Sujji from his posts, his followers would become broken-hearted and would desert him, and he bestowed Sujji's posts on others without delay. He gave the government of Rajasthana (palace ) to Dhanya, Kampana to Udaya and the office at Kheri to Rilhana.

Sujji's deposition

The king by taking away from Sujji his possessions plainly showed that he no longer felt for Sujji as he used to feel before. Sujji's followers became few and he himself apprehended evil. This proud man, thus insulted, went out of the capital with the bones of king

[p.141]: Sussala in order to proceed to the river Ganges. Out of love for the king, Sujji asked his permission for undertaking this journey : and when he set out, neither the king nor his officers prevented his going. With a view to parade his pride, the Pratihara, when sending Sujji to exile, sent his own son to protect Sujji's wealth. It grieved Lakshmaka to find that the Pratihara thought that it rested with him to punish or to favor, so that the Pratihara sent his son as a protector. Lakshmaka returned from Dvara and went to Parnotsa without rising against the king ; and then drove Bhagika from the hills of Lohara. The Pratihara sent Prema, son of the (king's) nurse, to the king, and the king bestowed the possession of Kotta on him. Lakshmaka left Lohara and thereby removed the fear of the king, and spent the fierce summer season at Rajapuri. The king who had under him the Damaras, and could raise or put down the ministers like balls, appointed Lakshmaka at Dvara, in order to set up a rival to Sujji and also for the safety and dignity of his dynasty. Thus the king enviously believed that the valorous Sujji, born in this country and fed from his treasury, would deprive him of his glory. By this appointment at Dvara, Lakshmaka was made uneasy and became an object of ridicule, as he wandered about in the road with men armed with sword. No, unworthy person can walk in the footsteps of the worthy, nor can the unworthy be invested with the merits of the worthy. Mahadeva besmears his feet with the ashes of the burn

[p.142]: ing dead, where he should have applied sandal, and though he can create and uncreate the three worlds, yet he cannot make the ashes smell like sandal. Lakshmaka was unable to bear Sujji's rivalry, and the king sent messengers to bring Sanjapala from the foreign country. As there was no warrior in the country, even Koshteshvara, who ought to have been hated, became, on account of pressure of work, the favourite of the' king. The king was pleased with him and gratified him with gifts, and he now became the trusty servant of his sovereign. But Koshteshvara was attacked with luṭā* and remained in the city.

Sujji's league with Somapala against Kashmira:

Thus when the king was bringing together those whom he should have punished, Somapala and others induced Sujji to change his mind. The insulted Sujji determined to conquer Kashmira, which was as easy of performance as to uproot a creeper ; and he promised -to give the kingdom to Somapala. Somapala promised to marry his daughter and his sister's daughter to Sujji. In the mean time the king tried to overcome the difficulty with sweet words and gifts. Rabhasa and another, both foolish men, prevented the marriage of king Somapala's daughter with Sujji, and thus their enemy gained an advantage. Influenced by the artifices of Jayasimha and frightened by some omens, Somapala became indifferent towards Sujji. The Pratihara, himself came and brought the daughter [ of the king of Kashmira ]

* An inflammatory disease.

[p.143]: to the frontier province for marriage with the king of Rajapuri (Somapala). Somapala married the king's daughter named Ambāputrika, born of the great queen Kalpanika. When this marriage was over, the wise Pratihara married Somapala's sister's daughter named Nagalekha to the king. Thus when the two kingdoms were united in peace, Sujji found no other opportunity, and in the beginning of winter -went towards the Ganges. At Jalandhara, Sujji, spoilt of his glories by the deep insult he had received, met Jyeshthapala who induced him to come over to the side of Bhikshu. " When you and Bhikshachara," said Jyeskthapala, " become leaders of the same army, neither Vishnu nor Indra would be able to stand before you. You bestowed the kingdom on the king who has insulted you; on him and on the man who now occupies your post we will have our revenge." Thus induced, Sujji was inclined to go to Bhikshu who was with Dengapala, but was prevented by Bhagika who was somewhat agitated and advised him not to take that step so long he had not consigned the bones of his master in the waters of the Ganges. " After bathing in the Ganges I shall come to you," Thus promised Sujji and took money with him and went after his present task.

The king had placed all cares of government in hands of the Pratihara and did not attend to the duties of his post. He felt, however, felt the Kingdom was going wrong. The Pratihara had established peace

[p.144]: those who had rebelled against the king and was always near his sovereign, and looked down on him, as if he favored the king. He who is audacious ought to be punished, so thought the lord of Kampana; and he killed the proud and haughty son of Kāliya through some artifice. Lakshmaka kept in check all the Lavanyas ( Damaras) who were unfaithful, restless and going astray, and also the lord of Kampana. On the other hand, Bhikshachara deliberated how he should proceed against Kashmira as long as Sujji did not return after performing his bath in the Ganges. But soon learning that the Damaras had fallen out with the king, he entered Vishalata on the approach of winter. At the time he entered Mandala, the Pratihara and Mantu secured the Damaras and thus obstructed his entrance. But Tikka who was the object of great enmity of the king, owing to his treason against the king's father, brought in Bhikshu, and all the Damaras met together and expressed their joy. Bhikshu awaited the arrival of Sujji in order to snatch the kingdom, and stationed himself, fearing; nothing, in the fort named Vāṇashala which was small height and belonged to Bhagika, lord of Khasha, and son-in-law of Tikka ; and he caused all the Damaras to rebel against the king by means of spies. Now Sujji, after he had bathed in the Ganges, returned to the joy of his friends and the terror of his enemies. "If these two persons, — Bhikshu who was formerly wronged, and Sujji, — join together, the king will have as

[p.145]: much cause for apprehension as we." Thus thought Somapala, and he was struck with fear, and when asked by Simhadeva, he shewed some indications of performing what he promised to Sujji. When Sujji reached Jalandhara, on the evening previous to the morning on which he was to go to Bhikshachara, a messenger came to him from Somapala. Advised by Jyashthapala, but prohibited by Bhāgika, Sujji relied on the words of the messenger and did not join the enemy. " The king ( of Kashmira]]) will pay the debts you have incurred in the foreign countries, and if I ask, he will restore to you your possessions." In this way Somapala daily urged Sujji through his messenger, and Sujji abandoned his intention to join the enemy and went towards the country of Somapala.

Bhikshu's last struggle — His death

Udaya, lord of Kampana, crossed over the Saṅkaṭa in the month of Vaishakha and fought a battle with Bhikshu who was attended by the Khashas. At first Udaya had few soldiers with him, but when his army increased, Bhikshu entered the fort which was besieged. Now the king went to Vijayakshetra and swelled the army of the lord of Kampana by sending some squadrons. The king's soldiers discharged stones by means of engines, showered arrows and hurled various weapons. Those within the fort fought by throwing stones. On account of the stones which fell on the infantry, — and which were marked with the name of Bhikshu, — the king's army could not take the fort. When a month and a few days had passed away, the besiegers took possession of

[p.146]: the base of the fort and the moat on which a rice crop stood. When those who were in the fort, — and there were females with them, — saw that the king was trying to take the fort, they intimated to him their desire to turn against his enemy and asked for wealth. The king with a view to capture the fort sent the Pratihara with the feudatory chiefs, the Damaras, the ministers and the Rajpoots. Koshteshvara, Trillaka and others determined to rebuke Bhikshu who was in peril, and went after the party of the Pratihara. The Pratihara viewed from the top of the Sankata hill, the small height of the fort (Kotta) and also the innumerable army on his own side, and he felt confident of capturing the fort. The followers of the Pratihara who had been near the fort before him wished to storm Kotta with the whole force, and on the next day the fight commenced. But the besieged began to shower stones in such a way that the besiegers became convinced that the fort could not be taken by force. Struck by the stones, the heads of the soldiers were severed from the bodies and fell with streaming blood, even as black bees fall, with dripping honey, from trees. The foolishness of Koshteshvara now became manifest and was the cause of the destruction of himself, of Bhikshu and of the Lavanyas. He fought with the utmost rashness in; order to show that he had no equal among warriors, and his rashness cost Bhikshu his life. At this moment of danger, the Khashas intended to rise against Bhikshu, but Bhikshu told them that

[p.147]: he and Kostseshvara were inseparable, and that the Damaras under Koshteshvara were obedient to him ; and if the large army went to battle without him and Koshteshvara, it would be overcome. He thus addressed them and appeased them, but the result was different from what he had expected. The Khashas concluded that when Koshteshvara, the object of Bhikshu's trust turn round to be his enemy, what reliance or faith could Bhikshu repose on others ?

The wise Lakshmaka was induced by the state of affairs to promise employment in his own house to Tikka who had risen against the king's father. He also promised large villages and gold &c. to the chief of the Khashas and induced him to come over to the side of Bhikshu's enemy. Ananda, brother of the wife of the Khasha chief, once more brought Tikka before the Pratihara after a personal communication. When the Damaras saw Tikka leagued with the Pratihara, they thought that Bhikshu had been deserted by Koshteshvara and others; they then assembled together and sent messengers with much wealth and with promise of gold to the Khashas for, the delivery of Bhikshu to them. They thought that the Khashas would accept the bribe and deliver over Bhikshu to them. They would then set him free, and Bhikshu and others would, be assured of their safety. Now, Dengapala said to Bhikshu that Jayasimha who was then at a distance had obtained possession of the

[p.148]: kingdom, and as he was angry with him he would kill him. Bhikshu thought that Dengapala should attach himself to some party and he replied accordingly. The Damaras advised Bhikshu to flee to Phalapura, breaking open the privy. But Bhikshu who possessed a noble heart refused the advice because he thought that the people would speak ill of him, and say that he had fled like a dog, through, the privy hole, with all his limbs covered with unclean things.

Koshteshvara, whose dealings were always open, used harsh words towards the soldiers in order to raise a commotion among them ; but the Pratihara who understood his motive pacified them. When the Khashas gave hostages, the Pratihara and others attempted to kill Bhikshu from the morning. The king who was at Vijayakshetra learnt how the matter stood from the messengers who were constantly going to and coming from him, and became anxious. "The people said among themselves. — " The old king who fought great battles could not kill Bhikshu in ten years, but these warriors think, now that the king is young, they can destroy Bhikshu ! It is impossible. The Khashas surely will, within a short time and with case, snatch the wealth from the king's party, and the king's party will surely be broken and robbed by others and shall have to go away ; Koshtaka, who "is the friend of Trillaka, will part from the king's side, and there are many in the king's party who have been brought up in the charity of Bhikshachara. What new man has come who will do the king

[p.149]: this benefit? The circumstances, as before, favor Bhikshu's success." While the people were talking thus in the camp, the ministerial army with drawn weapons surrounded the fort. The people remarked that it was a shame that in order to kill this Bhikshu who was alone and suffering so long, so many shameless soldiers have got themselves ready. The sea-like army, with weapons moving as waves, and the eyes of the soldiers glancing like fishes, became still. And in the last extremity when Bhikshu of wonderful valor took up arms, the people wondered whether he would fly into the sky, or like a doer leap clean over the soldiers or scatter the army, like drops of rain.

Thus far the ministers succeeded, when matters were about to take an unfavorable turn. Through the power of the king, however, the disadvantage was removed and the object accomplished. When the soldiers were looking foe the Bhikshachara to come out to, a man with drawn with the weapon issued from the fort. He was surrounded by women who were weeping, and on his back some people threw garments dyed with safflower, which fluttered over their persons. One said that it was Bhikshu who was arrested in his attempt to escape, but he heard that the person who was going out was Tikka. As Tikka had instigated the great war between the king and Bhikshu, he feared death either from Bhikshu or from the followers of the king, and so he was making his escape. In order to make the people believe that he was not against the king,

[p.150]: he drew his sword with, his own hand with the intention of thrusting it into his own stomach, but his followers prevented him from doing so. Turning aside from the road, he passed the king's army with his followers and sat by a fountain on a hill not far off. Urged by the Damara soldiers who joined him after a long time, — and for which he was very glad, — he now came out of the fort and began to employ his wiles. " It is evening, give respite to Bhikshu for a short time, and at night the Damaras will complete the work. " When he had said these severe words, the Khashas who had given hostages left the side of the ministers and opposed the enemies who were then scaling the fort. The ministers were astonished to find themselves suddenly attacked by the soldiers clapping their hands and making noise. The ministers released the rebels who were imprisoned and gave them wealth for the advantage of the kingdom; but none of them accomplished the object. Seeing the day about to expire and the king's purpose* not yet attained, Lakshmaka made enquiries of the hostage [Ananda] the brother of the Khasha chiefs wife. He replied that even the lewd woman can control her desire, but who can, when [ Tikka ] is near, control the Khashas ? Lakshmaka then told Ananda to go and prevent the Khashas from acting in a hostile way, and sent him out while the other ministers it laughed.

* The apprehension of Bhikshu.

[p.151]: The experienced king, who remained in the house of Dengapala, near the waterfall of Vishalāṭā, had guessed that it would come to this. He was himself devising an elaborate plan for this purpose. He now took with him the brother-in-law of the chief of Kotta. When this confusion took place, the soldiers became bold and [alluding to the release of Ananda] said that the bird when let loose escapes to its nest. The king directed that so long as his work was not accomplished, his followers should not indulge in merriment but should take courage. " Should ruin come,"* said he, " what will be the good of killing the brother-in-law of the Khasha chief Ananda, the brother-in-law of the Khasha chief, with unabated good fortune, had driven all away from the top of the fort and called on the Tikshnas and others. When the Tikshnas climbed the hill side, the lives of the enemies were near their end, and the gladness of the wives of their party rose to its climax. Clad in a small piece of leather, Ananda discharged the arrows marked with the name of his master's son, and thereby spread his name abroad. And as he chewed the betels, the only strength the followers of Bhikshuraja had in their dying condition was to tie their beards and hair together [ a sign of humiliation ?] When Ananda found his men were all safe, he pursued the enemies who were anxious to take refuge

* i. e. if Bhikshu escapes.

[p.152]: in the tent of Koshteshvara. Tikka saw himself over matched by the horsemen who were sent one by one by Lakshmaka and cut off one of his fingers in fear.

At this opportunity the Khashas who feared lest Tikka would run away, kept him under guard and this grieved him very much.

Bhikshu was anxious to fight and became uneasy at the delay made by the Tikshnas and diverted his mind by playing at dice. When the Tikshnas arrived in the court yard of the house in order to fight, Bhikshu rose and acted what little it was left to him to act in this life. He rose from his play [with the utmost coolness], as one who was playing with his wife rises at the approach of a friend. " What is the use of killing many people today " thought he to himself and leaving his bow and arrow, he set out with his sword. Bhikshu's long black hair had become white owing to his great anxiety, and his torn clothes fluttered like colored tanners. The marks of sandal were on his cheeks, and the reflection of the ear-pendant danced on them, as if it were the smile of pride. As the end of his checkered career drew nigh, his footsteps became unsteady and the veils of his wife which lay torn marked his footsteps. The white cloth over the safllower-colored garment on his shoulder made him appear like a lion with its mane erected. He walked round quickly yet solemnly and gracefully. His eyes, mind, hands and feet were all directed at one object, — viz. to secure captives. He was like justice

[p.153]: among just men, the ornament of pride, he was like the undying prosperity of honorable things.

Death of Kumariya and Raktika:

The eager people looked on Bhikshu but he came so fast that his approach could not be marked, and he walked before the enemies. Kumariya of royal blood, grandson of Madhu, and Raktika, elder brother of Jyeshthapala, followed him. The enemies were entering the fort through buildings high and low, and in order to oppose them, Gargika, a follower of Bhikshu, discharged a shower of arrows and chopped them. They who were running forward felt the arrows from Gargika's bow, as elephants feel the hail stone cast by the wind ahead. But tho wicked Khasas threw stones on him who opposed the soldiers of the enemies, and thereby his body was cut, his bow was broken, and after a long time he was forced to retire. When he had retired the soldiers came in by roads high and low and arrived in sight of Bhikshachara. One powerful warrior ran with a lance towards the man who held a weapon by the side of Bhikshu. This attendant had for a moment been careless, and the warrior struck him with the lance. Bhikshu who loved his dependants went immediately towards the assailant in anger, held him by the hair and struck him with a dagger, and Bhiksu's followers. Kumariya and Raktika struck him even when he had fallen dead.

When he had been thus struck dead, the three fought with, the enemy's soldiers bearing various arms. The place became deserted on account of the combat, as a

[p.154]: tree is deserted by bees when a snake enters its hollow. The king's soldiers, unable to destroy them by sword, or spear, went a little way off and began to shower arrows. The lion Bhikshachara warded off the arrows, but the Khashas from the houses began to hurl large stones. All the ways were obstructed by the heavy shower of stones and while Bhikshachara was in the act of running, an arrow entered his side penetrating his liver. He went three steps and fell on the ground, and the fear which had frightened the enemy for a long time perished with him. Kumariya too, pierced by an arrow at the groin, fell down near the feet of his master. Raktika also, pierced by an arrow in a mortal part, sat on the ground, like one dead, though his life was not yet extinct. Bhikshu fell with many noble persons, as the crest of a hill, felled by lightning, falls with the flower trees growing upon it.

Among the royal family, Bhikshu, son of king Harsha, became the object of glory not of shame. He accepted his own defeat without a complaint and with fortitude and resignation, so as to grieve even the Creator. Who among the past great kings was superior to him ? None of them was in any way comparable to him in greatness. Elated with vanity, the soldiers of the enemy who were ascending the fort fought with their weapons against Kumariya who was in a miserable plight. The enemies apprehended that Kumariya who was stunned with blows would fight as soon as he would regain his senses : and they accordingly came to him and killed him. When the

[p.155]: enemies of Bhikshu knew the condition in which Bhikshu was, they surrounded him and struck him in various ways. But the Khashas reviled them saying " It is useless ! fools ! to strike him when he is dead." But still the soldiers struck Bhikshu in various ways. Raktika was killed by some of the unruly soldiers. It was wrong to use arms against him, as he was almost dead with the pain from his severe wound.

Death of Bhikshu: At the age of thirty years and nine months, on the tenth lunar day of the dark moon, in the month, of Jaishtha, in the year 6, Bhikshu died.

He was the source of long tumult : but even they to whom he was the cause of ruin wondered at his conduct and approved of it. When dead, as when living, his eyes quivered in his head, his brows moved, and there was smile on his lips and his pulse beat for some time. His soul ascended the sun, there to live with the Apsaras, and his body remained on earth to be washed with cold water.

Next day the ministers brought the three heads before the king who was at Vijayakshetra. The king's character is as strange as the sea which has produced Lakshmi, Amrita, jewels, elephant, horse, and the moon. The king shewed a strange demenour, and no one could guess his feelings. He felt no pride at the death of one who was a thorn to his father, and whom his father could not subdue, neither was he glad. He was not angry though Bhikshu had carried about his father's head, but he looked on Bhikshu's head and mused on the mutability of things " The make of Bhikshu's body

[p.156]: showed valor undisfigured by malice, he was pure as crystal, not heated by the rays of the sun. Alas ! it is well known that all the kings from Utkarsha should be overtaken by death before their natural time. Those who participated in Bhikshu's favor and enjoyed his fertile lands now see with indifference, that Bhikshu's head is all that is now left. " Thus thought the king who possessed much generosity in him, and speedily ordered the funeral ceremonies of such an enemy to be performed. Even at night when his sleep was broken, he thought of the rise and destruction of Bhikshu, and thought of the mutability of the world.

News of fresh rebellion: The people believed that there would not be any more civil war in the country even for a thousand years to come. Fate burns grass large and small in order to grow the grain. It increases heat in the day and so causes rain to fall. What reliance can be placed on the uniformity of the action of Fate whose ways are various. After the king had finished the work, he expected rest, but Fate imposed on him a heavy task. The king had hardly freed his feet from the shackles of government in order to enjoy the company of women, and while he hoped for freedom from the cares of the kingdom, an additional load was imposed on him. Only one night had passed after the country had been freed from the enemy, when a messenger, dumb with, grief, entered the presence of the king.

Coronation of Lothana at Lohara

When questioned by the noble courtiers, the letter carrier replied that of the half brothers Loṭhana

[p.157]: and Salhana who had been confined by king Sussala in the hill of Lohara, the elder Salhana being dead, the officers of the fort had coronated the younger Lothana on the night succeeding the day on which the king's enemy, the disturber of the realm, Bhikshachara had died. That Lothana had been asked to come out of the prison and take possession of the treasury with his sons and nephews, five in all, proud and worthy of the kingdom.

The governors of provinces looked at the king, believing that the king whose mind had been relieved at the cessation of long tumults in the kingdom, would be grieved and stunned at this bad news which came like a thunderbolt ; and that he would cry loud and lie stretched on the ground and remain motionless, be numbed and stupified with excess of grief. But the king remained as before in conduct and expression. No other king had ever been beset with so many unbearable and irremediable calamities. He now lost the fort and the treasury (of Lohara) by means of which his father had regained the kingdom which had once been lost, and by means of which the present sovereign had freed the ancestral kingdom of enemies, and where also the last claimant to the throne had been confined, friendless, and in obscurity. For many yeas disorders destroying wealth and honor and sufferings caused by rebellions had prevailed in the kingdom. Now there rose six enemies, strong in wealth, and having forts in

[p.158]: the possession of their friends ; and in the kingdom the people were divided and the treasuries empty. Tested by the touch-stone of these calamities, the nobleness of the king's mind excelled even the nobleness of Rama. Rama was as happy when the kingdom was first offered to him, as when he was afterwards sent into exile ; and his father saw the equanimity of his temper on both these occasions and knew that he possessed the equanimity of the soul was struck with surprise. He did not remark signs of depression in Rama when he ordered him to go to the forest, any more than when he called him to succeed to the kingdom. It was on the skirts of a beautiful forest, that his father promised to give Rama the kingdom, when the time fixed for his exile had elapsed ; and he bade Rama with his wife and younger brother to abide there. Pleasure and pain coming at the same time make their difference keenly felt. In this world Bidhata produces a result where there is no cause, and can prevent the result where there are many causes to produce it. I will speak of the very wonderful acts of the king, and who that has not been bereft of prosperity can overrate them ?

The king who was a sea of patience wished to know of the particulars of the affairs of state and made enquiries from the bearer of the letter who narrated to him the accounts of Kotta. "When Bhagika had left Kotta, Prema, lord of Madava (?), careless on account of affluence, paid little attention to the defence of the country. He gave himself

[p.159]: up to dress, to excessive eating find to indulgence in women. He was fierce and was hated by his servants, and his wealthy foster-mother looked after his affairs. He was forewarned by Fate which was friendly to the family, by such signs as the twiching of the eye, not to proceed further. Ho took no steps for the protection of the captives.

Māyābhyudayana, an aspiring Kayastha, Majika the Pratihara, and Indrākara, son of the minister Bhīmākara, who had firmly established himself , conspired to destroy Prema at a certain place. But they found no opportunity to kill him, as he came down from Kotta to his house on some business.

" About this time the Kashmirians sent instructions to the people of Kotta in order to inspire confidence in them. The king was then in reduced circumstances ; and according to these instructions, the numerous inhabitants of Kotta wrote secret letters and came into an understanding with the wife of (Lothanasimha) whom they had decided to anoint. And after the fort had been examined and the men [ who were in confinement ] had been set free at night, Lothanasimha was released from confinement and was anointed king before the temple of Vishnu, named Rajasvami. The wicked woman, Sharat, widow of king Sussala, directed these men. She gave an iron instrument with which the, bolts of the doors of the treasury were broken and much valuable jewels were robbed. These seven persons, with their servants, though attacked by the Chadalas (Damaras?) spent the night

[p.160]: performing acts of great valor and in distributing gifts. The inhabitants of Kotta passed the night without sleep on account of the sounds of drum and trumpet, and Lothana appeared almost as a king. He was never seen before in such noble dress and the people beheld him with surprise. He was also honored with illuminations caused by the king's ministers.

" Dvaraka who was with Prema invited from his own country Thakkuras, Charmma and Pashika with their soldiers. They deliberately and completely broke down a tower at the time when the night, pale with the touch of moonbeams, waned. When Prema learnt this bad news in the morning, he was very angry and much grieved, and he came out after sunrise to stop their work. But when he reached the principal street in the town, the soldiers repulsed him. I have seen so far of the enemy's work and have come to you, my lord."

When, the king had heard this, he did not delay to send Lalla, minister of Lohara, and Anandabarddhana, the powerful lord of Dvara. The king knew them to be of those who knew the country about Kotta and who were born in that place and who knew the ups and downs of the land, by local indications.

When the king entered the palace, he saw the soldiers who were aspiring for , reward swinging the head of Bhikshu. He snatched it from them and, caused it to be burnt. The crowd who were unchecked and consisted mostly of women were grieved to see the grandson burnt

[p.161]: in the kingdom where his grand-father (Harsha) had reigned, by the orders of the present king.

Rilhana's expedition against Kotta

In summer when the sun became powerful, the king, confident of a successful issue, sent Rilhana to his (king's) native country (Lohara). Rilhana was distinguished by his mighty valor, his devotion to his master and his being devoid of avarice. The king who wished for a prosperous termination believed that Rilhana would begin a sure career of success. But either owing to predestination or owing to his false ministers, the plans of the king were destroyed before they were matured, and the king became uneasy. He was not strong in wealth, forts or in his ministers, and he believed that the servants of his considerate enemy had commenced their work in this sultry season.

Udaya, lord of Kampana, waited before the king, and then went after the prime minister, the Pratihara. The army consisted of the Rajputs, and the Damara horsemen and was led by ministers, and accompanied by troops who looked terrible in their arms. A part of the force which was within the palace (at Lohara) surrounded a large tract of country and tried to seize the enemy. Lalla , and others remained at Phullapura adjoining Kotta, and made the enemy's soldiers tremble by spreading alarm and dissension among them, and also by skirmishes.

Sussala had received many services from Lothana ; but Shura, the king of many lands, to whom Sussala had given his daughter Padmalekha in marriage, came to

[p.162]: the help of the king (of Kashmira,] and Shura's soldiers consequently attacked the soldiers of the enemy. When they had besieged the country, Lothana's heart wavered through fear, and he thought of submitting to the king, and to the punishment he would award. " Our fruitless endeavour has come to a suitable end, in these desperate times, we should retreat, and in such retreat there is no humiliation." [Thus thought Lothana to himself.]

Lakshmaka urged on him every day that they would gradually collect forces and make a good beginning on the approach of the favorable season of autumn. But neither the king (of , Lohara]) nor the other ministers present there accepted the advice, for the latter were deceitful.

Treacherous designs of Somapala: Udayana, the king's principal manager, promised much wealth to Somapala and brought him to the help of his master. Somapala was avaricious of wealth and though he wad related to the king (of Kashmira ), was not worthy of taking his meals with the king. He had taken side against the king who was then in a very dangerous situation. " If Lothana gives me much wealth what do I care of my relationship with the king, if he does not, I will promise falsely to Lothana to be on his side." Thus treacherously thought Somapala within himself as he went. Sujji also had some reason for behaving deceitfully. When Bhikshachara had asked and insisted that the king of Kashmira should pay the money promised to him before, Sujji had been sent to

[p.163]: Bhikshachara as an envoy. But the king recalled him soon after through Somapala. Sujji then heard that Bhikshachara was on the brink of destruction, and he refrained from joining him, believing that Bhikshachara would not be able to tide over the difficulties. Filled with pride, the king did not pay any thing to Bhikshachara. When Sujji heard that Bhikshachara was killed, he thought it inexpedient to join Bhikshachara's party, as he knew that every one was sympathising with the king.

Cause of Sujji's discontentment: Frightened by the troubles which raged at Lohara, Sujji became anxious and very much grieved. He said to the rebels one day that he would cause peace to be established between them and the king and Lothana through the king's envoy, and that he would induce Lothana to pay some gold to them by speaking to Somapala. He sought by such promises to strengthen or to weaken the different parties as suited the furtherance of his own interest. Followed by a handful of servants who appeared to go in quest of some other object, Sujji joined the powerful army of Somapala. Thus Sujji scattered ashes on all sides* and soiled his good name, and he destroyed the nobility of his soul through the lust of enjoyment. He could not forego the luxurious food of Kashmira, digested by water white as snow or sugar. Unable to eat dry oatmeal mixed with husk which he got out of Kashmira, he was anxious to enter it by any means.

* i.e. behaved in an unworthy manner.

[p.164]: The Kashmirians saw that the dissensions did not terminate at the end of summer, and became anxious when they heard of Sujji's approach. They lived on fried meat, drank the charming, light and cool juice of grapes smelling of flowers, and they came to the Pratihara and said that they would soon bring Sujji dragging him by the beard. Thus the people began to talk of their manliness. But when Sujji arrived with a few Kashmirians, with the Khashas and the men of Sindhu, they tried in vain to confront him. Somapala who had asked for a large sum of money was told by Lothana that he would rather pay tribute to Jayasimha, the principal enemy, and the proudest of the proud. Thus rebuked, Somapala rendered some service to the king. Somapala then thus addressed Sujji : — " O ! Sujji ! thou art on the side of my father-in-law's (Jayasimha's army eager to fight against the enemy, wherefore wilt thou then seek to descry my weakness?" Thus rebuked, Sujji left all aside in his pride, and went over to the king's army.

Attacked with cold and fever and struck with excessive fright, Lakshmaka broke up his encampment during night and find at the end of the fever-giving month of Ashada. Some of the soldiers of Jayasimha sent messengers to their sovereign to inform him of the flight,and pursued Sujji with the intention of destroying those who fled. The army of the king marched on one side of the road leading to the fort of Shvabhia, while on the other side of it, marched the enemy. But the enemy

[p.165]: finding the road named Shāramvara occupied by the army of Jayasimha, avoided it, and went by the pass of Kālenana, and marched towards their own ground.

Before the day closed, they were seen by many persons in the village of Vanikāvāma. They were pursued by their pursuers to the neighbouring villages. The latter passed the time without any fear, in eating and drinking, till midnight. Sujji who was afflicted with sorrow hastily approached the enemy and caused his trumpet to be sounded in order to let the enemy know that he was nigh. As the night waned, the soldiers, left without any leader, fled through the mountain roads. When in the morning, the ministers who were with the army were robbed of their various colored dresses, they appeared like hillocks variegated with melted metals after an earthquake.

The soldiers who plundered carried no weapon for the defence of the army, as if the wind which they raised by their movement defended them. Some, whose nether garments were of red color, appeared, as they jumped over the rocks, like monkeys with red buttocks in their march. Some left off their clothes exposing to sight their fair bodies and seemed like pieces of rocks of yellow arsenic moved by the wind. Some of them who were corpulent, as they passed over the hills covered with forests of pike-like bamboos, breathed heavily with their heads uplifted like elephants raising their trunks. It is needless to mention names. There was none among the ministers whose firmness was not shaken, and who

[p.166]: did not run away through fear of the beasts and birds in the forest.

The Pratihara was seen by some of the enemy's soldiers riding on the shoulder of his servant who was unable to run fast. The soldiers determined to seize him, and pursued him with all their might. He was without clothes and his gold ear-rings and arm-rings glittered in the sun. The servant wounded by a stone let fall his master from his shoulder and he was out by a rock. He lay without moving or speaking and was taken up by the soldiers who soon came up to him. He became, like a sharika ( a bird ) that feels miserable and languishes when newly caught and while the moisture is yet in her throat. He could hardly cast his eye on the enemies. He thought that after he fell into the hands of the enemy, Sujji would subject him to still greater indignities. Shorn of wealth and fame and having only his upper garment on him and without even the power to move he was borne on the shoulders by the troopers who shouted and laughed in derision. Thus he was conveyed to Sujji. That kind hearted man covered his face and enquired why he was not honored like a great king, and gave him his own clothes to dress. Sujji consoled him with mild words, clothed him and placed him on a horse and thus comforted him. Surrounded by the Khasha soldiers who wore plundering horses, swords and treasures, Sujji went to Somapala taking Sakshmaka with him. With whom does prosperity remain permanently ? It follows the cloud of fortune, like the unsteady

[p.167]: lightning which plays with the nymphs of the sky. He ( the Pratihara ) whom Somapala and others had served like servants and whose body they had smeared with perfumes, was now, within five mouths, seen by men seated before Somapala in that plight.

Lalla was also captured by the enemy. With his black face surrounded with white hair, he looked like a monkey in a strange, forest, dumb with sorrow. Somapala took with him Lakshmaka, made over to him by Sujji, and considering that Kashmira had already been subdued, returned to his own kingdom.

The powerful and wise Majika and others came from Lothana, and having obtained from Somapala a promise to give them what they would ask, begged him for the delivery of the Pratihara for a large amount of gold. But Somapala, desirous of obtaining the lands possessed by the Pratihara and also expecting much wealth from the king, did not give him up though he had promised to do so.

When the disgraced ministers returned to the capital, and when the Pratihara was taken, the king did not lose self-possession. Ten thousand troops of the army, — the same army by which Bhikshachara had before caused a division in the country, and by which Sussala had gained power in the disturbed kingdom, — now perished of cold and fever. Funeral music and the lamentation of friends continued day and night in the land, and did not cease even for a moment. In the powerful sun of the summer season, the life of

[p.168]: the survivors became inert ; and the time seemed like that for the destruction of the kingdom owing to the depression of men's minds.

At Lohara, people from various countries, and even from Kashmira went to the palace-gate, so that it became crowded. Thus it was by a happy chance that Lothana obtained the Meeting Royal Fortune, and became as full of splendour as the god of wealth. The sons of Lothana's brother and the sons of his servants did not share Lothana's physical and mental infirmities, and were not deprived of enjoyments. The actions of the rich king Lothana who did not bestow charity on the undeserving and was not niggardly to the deserving, lacked energy owing to his old age. As when the course of a shadow is obstructed, the light naturally gets intermingled with darkness ; so though happiness is quite the opposite of misery, yet the course of uniform pleasure is interrupted by great afflictions.

Death of Lothana's son and wife

Within about a month, after he had obtained greatness, Lothana's only son named Dilha died; and Lothana's beloved wife, Malla died sorrowing for her only son, pierced with grief and despair. On the death of his most beloved wife and of his worthy son, Lothana did not pay attention to the affairs of the kingdom. But owing either to his natural want of affection or to the genial influence of Kingly Fortune, he indulged in pleasures again. The king [of Kashmira] knew how to take advantage of an opportunity; and although poor, he

[p.169]: ransomed the old Lakshmaka for thirty-six lakhs [ of the current coin.] When Lakshmaka arrived, the road was strewn with flowers and the people saw the growing prosperity of the king ; and who did not then believe that the king had got back the Royal Fortune ? The greatness of fortune soon removed the stain of the defeat which the powerful king had sustained, and he was again able to favor and punish men.

Sujji whose avarice had destroyed his dexterity in all business, now threw off his disguise and became the minister of king Lothana. He bestowed on king Lothana, the daughter of Bhagika and removed the mistrust which existed between him and Lothana, and also soothed the grief caused by the death of his beloved ones. The able Sujji requested king Padmaratha, and brought Padmaratha's daughter named Somaladevi for marriage with Lothana.

Having thus by high, connections established the stability of king Lothana, Sujji paid off the debt of receiving the post of the minister which he had sought. The new king, at the repeated request of the Damaras and others, sent Sujji to Kashmira, and Sujji prepared his plan for entering that country.

The son of Sussala (king Jayasimha) devised means to deceive the enemy who was now in a prosperous condition as stated above, and had allied himself with the kings of the adjoining countries.

Udaya, lord of Dvara, deep in wisdom and of unabated zeal, was admired for his services to the king by the unthinking people. He lost all his

[p.170]: wealth, in bestowing gifts and conferring honors on men, and he was always zealous in the service of his master. He remained at Vanaprastha, not far from Lohara, and during the never-ending war, he unweariedly spread discord among the forces of the enemy. Dāraka and others frightened Majika with rumours which might have been true or false, of some harm from king Lothana. They apprehended that as they had been conspirators and were fit to be executed, the king who had confided his purposes to Sujji would think it proper to take their lives, and would send Sujji for that purpose.

Mallarjjuna's coronation at Kotta

On the other hand, the wise king Jayasimha, within a short time, deceived Lothana, as he had deceived Prema. He said to the people : — " We will make Mallarjjuna, son of king Sussala by queen Sahaja, king of this Lohara for your benefit." When the king had said these deceitful words, the people did not believe him, yet they consented to his proposal with the object of possessing Kotta. Lothana knew his brother's son Mallarjjuna to be first among the conspirators, and imprisoned him as also the other conspirators of whom Mallarjjuna was the chief. Afraid of the son of Sussala (Mallarjjuna) who was imprisoned, Lothana made Vigraharaja accept the office of the Pratihara. The king who was fertile in expedients, concluded peace with the brother of his father by stratagem and by various other means, and hastened to bring the lost kingdom (Lohara) under his control. Through the labors of Sujji, the kingdom became stable, and for a few

[p.171]: months Lothana could discard Shura, and was able, without fear, to engage himself in his own work. When Sujji heard that the mother of the unmarried daughter of Padmaratha, whom he had invited for marriage of her daughter with Lothana, had arrived with great pomp, he went to Darpitapura to receive her men. At this unguarded time Mallarjjuna was released from prison by Majika and others, and was unanimously anointed king of the kingdom of Kotta by them and by the Thakkuras who had been brought to the place before. They opposed the entrance into the fort, of the, servants of Jayasimha who had approached the castle gate and were wishing to get into it.

In the year 6, on the thirteenth day of the bright moon, in the month of Phalguna, Lothana was deprived of his kingdom, as speedily as he had obtained it. The foolish and unfortunate Lothana lamented that the unmarried girl and his unspent wealth should go for the enjoyment of another. His power was now broken, he passed through Attalika and other places, and obtained what little remained in the treasury, through Sujji's influence.

When the dependants of king Jayasimha, who had been invited before, arrived, Majika reproached them and made king Mallarjjuna supreme in the country.

This prodigal and youthful king, on one occasion, distributed betels prepared with pearls, for want of betel-nuts. In the indulgence of his passions, he showered gold on the procurers. Such gift was pronounced criminal by the wise men. Thus the prodigal Mallarjjuna squandered

[p.172]: the contents of the treasury which king Sussala had filled by oppressing the subjects, and the money so obtained was thus suitably spent. Mallarjjuna discarded the good, and filled the coffers of the astrologers, the evil-doers, the licentious, the servants and others, for ho was vicious and evil-minded. The wealth of kings obtained by extorting the people will either be taken away by enemies or spent on evil purposes or will be burnt. The wealth of king Jayapida obtained by oppressing the subjects was squandered by Utpala and others, — the sons of a servant-woman and the destroyers of his grandson. Shankaravarmma's wealth obtained in various ways by oppressing tho people was used by his wife's paramours, — Prabhakara and others. The sensual wives of "the Lame " who did not like the embraces of their husband gave his ill-gotten wealth to Sugandhaditya, their paramour. King Yashaskara's hoarded wealth was spent by the woman, — a Chandali, in her lust. The bountiful son of Parwagupta died after obtaining the treasures earned by the previous kings, and Tunga and others got them as paramours of the wife of Parvvagupta's son. The rich Sangramaraja, who was anxious to get a large income, was robbed by Vyaḍḍasūha and others who like bees extracted honey from the lotus-like face of his wife Shrilekha. The riches of king Ananta, who did not attend to his duties and did much harm to his subjects, were burnt to ashes after his death. The ill-gotten treasures of

[p.173]: king Kalasha, obtained from Koshala, were, on his death, soon given by his son to the undeserving and by his widow to her paramour. The wealth of king Harshadeva, whose thirst for gain was never satisfied, was burnt by fire along with his home, wives and sons. The well earned riches of the strictly righteous kings Chandrapida, Uchchala, Avantivarmma and others were rightly disposed of.

Thieves, conspirators, petty neighbouring kings, prostitutes and dissolute men robbed Mallarjjuna on his new ascendancy to a great extent. Even after deceiving his enemy, the purpose of the king (Jayasimha) was frustrated. Jayasimha was grieved, and sent Chitraratha to attack [Mallarjjuna.] The king honored him by giving him possession of estate equal to Dvara and Pādāgra ; and he stationed himself at Phullapura with innumerable petty chiefs. But though his followers were many they could not overcome the enemies, as they, were sheltered within a fort. In order to gain an entrance, one named Sambarddhana, a servant of Chitraratha, and a confidential man of the king, scaled the fort at night, but was killed by the followers of Mallarjjuna. Though the enemies could not be overcome in fight, yet when Koshteshvara arrived in the rear [of Chitraratha,] they were struck with panic. Koshteshvara came to terms, and peace was established with Mallarjjuna. Mallarjjuna then sent his mother to visit the other party out of civility. But she excited the passion

[p.174]: of the unsteady Koshteshvara and others by her rich and faultless dress of widowhood. When their confidence was established she returned from them, and Mallarjjuna gave the promised tribute to the lord of Dvara.

Attracted by the beauty of the eyes of the king's mother, Koshteshvara on the pretence of seeing Kotta began to ascend the ground with a limited number of followers. But when he had gone up half the way, Chitraratha with adequate presents accompanied him, and both went to the king together. The king then consulted Udaya, lord of Dvara, who had acquired much wisdom, and again planned for the subjection of his enemies. At the time when Lothana went to Padmaratha, the new king, now free from fear of an attack, had leisure to stretch his legs; and accordingly availed himself of the opportunity and married Somala, daughter of Padmaratha. He married also the daughter of Nagapala. Somapala and other kings screened their deceitfulness from Mallarjjuna, foolish in his pride, and took pay as servants. Many deceitful persons cheated the king by their poetry, song, gossip, fighting and flattery, and robbed him of every thing, and so did his dependants. Owing to his boyish years, Mallarjjuna had an undeveloped intellect, and he was known to be a fool, owing to his garrulity ; and he was bent on mischief. There was nothing beautiful about him except his bright face, like the beautiful formed comet, which is the cause of evil.

[p.175]: At this opportunity the king [Jayasimha] brought over the fiery-tempered Sujji to his side, with the view that Mallarjjuna might not get his assistance. The king displayed a great power for seasonable artifice, both at the time of exiling Sujji from his service and at the time of bringing him over to his side. Jayasimha gave Sujji the garland indicative of the possession of Kampana except the Rajasthana ( palace ), and in order particularly to gratify Sujji, he, at the request of Somapala and others who had come to his house at the time of bestowing the garland, was pleased to pull away the garland which he had worn on his own head, with the left hand, and to give Sujji the fruit of Fortune, thus honoring him the more. Sujji looked on it with delight, and was glad to accept it as a valuable gift. At the time when Sujji came before the king, Rilhana discarded the friendship of Udaya and Dhanya for the benefit of his master and behaved as their enemy. The king honored Sujji by going forward to receive him and caused him to be brought in, and in compliance with his request, the king expelled Dhanya and others, Sujji's enemies, from the country, though not from his mind. The king intended to kill Koshteshvara with a weapon, and that guilty man who was present, knew of it, and fled from him. And when the king took with him Manujeshvara and attacked Koshteshvara,and the latter being weakened by the discord among his own men fled from the country. Lothana having obtained help from some Thakkuras

[p.176]: remained at a place named Vapyanila, and defeated Mallarjjuna by his prowess. Lothana displayed unexpected courage on this occasion. Deprived of his throne, he overcame Mallarjjuna after having tied up his legs [ i. e. not allowing him to escape. ] He seized the horses and plundered the market of Attalika and everywhere destroyed roads and towns. Lothana entered Kramarajya at the request of the Damara named Rajaraja, and in order to obtain the kingdom of Kashmira. But when he arrived there, the Lavanya who was near him was killed by Chitraratha; whereupon he returned to Bapyanila. Lothana repeatedly attacked Mallarjjuna, so that the latter was unable to lay siege to Attalika and he resided at Kotta. Koshteshvara caused much wealth to be given by the nephew [Mallarjjuna] to the uncle [Lothana] and established peace between them. When peace was established at Lohara, Koshteshvara, with a view to fight with the king [ Jayasimha,] took Lothana with him and fell on Kashmira. When he had scaled the hills and had set his foot on Karkotadranga, the other Damaras who had arrived by the level road, could not yet join him. The active king came out, and by every means in his power, crushed him at the time of his ascendancy.

Death of the Pratihara

Meanwhile the Pratihara died without illness. The riches of people possessing small virtue are not safe to their lives. Fie to those men who find a pleasure in driving away people from them, and who live by shutting

[p.177]: the doors of their room, and without being importuned by men, and whose prosperity makes their intellect light. They cannot anticipate the sudden fall of their auspicious fortune. The female servant of the Pratihara who had always been driving away men from the house, and slept at ease did not know that the Death was at his back. He was sleeping after the fever had left him, and so, thought she, but she did not know that he died even when sleeping. _

Death of Udayana: When Koshtaka with Lothana had departed from (Lohara), neither Mallarjjuna nor Koshtaka nor Lothana remained the sovereign of the country. Mallarjjuna killed Udayana who was on his side through treachery. On this Koshtaka who had been appointed umpire between them became very angry with Mallarjjuna. Koshtaka then collected a force, and he did not show himself inferior to Mallarjjuna, and accompanied by Lothana, he marched rapidly in anger to confront Mallarjuna. He joined few" horsemen headed by Mallakoshta, crossed the river Paroshni and crushed a weak army [ of the enemy. ]

In this battle when the Khashas and the men of Sindhu perished, though the king [ Mallarjjuna ] could have been destroyed, yet, out of jealousy towards Jayasimha, he was spared. He [" Mallarjjuna ] ascended, the crest of Kotta, but was fallen from the crest of Kotta, and his power was broken ; and he again concluded peace with Koshtaka. Leaving Lothana (Koshtaka) remained with the Damaras without committing any hostility,

[p.178]: but in a doubtful state towards Mallarjjuna who did not give him what he had stipulated to give. Koshtaka imprisoned the chiefs of the several departments of government, and, like a king,- collected rent from the subjects in Dranga, in his own name, and left no money in Sindhu. As two fragments of a glass jar joined together by lac get separated, so from time to time, the peace was broken between them. The lord of Lohara (Mallarjjuna)- estranged himself from the Damaras by his harsh words, and they too alienated his heart from them by their ungovernable defiance. The Damaras attacked the centre of the camp, possessed themselves of the superior weapons, horses and beasts of burden, and made the camp lifeless. The foolish Koshtaka with his powerful army frightened [Mallarjjuna] as regards the future, and reduced him to a state of weakness in which he could be easily destroyed by enemies.

Death of Majika and of Diddakara: At this opportunity the king (Jayasimha) thought of destroying Majika his principal minister and father- in-law. Majika had bestowed his daughter on the king. Majika was young and lustful, and the king believed that it was well known that he was the paramour of the king's mother. At the time when Majika was taking his meals, he was, at the instigation of the king, killed by the Tikshnas who were provided with arms. The king' brandished his sword, tied about him the shield of a warrior, plundered Majika's soldiers and, by

[p.179]: the volubility of his speech, behaved as in a theatre. It is strange that in the midst of this rebellion even Diddakara was not left alive ; the king made an end of him by administering poison. It was by chance that the enemies of the king were dispersed. He sent Sum to subdue Koshtaka. In one prahara Sujji reached the end of the road he had to traverse, but he was harassed, owing to his horses being robbed by Koshtaka.

Deposition of Mallarjjuna

Distressed by internal quarrel and unable to remain there, Mallarjjuna left Kotta after taking with him his wealth. Expelled from his territory, he was plundered by the robbers and was nearly surrounded by them ; and it was with difficulty that he secured the remainder of his treasure. On the second day of Vaishakha, in the year 8, Mallarjjuna, aged eighteen years, lost the kingdom.

Udaya, lord of Kampana, reduced Kāpila, Harṣhaṭa and Kotta under the province of Mandala. He collected the officers of Kotta and, with a view to consolidate Maṇḍala, waited there for a few days. At this time the mind of the king who was about to reward the lord of Kampana, was abused by the treason of wicked and profligate men who wore jealous of one another. "What king except yourself is resolute in doing justice ?" said the wily men to the king, and made the sovereign act like a child. The king, when a child, was in the company of ignorant men, and was dull ; and when he attained his youth, his dullness did not altogether leave him, just as the flaw in a precious stone is not effaced by time.

[p.180]: Alas ! The selection of the king's officers is the cause of the sufferings of the innocent kingdom, like the sudden fall of a thunderbolt. In the hope should Sujji be unsuccessful in attaining the desired end, he would, like Lakshmaka and others, be an object of laughter, the confidential servants of the king had employed Sujji in subduing Lohara. Wicked men brought against Sujji, who had performed many wonderful deeds, the charge of treachery which was as unfailing as Brahmastra. On account of the gravity of the king, the change of his mind was not apparent ; and the lord of Kampana (Sujji) who had returned to the king did not know of the turbid state of his mind in the expression of friendly feelings which the king used towards him. How could he who was naturally loyal and who had done such services to the king entertain fear or distrust? The king was not pleased with the just acts done by him,'as he who is bereft of the sense of pleasure is not pleased by the words of affection of the woman he does not love. Sujji behaved with ease, feeling proud at the thought that he had, for the king, conquered the two kingdoms which had been lost before. Sujji having plundered the town, the citizens became unruly, and his friends opposed him. Koshteshvara,remembered his own transgression and did not trust the king nor even his uncle (Lothana) who expressed his displeasure towards the king.

Chitraratha, who with Sujji was accumulating wealth by oppressing the subjects and was related to the king

[p.181]: was disliked by his angry master. As the king favored Sujji, Dhanyodaya showed no friendship towards the king, but lived in the capital and secretly robbed him of his wealth. Sujji and Chitraratha had now grown old and had lost their retainers through cold and fever, and they secretly robbed Mallarjjuna who, though deprived of his kingdom, was very rich, Lakshmaka invited Sanjapala through his messengers, on account of his enmity with Sujji, and Sanjapala came to the capital.

Movements of Sanjapala

The king Jayasimha whose efforts had been checked by Sujji and Chitraratha did not give orders to Sanjapala to enter the city ; but Mallarjjuna sent messengers to him. On this account Sanjapala got himself into a quarrel on the way with some leaders of the army, his body was marked with wounds, and he was deprived of his glory. Even, in this plight, Mallarjjuna could not bring him over to him, though he promised much wealth. Wise men therefore praised Sanjapala. certain feudatory chicf privately invited him through messengers out of courtesy, and Rilhana and he came there without delay. "If I am not killed yet, I shall be killed afterwards," thought the brave Sanjapala, as he entered the city by a road difficult of access, on account of enemies. He was respected by the kings of Kanyakubja and Gauda for his prowess, but he was grieved at not receiving good treatment in his own country. But the citizens near the capital looked towards his feet. The king appeared before Sanjapala, after he had deliberated with the ministers, and honored

[p.182]: him by giving him betel with his own hand. Though an insignificant man, he was followed by men as he had obtained renown, and he made his enemies tremble by frequenting the palace of the king. Sujji who could see into the minds of men observed the uncommon appearance of, Sanjapala, his conversation and his conduct, and trembled. He thought within himself that this wonderful behaviour of Sanjapala, which was quite unprecedented and excelled all excellent actions, would serve to restore peace in the kingdom. Sujji had seen haughty warriors in various countries, but when he saw Sanjapala he thought little of those whom he had seen before, for they [ unlike Sanjapala ] had wished to live in peace.

Murder of a Brahmana by Sujji: Either on account of destiny or on account of his haughtiness, Sujji became ungovernable and committed many censurable acts according to his pleasure. While he was in the Māḍava kingdom, a Brahmana, who had been plundered by his followers, spoke harsh words in anger. Sujji killed him by a dart, as one kills a jackal. By this deed he irritated the people who collected outside the town, and the people within the town were also estranged from him on account of this terrible act.

At this time Kamaliya and others contracted friendship with one of Sujji's friends, [ Rilhana ], whom Sujji in his pride treated with indifference, although he was worthy of respect. "Though he is faithful to me," thought Sujji in his pride, " is there any one who

[p.183]: Confers any favor on me? And with this thought, Sujji treated him as if he had been a flatterer. Rilhana became the enemy of Sujji, on account of his matrimonial alliance with Kamaliya and others and on account of his own prowess. But through a slight cause, a division arose between Rilhana and Kamaliya and others, and soon the difference increased a hundred-fold. Ulhaṇa, son of Sahadeva, soon incited the naturally proud Rilhana by evil advices which stirred his vanity and inspired him with a spirit of opposition. The king is ungrateful, he tolerates equality between Kamaliya and others and ourselves." Thus he made Rilhana angry even with the king. The king who was well supported, consequently excluded Rilhana, like an outsider, from confidential and familiar talk. But Rilhana who concealed his master's altered mood towards him by his cunning imparted firmness to his friends and fear to his enemies by his hypocrisy. By means of gifts he gained the friendship of Sanjapala who was till powerful and who was sought for by both parties. Both the parties were armed, and in the sight of each other, entered the capital which was every moment convulsed with fear.

Sujji caused a tumult among the opposing chiefs at a place of amusement called Mahīmāna, with a view to overthrow them. Sanjapala standing at the gate with his hand resting on his neck was pointed out to Sujji. Sujji became angry, he rebuked Sanjapala and threw a

[p.184]: stone at him. But the king assuaged his anger and made him sit by him. He thought that no harm would befall so long Sujji lived. The Brahmanas of Māḍava said that they did not wish that Sujji should obtain possession of the kingdom of Kampana ; and they remained without food.

Rilhana brought by night Panchachandra who had collected an army, in order secretly to strike terror into the enemies. Sujji feared Sanjapala and also Panchachandra who had a large force, and did not consider any one else as his enemy. Afraid of an attack, Sujji issued out of the house with the cavalry, and remained awake at night in the street with a large army and the horsemen. The king was perplexed; and Koshteshvara became united by friendship with Sujji who was well supported. Sujji killed Manujeshvara who was favorably disposed [ towards the king ] ; and for this act, the king who had detested Sujji before, now detested him all the more. When such was the state of things, Sujji's enemies told the king that Sujji was undoing during the night what the king had done for his own safety. The king was like a foolish man who considers falsehood to be truth and regards truth as falsehood ; and he was deserted by prosperity and was oppressed with evils. They whose eyes are jaundiced believe the effulgence of gems to be fire and avoid thorn, and they make a similar mistake in whatever they look at. What do not men devoid of reason see ? In this world they regard falsehood as truth and truth as falsehood.

Kularaja Murders Sujji

The king did not know any other way of overcoming the troubles except battle,

[p.185]: and employed Sanjapala to chastise the powerful Sujji. Like a coward, and able to destroy the heroic Sujji only by deceit, Sanjapala waited for opportunity at different places with, a view to kill Sujji by throwing a missle.

Thus when both intended to kill each other by deceit and aimed at each other, the kingdom became disturbed, sometimes by fear, and sometimes by exultation. Sujji feared that his enemies would rise at night and kept himself awake as before. Even in the king's dwelling, the sentinals remained vigilant.

Sujji wished to banish Rilhana from the kingdom, and the king, unable to oppose him, consented. Rilhana wanted to go, but after he had bade adue to his sovereign, the lord of Dvara told the king that the people were grieved for Rilhana and with the king's permission kept him in the country. Sujji consulted the king and became desirous of reconciling Rilhana with the sovereign. But Sanjapala, who along with Sujji had devoured the king's treasures, thus spoke to the king : — " ! King ! It is at the instigation of Ulhana and others and through his own pride that Sujji is holding up his head. It is his wish not to bear the rivalry of others ; he says that with the king's permission; he who has never rebelled against the king, but has done him good service, can send Rilhana to exile, seize the very Chitraratha, collect again cavalry which, has fled from Lohara, and can recover the king's treasures which have been totally destroyed. He can collect an army and destroy Koshtaka.

[p.186]: He regards his life as little as grass in bis master's work, and makes his will subservient to his duty, and not to the interests of his relatives. This youth [ meaning yourself] will be a king freed from all anxiety by the overthrow of the hostile king, and will reign in the centre of his kingdom the whole of which will submit to his exertions. He further says that you are desirous that Ulhana, lord of Dvara, should have supreme power in strengthening the kingdom, and that Sujji should be allowed full powers in dealing with Rilhana. And if there was no disagreement among Sujji, Ulhana and yourself, no one, you thought, could usurp the seat of the king. But if you do not abide by these terms, then he (Sujji) will bring here an aged relative and place him on the seat of the king." The king feared to be besieged by the enemy, and was anxious to bind Sanjapala over to his side, and he thus spoke [ to himself] with a heavy sigh ; and as he spoke the rays from his teeth seemed to show his worth. " What he [ Sujji ] has said is true ; he is wanting neither in the will to rise against the king nor in ability ; neither is it probable that the proud man will remain inactive. It is difficult to root out his enmity, not to mention his plan of doing harm. When I was angry with him, I intended to kill him, and I am sorry that that act must be done, be he really a rebel or not. Surely he will learn our plans by bestowing money to the weak-minded men in whose presence we held consultation, and by bringing them over to his

[p.187]: aide. It is owing either to the dullness of our intellect or to the virtue of these men of inferior capacity that they are enjoying our good things. Those kings who employ stupid men have to undergo such penances as are the fruits of ignorance. The path of kings becomes difficult on account of dishonest men, as the road of the market place, difficult on account of bulls. What a difference is there between the path known to politicians and that known to the deceitful. The deceitful and the dogs are alike ; they are both opposed to good work in every way, their tongues are restless and they steal others' food. This unavoidable bad deed which we are about to commit, troubled and frightened by the deceitful, will make us repent after wards."

Thus the king thought and was ready to accomplish Sujji's murder, and with that view kept Sanjapala always on the watch, and he also remained watchful.

The king was in a disturbed state of mind, because he feared that the plan would ooze out, and because hee heared from his servant that Sujji also had intended to kill him. The king told Rilhana to go home and to form a matrimonial alliance with Sujji, and this alliance he caused to be made. Though the king had planned to kill Sujji, yet he could not find an opportunity to do so, and he lost self-control and thought of it day and night, rolling on his bed. As Sanjapala did not return from his home, grieved at the death,of a friend of his, the king feared that the desperate work was not done, and became the more distressed in mind. Kularaja, a commander in the array,

[p.188]: and a celebrated athlete, had brothers named Kalyānaraja and others who had fallen like heroes in the field of battle, unmindful of the benefit done to them by king Sussala. Kularaja was anxious to pay off the debt [of benefit done to his brothers by Sussala ] even at the sacrifice of his life, and asked the king the cause of his misery. The king told him that the cause of his misery was his fear of the lord of Kampana [ Sujji ] which he was unable to check or dispel and for which there was no remedy. What an insignificant thing it was, said Kularaja, to offer one's life in the service of the king ; and he was determined to do the desperate deed. The lord of Kampana [Sujji ] who for two days did not come out of his house, had no security guaranteed to him either against death or against ill-fortune. On the third day Shringara, a faithful servant, told the king that he saw Sujji on bed and alone. The servant who is kept as an ornament to his master, though he serves always, is not employed in the performance of daring deeds. The Pinaka bow was an ornament in the hand of Shiva, and in the wars of old, the bow's work was done by the Mandara hill which Shiva had then obtained. The king sent Kularaja in the guise of a betol-bearer, and his true firmness disguised his filling. " Death is certain, I will surely not come back, I shall be killed, but what of that? " Thus thought he and did not carry the betel in a golden vessel. This man removed the difficulties of the king by giving

[p.189]: up his life. Others try to do the same, but they fail to accomplish it. " Be he with or without attendants, he will surely be killed by me, stir yourself up king ! after this." Thus he said and went out. The king thought to himself that should Kularaja fail in the daring act for which he was going, it was doubtful whether he would be able to escape, and the king's mind became distracted. Kularaja was bent on benefiting his master, and pondered a little, and afterwards, on some pretence, took with him two armed warriors to the place beyond which their passage was forbidden. Kularaja was introduced by the door-keeper under the pretence that he had brought betel from the king himself. He entered and came to Sujji, but his followers were prevented from coming. He saw Sujji in company of a limited number of attendants, some seated on high and some on low seats, like a leader elephant attended by a few elephants. Sujji accepted and saluted his master's bete] and examined the mandate seat by his master; and having honored Kularaja who was entitled to honor, dismissed him after a short while. Fearing lest other people might come in, Kularaja made no delay in telling Sujji that an armed man of the Kaivartta caste had, after committing some offence, taken his (Kularaja's) shelter. " You should," he continued, " forbid your servants who are reviling him from doing so and, without looking into the cause or the occasion, you should first pay respect to our party." Sujji, in his pride, disregarded those proud words, and made a rude reply that he would not do it. Kularaja

[p.190]: went out, as if in anger, but Sujji's servants said that he should be respected, assuaged him, prevented his going away and again brought him back. Kularaja asked that his two servants, who wore waiting to enter, might be ordered to be brought in, that they might inform Sujji of some business. Sujji reluctantly permitted the servants to enter, and when Kularaja saw them come in, he, with their help, made up his mind to rise against Sujji and strike him. Sujji told them to go that day, promising to do what was needful, in the morning, and he turned his back and stretched himself on bed in order to sleep. Kularaja went a little way, but returned, quickly unsheathed his dagger, and without delay struck Sujji on his left side. Sujji's servants raised a cry against this treachery. All of them ran towards the knife, but the murderers all struck Sujji.

Before Sujji's servants, who were looking at the dreadful deed, had time to realize the calamity, Sujji appeared as if he had long ceased to breathe. The followers of Sujji had deserted their honor and fled in fear. Panchadeva alone drew his weapon. Panchndeva who moved round as he struck was surrounded by the three murderers who equally returned his blows ; his body streamed with blood and he was driven out of the room. Sujji's attendants closed the doors [from outride] leaving the foes and darkness within, and surrounded them with the purpose to kill them. They too remained in the room bolting the doors. In the darkness, the three opposed their enemies, and when the door was broken by the latter, they removed the cotton

[p.191]: bed and lifted the corpse. The followers of Sujji showered swords, arrows, darts, axes, knives and stones and tried to enter by various ways and frightened those within. The three, situated in a perilous position and in despair, cut off Sujji's head from his trunk and threw it in the courtyard at their enemies. The eyelids and ears were whitened with continuous tears, and his nose, covered by his hair, hung on his lower lip. The pupils of his eyes which were a little open reflected the images of men moving about, and it thus seemed that the eyes themselves were moving. The head was cut off from the joint by several strokes, the muscles came off from their attachments in the bone, and the fat looked as if dyed with turmeric. The hair of the head and beard was besmeared with dust; the marks of saffron alone on the forehead indicated that the head was Sujji's. And as it fell aslant, it showed the teeth at the junction of the lips. When Sujji's servants saw the head, they raised a loud lamentation and fled away wherever they could.

The king, after he had sent the three desperadoes, remained anxious ; but when he heard the uproar of men, he knew that something desperate was done. Accordingly, as previously advised, the king ordered the soldiers to collect and surround Sujji's house. But when he heard these words that "it was in vain that the king had escaped from the hands of Sujji; " he hastily prepared himself for fight. He knew for certain that Sujji was killed. The attendants of the king bound Shivaratha who

[p.192]: was there and whom all envied. My present narration is honored by the account of the conduct displayed on that day by Kalasha, son of Hilla, who was brother of Sujji's brother's wife. Bhikshu and others were in danger, and behaved at the end, like heroes; but Kalasha was not in any danger, but sought to perform a noble deed. When he heard the words mentioned above! in the king's palace, he planned to sacrifice his life, and being suffered to escape, he went to his deceased master. He tried to break open the door by kicking, but was removed by the powerful soldiers of the king and his life was, with difficulty, saved. He was wounded but not severely. When he had entered another room, Kularaja and others who had escaped with their lives went to the king. Kalasha who was with difficulty wounded by the enemies by an arrow from a distance forcibly entered the room and killed a powerful soldier.

Further disturbances and murders (1133 AD)

Sanjapala, who had arrived at that place of disturbance, was speedily sent by the king to destroy Rilhana and Ulhana. Rilhana apprehended that Sanjapala had fled from the road ; and arrived after wandering about the banks of the Kshiptika. Sanjapala opposed the way of Ulhana, as the latter issued out of the gate, and severely beat him in the fight. He then arrived at the spot before Rilhana. But his right arm was out by some one's sword, so that only the skin was left, the bone and tendon being cut, he severed it off. In his family whose worth is almost beyond description, he had attained-

[p.193]:reputation in foreign as well as in his own country by the skill of his arm ; but when the time for reaping the fruit arrived, such an arm which was the pledge of valor became maimed. Fie to the unsteady will of Fate ! There was no change in Sanjapala in the time of his prosperity, but the people would have wondered if that prosperity had continued, for they know that Fate is fickle. If the body Rahu who had tasted of the amrita had not been maimed, how could the world have known of the well known fickleness of Fate ?

Sahadeva's son who was severely wounded quickly killed Sanjapala's father's brother, the old Shila, who was found there. The respected Jajjala was weary and was entering his house preceded by an attendant ; the attendant was killed as also a soldier and a Chandala sentinel.

Jajjala's little boy was seated in the court-yard, but was coming out when he saw his father's party, when Rilhana caused the house to be set on fire. From the darkness caused by the smoke, Jajjala was brought out by the principal soldiers, tied, and faint with wounds, and was killed at the gate of the house by some low persons. When the king saw his head, he thought that his principal subjects were perishing; and his rage became ungovernable.

The soldiers who were sent by the king, in their fury, killed Sujji's servants, great and small, who displayed befitting valor. Lakshaka, the younger brother of Sujji, was taken, bound, and some cruel men, on seeing the king angry, killed him in the

[p.194]: court-yard of the palace. Sankata, son of Lakshaka's father's brother, and a worthy man, limped like an actor in the king's court-yard and yielded his life as he should have done. His mad brother Mummuni, as he entered the house, was, by some wicked men of the line of Vāṇa, killed in his own house. Chitriya, Sujji's wife's brother, born of noble family, was killed by red lead ( poison ). The wounded door-keeper named Sangika was slowly killed and the other dependants of Sujji were killed in different places.

Two or three of the well born Virapala and others, saved their lives by the swiftness of their horses. They came to Koshteshvara, and then they laid aside their fear of death. It was autumn when Sankata was going out ; on the way his horse was stopped by the tumult of the wicked men, and he was confined in soldiers' quarters.

And then, Sajjala son of Sujji, Shvetika, son of Sujji's elder brother, and the son of Ulhana were thrown into prison with him. Thus when the king and the minister were under the influence of the wicked, this commotion happened in the year 9 (=1133 AD), on the fifth bright lunar day of summer. Though in some matters the minister Sujji betrayed want of strength, yet the king thinks of him and grieves for him even to this day. It is truly fearful to serve a king, as it is to invoke spirits or to leap over a chasm or to chew poison or to embrace a serpent. If the actions of a man who is faithful to kings are not tested according to their own conscience, he is like one kept before a [ running ] carriage, and

[p.195]: how can he enjoy pleasure ? The king considered Sujji's murder to be wrong, but the people thought it right and as a manifestation of the king's great power.

Rewards to the king's favourites : The king served Sanjapala by making him lord of Kampana, and Kularaja, superintendent of the capital Dhanya and Udaya, favorites of the king, left Mallarjjuna and came to the capital and began to prosper as before. The goddess of prosperity left all others, and changing her fickle character, settled steadfastly on Chitraratha. He had immense wealth, and distressed the country by chastisements, and became uncontrolled ; and even the king was unable to check him.

Kottesha killed Tikka in a village named Gandharvvana and sent his head to the king on the other side [ of the river ].

At the time when the king - gained great power, Lothanadeva, on receiving repeated assurance from tho spies who were oppressed and who were naturally inimical to the king, forcibly entered Hādigrāma at night, accompanied by Koshteshvara. The Lavanya [chief] had made peace with the enraged king, and immediately drove Lothana out from his well renowned town.

Lothana now forcibly ruled the country which Koshtaka had obtained and which was under Uchchala and others. He wanted firmness, and foolish as he was, he became the object of laughter of the people. The king purposed to destroy him by employing the Tikshnas and other soldiers, and by adopting other means. Koshtaka who had lost his senses, and was angry and displeased with

[p.196]: the king, was a match for the Tikshnas, and made his preparations to fight against the sovereign. He ordered the leaders of his army to enter the capital through their respective territories, while he again himself attacked it with soldiers of different descriptions. The powerful Koshtaka' arrived at the capital, and when he learnt that the king who arrived there hurriedly was attended by a small force, kept his army concealed.

When the battle commenced, Chitraratha was accidentally defeated by a section of Koshtaka's army, although he had a large force. As the recitation of the Oṅm by the females is injurious to their welfare, so was the defeat to Chitraratha. From that time his prosperity daily declined.

As an elephant finds increased difficulties in ascending a hill, even so the powerful Lavanya found his difficulties heightened when after fighting with Rilhana,he arrived in the evening before the lord of Kampana. He was without his army which was completely scattered, but was accompanied with enraged followers, less than a hundred in number. What need be said of this tiger-like man, who, as the battle raged hotter, did not consider his armour as a protection to his body. Tattrillaka and other Lavanyas arrived, having at the very beginning repulsed their angry enemies. But they remained neutral at that critical time owing to their tenderness for their own kinsmen. This was of some advantage to the Lavanya chief who drove away his enemies by his valor.

[p.197]: He had timely prepared himself for war. In times of truce, he used to keep up nights with his army, and with a view to ensure victory, he had enlisted men beforehand and did not allow his soldiers to desert ; nor did he appropriate the treasures he had seized in war. These virtues made his enemies waver. What praise is not due to one who has forbearance ?

Koshtaka was mistrustful, and deserted by his attendants and harassed in battles, he intended to flee. With that view he descended from the hill, but the way of the horses was blocked up by an untimely fall of snow, and the enemies who hung in the roar prevented his attempts to escape. Distressed at the disgrace and driven out of the country by the king, he went [ on pilgrimage ] to the Ganges to bathe, with a few attendants.

Somapala, driven by his son named Bhupala and grieved at the faction which prevailed for a long time in his own kingdom, went to the king of Kashmira and sought his protection. The king who loved those who asked for his shelter, promised safety to Somapala and also to Nagapala who had given away his wealth to his two sons. The king, whose character was ennobled by real magnanimity, did not at this time of danger resent the crafty conduct of Somapala who was the cause of calamity to a great kingdom. But in order to help Nagapala, the king gave him his own army, crushed the pride of his enemies and re-established the stability of the kingdom.


Return of Koshtaka and the formation of a faction against the king: In the meantime Koshtaka returned after his ablutions in the Ganges, and taking Mallarjjuna on his side, set about to raise a faction in the kingdom. At the time of the solar eclipse, the prince was at Kurukshetra. He waived his former enmity towards the Lavanya and went to him in order to serve his purpose. Lothana came there invited, but when he heard that the prince was with the Damara (Lavanya), he was unable to establish peace between himself and the Lavanya, and returned by the way he had come. Though the evil-minded Somapala had received the king's money, he remained negligent when the king's enemies entered the place before the temple of Vijayesha. In order to please the king, Somapala's son- caused Koshtaka to be robbed of his properties by the Thakkuras.

Oppressions of Chitraratha: In the meantime the excessive oppression of Chitraratha became unbearable, and the twice-born people (Brahmanas) at Avantipura did not wish to have him and held a religious fast. Chitraratha who did not fear even the king despised the twice-born through his pride, and many of them sacrificed themselves in the burning fire through grief. In the pasture land of the cows which were kept for religious purposes, a cowherd, though surrounded by his dependants, threw himself into the fire out of sympathy [for the Brahmanas.] Vijayaraja son of Prithviraja the bard, and born in a well known family, saw the calamity that befell there . He became very sorrowful and wished to go to some other country.

[p.199]: After shedding tears of sympathy, he thus addressed his younger brother — " The king has become inactive owing to his fondness for Chitraratha ; and behold his subjects, neglected by him, and entangled in the net of the ministers, are being destroyed. Who will protect the poor from danger where the king neglects them, in order to humour the ministers? It generally happens, that when a commotion occurs, through mutual rivalry, either the protector punishes the protected or the protected punish the protector. The roughness of a hard stone is sometimes smoothed by the rubbing of iron, while sometimes the stone makes the iron straight. The king is radiant with every virtue, and should not be detested for one fault. I see nothing else that can be done, except murdering Chitraratha. If one small offence proves to be universally beneficial, then it is a virtue ; and even the great Buddha killed the serpent, the devourer of animals. When that wicked man is killed by us, no governor will again oppress the subjects, out of fear of spirited men. If by the sacrifice of this life, the lives of numberless men be made happy, then ! brother ! is not the bargain good V Thus he advised his brother who attentively listened to him, and then came to Kaṅkoshapīthina and went after Chitraratha in order to kill him. Even in this Kaliyuga which if turbid with feebleness of virtue, the power of Brahmanas shines unbroken. As file power of Brahmanas up roots evil, even so those who retained their full measure of virtue could not bear the evil any longer.

Attack on Chitraratha

[p.200]: Sujji who oppressed the Brahmanas was killed by a Brahmana, and Chitraratha who insulted the Brahmanas was murdered by a Brahmana. The heart of Vijayaraja was full of grief for the action of the twice-born [in burning themselves,] and he thought of destroying Chitraratha, even by giving up his own life, though he was not compelled to do that act at each a sacrifice. At the time that the Brahmanas burnt themselves, the disgust of Vijayaraja knew no bounds.

During several nights the [intended] murderer found no access to Chitraratha, and he kept himself awake day arid night. Chitraratha was attended by a large force, and he walked between rows of the leaders of armies, in the middle of the force ; and being in the centre, he could sometimes be seen and sometimes not. Once when Chitraratha had gone past the stairs-of the palace, Vijayaraja, who had become hard of heart by a strange firmness, swiftly went after him ; and though Chitraratha was surrounded by the leaders of armies, Vijayaraja, possessed of wonderful courage, struck him on the head with his sword, in front of a pillar, and laid him on the ground? There he lay like one dying, his memory began to fade, and his eyes rolled above, and his prowess was lost. The attendants believed that he was killed by the [orders of the] king, and bewildered and much frightened, they left him in that state. Believing him to be dead, Vijayaraja did not again strike him, and forbade his brother who had arrived there by another

[p.201]: flight of stairs, to strike. Though all the ways were safe, Vijayaraja fled not, but repeatedly called out that Chitraratha had been killed by the king. Chitraratha's cowardly attendants who used to go forward for the " fried meat" of the kingdom, fled in fear. Lauṭharatha, Chitraratha's elder brother, fled in fear and took shelter with a dancing woman by taking her breast in his mouth.

Chitraratha was brought to the king in his present plight, and the king told him not to fear and asked him who had struck him ; and with these words he gave him courage. The soldiers searched for the murderer and enquired what Tikshna (desperado) had, by the king's order, killed the lord of Dvara ? The cool-headed Vijayaraja became violent and showed admirable prowess. He killed thirty soldiers and wounded twenty ; and when hurt in the foot, he pointed out to himself and said "It was I." " For the delivery of the good, for the establishment of -virtue, I take birth in every Yuga." This shloka, explaining the cause of his action, was written in a holy scroll which was found in his hand, and in which mention was also mode of the end of time Chitraratha was wounded, pierced at the junction of the bones of the head, and he lost his appetite and became insane and. feeble. Weak and without comfort, he spent five months in his bed surrounded by men. At this time Koshtaka took Mallarjjuna with him, and with a view to create a commotion in the kingdom, arrived at Giridurga which was well defended with trees.

[p.202]: As men are oppressed with dullness at the sudden appearance of a cloud, so the people soon became disheartened at the presence of the enemy's army. Koshtaka who had come traversing many a mile, surrounded the woods and villages with his attendants and completely blockaded, Tarudurga (Giridurga). But when Sanjapala arrived in the camp with his fleet cavalry, the enemies became motionless, like the still trees in a windless place. Dhanyaka whose army was supplied with graineries filled with corn, sat like a lion who cannot bear the smell of elephants, his foes. Rilhana was, by the king's orders, encamped at Govasa with his force. He moved about in the wood and harassed the enemies, as the sun-light does vermins.

By these acts of the very powerful king, Koshteshvara became quiet, and for three or four months he could not move. He was harassed in a foreign country, driven by title neighbouring potentates and deserted by his followers; his plans were frustrated by the officers of the king, and owing to his ignorance, he was unable to understand the behaviour of kings. Forgetful of his wrongs and dismissed from his post, he wished to make peace with the king. He tried to assuage the king's anger ; and Sanjapala attempted with humility derived from devotion, to further, his purpose, considering it a shame to disappoint him. The king's enemy [ Koshteshvara] cut off his finger and sent it to the king, but could not allay his wrath. [ His messenger ] tied the

[p.203]: turban round bis neck, bore shoes on his head and waited long, but could not remove the king's anger. The king did not accept two or three objects, symbols befitting a sovereign [ which Koshteshvara had sent ], but gave orders like a king and behaved proudly like a sovereign. In the meantime he learnt that Mallarjjuna was seized on his way. Good luck waits on prosperity. Mallarjjuna was being carried by his servants on their shoulders, his legs being like those of a goat, [defective], he could not walk on the road. When he had passed the dangerous places and had arrived at the village Sabarnika, revered in Lohara, he was arrested by a Thakkura named Jaggika who had placed sentinels there.

Capture of Mallarjjuna 1135 AD

The king heard that this benefactor and servant, together with, Mallarjjuna had arrived, Mallarjjuna had been captured [once before] by his enemies, but had escaped from the fort by some means, but he was now again seized by them. Who can escape that which must happen? The Ganges, which flows through heaven, issued with difficulty out of the stomach of a great Rishi, and falling into the sea was again drunk up by another Muni. No one is able to escape that which must happen. The very wise king had sent Udaya, lord of Dvara, to Jaggika who had placed guards far and near in order to seize [Mallarjjuna] who had once been captured. The king thought that without Udaya, who was a man of great coolness, gravity, heroism and discretion, the common people would be at a loss to act in the critical time, By

[p.204]: paying in two different ways [i. e. paying regular dues and bribes?], Udaya passed over the obstacles in the road and saw the king's enemy at Tamori. Udaya with a wonderful coolness which showed his prowess, praised him outwardly by various words, and thus again said : — " You chief of the wise ! You who greatly value a praiseworthy devotion to master, you have been drawn away [from the king] by madness. You are like a jewel of security ; and as I had not you as my refuge, the wicked king was able, under various pretences, to do injuries to my territory during my boyhood. The king is like the sun ; and men can scarcely gaze on him, but when he is in misfortune, as when the sun is in the dewy season, people can look upon him. That sovereign is worthy of praise, who, like the sun, alike, in the time of rising and at the time of setting, shines blood-red, like a copper disk. His advent is fortunate, at the tint of whose fierce ascent, the Apsaras are alarmed, and at whose setting, citizen's wives are grieved. Employed in my post, and like a nobleman who has got a little money, I have become foolish like an elderly poet. Now make me a promise which, is difficult to fulfil, and grant me a boon and give peace to my heart." Thus he said, and in order to have assurance, the lord of Dvara placed a crystal linga, together with, its seat, before Mallarjjuna to touch. Mallarjjuna believed that the lord of Dvara was making him promise to fight in fair field against the soldiers who used missiles, spears and arrows.

[p.205]: He touched the Shivalinga and promised to grant the lord of Dvara the boon he desired. Udaya then said : — " Unwounded and alive as you are now, I ask yon to appear publicly before the king." On hearing his words defiled with baseness, all became stupified with shame, and like leaves, wet with rains, turned their faces towards the ground. Mallarjjuna then remembered how, easy the mind of Bhikshu was at his last moments, and his heart became light. He ascended the vehicle carried by men, he felt no shame and looked on his followers without betraying any agitation of mind, and was led by Udaya. He was dragged in the way, like an animal, but he was not touched by emotion. He took his usual meals and had good sleep. The people who saw him led by the guards in that state were touched with pity.

They did not congratulate the king but said, " It does not look well for the king, elder by birth, to use such unkindness towards the younger brother who is fatherless, and who is the object of pity. His eyes are like the black lotus and his person is pleasant to behold. Who that has a heart unlike a sword can dormant such a body and disfigure it? The people did not know of their previous history, and forgetful of Mallarjjuna's faults, they reproached the king in the street when they saw him, in various manner. What judgment can there be in boys and in fools? The feelings even of great men do not always remain in the same state. Listeners become angry with the sons of Dhritarashtra, rather than

[p.206]: with Pandu's sons when they hear of the play at dice, and of the daughter of Panchala dragged by the hair. But when they hear of the quaffing of the blood of the sons of Kuru and of the blow hit on the head [of Duryyadhana] when his thigh was broken, their anger is turned against the sons of Pandu. Excepting the moderate minded people others cannot judge the merits of actions ; and hence the king's acts were so misjudged. How could it be otherwise ? Mallarjjuna rode on a carriage drawn by a pair and bore on his lap an earthen vessel marked with the [blood of] the finger which was cut, making the citizens weep as he went, and reached the capital in the evening. In the year 11(=1135 AD), on the day of the full moon, in the month Ashvina, the king placed Mallarjjuna with guards in Navamatha. For five nights he remained without food, and sorrowful and longing to touch the king's feet.

The king went to him through pity and promised him protection. Mallarjjuna then told the king what the king had wished to learn, he said that the rebels Chitraratha and Koshtaka surely deserved execution.

Murder of Koshtaka: The king then intended to accomplish the arrest of Koshtaka who was going out to his own territory. He sent Rilhana and others, five trustworthy men. When all had lost, their power, and the king alone remained active, Rilhana with his arms sought hold of Koshtaka as one catches a fish. Koshtaka's weapon was snatched away, and he remained motionless within the cage like arms of the strong Rilhana, blind with sleep as if dulled

[p.207]: by evil spirits. Bhihkharaja, a hot-tempered man and son of Kularaja's brother, made a deep cut in the neck of Koshtaka by the menus of a sword, out of devotion to the king. Prithvipala, a follower of the king, was about to strike with an axe on tho head of Koshtaka in anger, when the king prevented him. Surrounded on all sides, and struck in a vital part in the bone of the neck of Koshtaka lay on the ground struggling and weltering in blood. His younger brother Chatuṣhka was stretched on the ground by Kamaliya and others, men of great strength, as a rock is felled by an elephant. When Mallaka, a twice-born, saw his two masters siezed and thus killed by mutilation, he drew his knife and stood up. He came to the mingled strife unnoticed by any one but by the king, and struck the king's followers great and small. Kularaja with his knife ran towards this man of great strength who destroyed many soldiers of the king. Mallaka's blows fell fast oi his antagonists and the athlete Kularaja, unable to kill him, drove him against a wall. There stood Kularaja who knew various tactics, but was unable to go away or to stay, or to strike, and stopped Mallaka who remained unmoved.

And when Padmaraja created a noise by stamping his feet and jumped and made a sound with his arm and in this way ran near to Mllaka, Mallaka turned his eyes towards him. Kularaja took advantage of this opportunity and struck him on his breast, but as he was retiring after striking, Mallaka cut his thumb. And when the

[p.208]: stout Vijjaraja, hot with pride, struck Mallaka, he returned the blow, but both instantly fell on him. When the king appeared in view at the door of the four cornered room, Mallaka left his three antagonists and ran towards the king. At the time when the king was thus singled out, Kularaja ran swiftly in alarm and cut off the speed of Mallaka by cutting him in the bone of the buttocks. Then was Mallaka surrounded by all the warriors, but he quickly killed the weak and the strong, and then stretched himself in the bed of heroes, making the stream of blood his bed-sheet. He was observed by his master who was still alive, though in extreme danger. Mallaka's prowess was praiseworthy but his end was undesirable. He too was counted among heroes.

When the servants of Koshtaka fled away outside, a Damara named Janakachandra with much coolness feigned great poverty. He was without a weapon, but snatching an axe sent many to the king of death as the first messengers with the tidings of battle. As he tried to retire, the sharp shining axe which longed to divide the marrow of the backbone looked in his hand as the crescent of the moon. The proud and chaste wife of Koshtaka behaved, at the time when her husband was arrested, in the way the like of which we have never seen and never heard. She disregarded the words of her friends who told her that her husband would revive, and that she would got him again, and she threw herself into the fire. The fire that was polluted by the desire to

[p.209]: embrace the wives of the seven Rishis became hallowed by the feet of her who departed to the region of chaste women. She was the daughter of Vasanta, the brother of Dhanyodaya, and proud of being born in a pure family, she did not dot like the wives of the Damaras. The widows of the Lavanyas (Damaras) gratify their co-villagers and relatives with their embraces for the last of wealth. The proud Koshtaka was wholly prostrated by the loss of sense, but his head was lifted high [ i. e. he was honored ] by his wife and his two attendants. He was wounded, and through some sin, worms preyed on him, and though lifeless, he lay in prison for some nights.

Flight of Chitraratha and confiscation of his property: Now, Chitraratha who was feeble with consumption heard that the king was under the evil influence of Mallarjjuna, and became very much distressed through fear. His only wife, the chaste and beloved Asuyamati was dead ; she was the pledge of his prosperity before her death. He had become satiated with pleasures, fee had no wife in his house, and his master was alienated from him. For these reasons he was very unhappy ; he thought that though guilty, no injury would come to him from the king as long as he lived in a place of pilgrimage ; so he went to Sureshvari on pretence to die there. The king took possession, from Chitraratha's house, of various kinds of wealth which had enriched Chitraratha more than Kuvera. The gold, clothes, armours, horses, jewels, weapons and other things displayed their augmented beauty ; and with these the king who


had been reduced by the rebellion of Lohara, prospered, as the tree dried up by the heat of summer, grows by the watering of a mountain stream.

Murder of Vijaya: Though the commotions had long ceased, Vijaya, son of Bhava, lived in the wood and had become timid, and like a frog which does not leave its well, he did not leave Shrikalyanapura. Royal Fortune was imprisoned in his house, sleepless and wan through anxiety, as if the rays of the white umbrella were reflected on her. The king sent Ananda, a Tikshna to him. Vijaya knew of this and killed Ananda, but was also killed by him.

Thus king Jayasimha ruled the subjects

Thus king Jayasimha ruled the subjects, and thus passed his time full of great excitements. When Chitraratha had gone to the place of pilgrimage, his two servants Shringara and Janaka who desired to touch his feet [ to serve him] became bards. The king gave large bribe to Shringara whom Janaka deserted, and Shringara promised to, the king [to serve his end] and became a sharer in the enjoyment of his master's ( Chitraratha's ) wealth.

The king again bestowed on Udaya, the province of Dvara which Udaya had long possessed, as the rainy season brings to the banks, the waves of the river. Chitraratha long suffered remorse for his wicked actions, and expired in eight months, leaving but his name behind. Let us pray to him by whose power even the pure minded becomes an object of laughter and the foul and impure becomes indispensable, who can render the words of the stupid man acceptable, and can subdue ancient

[p.211]: dignity, — to Him who is universally known and yet Inconceivable. The son of Sanjaka (Shringara) had become the favorite of the fickle-minded and wayward king during his boyhood by the reprehensible game at dice. And when the king obtained the kingdom, ho wearied Shringara by sending him day and night to Chitraratha with betels. Engaged in the duty of a messenger, he was ignorant of all other work, but he afterwards secured the confidence of the king by getting him those of Chitraratha's servants who discovered to the king, Chitraratha's treasures. At this time there were no great ministers in the kingdom, and he obtained the post of the prime minister. The king who was in the habit of making bad selections, through ignorance, did no wrong in trusting this man, or in squandering money in food and in garments for women. For he considered his action commendable in having given paddy to his gurus according to his liberality. He added to the silver shrine of Sureshvari, his own stock of silver and thus deserved emancipation. This king maintained with great pomp and large expenditure of gold, for five years from the full moon of Ashadha, the worship of the image which was originally set up by Champaka and others at Nandikshetra, and which kings cannot approach even in speech. The king trusted in persons who even in pastimes were known to be worthless, but who through the influence of their master's

[p.212]: affection performed unheard of actions. When young women adorned Mahadeva for the sake of amusement, and placed the serpent round his neck, as an ornament, the serpent often slided down ; but the snake did not slide when tied to the firm bow of Shiva at the bidding of the enemy of Tripura. Who does not acquire strength at the command of his master ?

Shringara and Janaka: Rilhana and Dhanya brought over Janaka and Shringara to their side by bribe for mutual support and in order to attain their object. The king had once siezed Janaka together with his ornament, the pearl necklace, and caused Shringara -with his wives and children to weep. He once felt remorse and dishonored Shringara, after he had entreated both Shringara and Janaka with bribe. One of them attained his object by his habit of moving about the ring in his little finger by the nail of his thumb, by his manner of drawing up the upper lip when speaking, by his uncouth mice and eyes, by the movement of his brows which protruded the skin of his forehead which was low and yet protuberant ; but he became the object of the people's laughter. The - speech of the other was indistinct and harsh, he was garrulous, and in times of pleasure would shut his eyes, and clasp his hands when he laughed. The king is possessed of a mind which, overcomes all and is immoveable, and he has attained the highest place among the virtuous by his pious acts. This rich sovereign performed acts of kindness in times of danger,

[p.213]: like Buddha, even as the sandal wood relieves the burning limbs during fever. He tended with due treatment the gurus, the learned, the twice-born, the helpless and others, and those forsaken by their kindred. The pure minded and admirable king white washed the line of houses of Vijayesha and of other gods, and made them look like mount Kailasha. He has a passion for repairing dilapidated buildings, and he always delights in repairing schools, temples, gardens, lakes and canals.

He once showed enmity towards religious students, and stupid people call him a receptacle of cruelty. The Ganges, which delights the world, fills tho seven seas, and sanctifies Brahma, washes, at the same time, the place where the elephants of the gods were burnt ; a bad deed once done does not soil one's reputation.

Execution of Shivaratha: At this time the twice-born Shivaratha who was a great conspirator, and worse than a Kayastha, was executed by a cord bled round his neck.

Character of the king Jayasimha (1128 - 1155 AD)

The well behaved, king thus destroyed his enemies and freed the kingdom of foes. When the enemies who restrain kings are destroyed, kings generally appear fiercer, like the sun released from clouds. The latter days of the king have been prosperous, and the excessive sweetness of this jewel among sovereigns is like the sweetness of grapes just beginning to ripen. He encourages the performance of religious sacrifices with incessant gifts to Brahmanas, and he also encourages marriages, pilgrimages and proper religious festivities. He helps in the completion

[p.214]: of religious performance by pious men by supplying them with his own provisions, as the moon by his own power makes certain plants in the Kula mountains,* luminous. The sedate king promises to help with all necessary things, in the performance of marriages of the citizens' sons. For the increase of his treasure, he gave permission to owners of extensive forests to reclaim their lands, and he repaired the capital. The wise see with wonder his excessive fervour, like that of a Rishi, in the worship of Hara, though he is engrossed, in the duties of a king. From morning to evening he performs no act which is not guided by the wise. Jayapida and others, by their kingly grace, made wisdom shine amidst the deep darkness of injustice, like fleeting lightning in the clouds. But this king, by the gift of things of permanent value, prevented, like the rays of jewels, his other virtues from being known.

Public works executed by the king : He built very high houses for the learned, and the seven Rishis as if to see their beauty, spread themselves out over their head. Owing to religious sacrifices performed with intelligence, the wisdom of the learned became pure, and travelling by road became safe. The noise of the falling water with which the Linga was bathed, and which he listened forsaking the sounds of the flute and the lute, as he lay in his bed, was as dear to him as the varied speech of the learned, untainted with envy. The

* The seven great mountains of the ancient Hindus.
† The seven brightest stars in the Great Bear.

[p.215]: temples &c., which were set up in the times of Shrilalitaditya, Avantivarmma and others were now brought to perfection. The king made perpetual grants for all schools and houses of gods set up during his reign. The matha of Ratnadevi to whom her husband [ the king ] was strongly attached was the best of all that were set up.

Character and works of Rilhana: At this time Rilhana who was the friend of the worthy was, of all the ministers, the first traveller in the path of virtue. Though this pure-minded man lived in a house of amusement, yet he could never forsake the chief Rishis and the elders in religion. His life was not void of virtue acquired by the gift of the skin of black deer, by giving shelter to men, by oblations, by good deeds, and by helping in the marriage of girls. This great man bestowed things suited for religious sacrifices on all the fire-worshipping Brahmanas, and made the performance of their work easy. His heart was untouched by envy, and in the wonderful sacrificial feast which he held, the people of the sixty-four castes enjoyed the delightful objects of enjoyment. By bestowing valuable villages on Brahmanas, by building large schools and bridges, he embellished the two cities of the two Pravarasenas. In the city of Pravarasena I, he set up the wonderful Rilhaneshvara [an image of a god] which was the chief of all the religious monuments he built. This pious man, for the memory of his wife Sussalā who was dead, caused a vihara to be built for the Buddhists,

[p.216]: at the place called Akaprapā. A female cat died of grief for the death of Rilhana's wife, and Rilhana feared lest he should forget the affection due to the brute creation, and called the vihara after the cat. In that district soiled by envy, and not far from the town, this cat lived and was dear to her master, as a human being. From the day on which Rilhana went on pilgrimage, the cat ceased to take food which was brought to her, and died of grief without a groan.

Works and death of Sussalā wife of Rilhana:

Didda, among the wives of kings and Sussalā, among the wives of ministers, reached the utmost perfection of virtue by setting up various religious establishments. Sussalā built the matha of Shrichankuna of stone which till then had existed only in name. She attained perfection in all kinds of virtues by building wells with masonary works, small wells, houses for students and other works. The whole city looked beautiful on account of her matha which covered the entire sacrificial land of the ancient lines of kings. She rapidly wasted away by consumption, and died at Shrisureshvari; and her death was like a harbinger of her absorption in tho Deity attained by her setting up religious edifices.

Works of Dhanya and Udaya and of others: The Brahmana village and the edifices built by Dhanya did not fulfill the purpose for which they were raised. How can fame be obtained, without virtue ? In the like manner, the religious edifices built by Udaya lord of Kampana, in the villages of the Brahamanas, and named after him, served no useful purpose except that they went by his name.

[p.217]: Udaya, lord of Dvara, with the help of the Gaṇa sect of Brahmapuri, built a beautiful religious edifice in which the lotus tank looked beautiful.

At Shrīdvāra, Shṛiṅgāratantrapati, a jewel of a Brahmana and an owner of a large mart, built a religious edifice with garden and tank, and he adorned the earth by erecting rooms for bathing, religious edifices, and a bridge at Brahmapuri, and by similar works. The matha of Shṛiṅgārabhaṭṭa near that of Bhaṭṭāraka was like a well in an expanded ocean, and was deservedly forgotten.

Jaṭṭa (जट्ट), the minister for peace and war of the lord of Dārvvābhisāra, and prone to pious work, set up the image of the eight faced Mahadeva.

Among the trees, karavira alone, owing to the loveliness of its floors, has the dignity of beauty, and the flowers become useful in the worship of the Shivalinga. So among the several ministers of the king, one alone named Bhuṭṭa, younger brother of Jahlu (?), attained, dignified excellence. The offering which he made to Mahadeva the Jyeshtarudra, otherwise called the Bālakeshvara, and set up by Vashishta, was accepted by the god who appeared in person. There he built a town without a defect, named Bhuṭṭapura with maṭhas, religious schools and high buildings. In the capital also he set up a Hara, named Bhuṭṭeshvara, and in the village of Maḍava he excavated a tank named Dharmmavibhramadarpana.

Works and death of queen Ratnadevi:

The queen Ratnadevi set up a religious school named Vaikuntha and mathas and other edifices, and with

[p.218]: her own money made arrangements for their permanent maintenance.

At Ratnapura, a town of great value, and which had many gates, the spotless religions school was the receptacle of virtue, and looked like a large cage for a swan. Mahadeva graced by his presence her white washed houses, like a white light, to destroy the transient state of man's existence. When she built sheds for cows, Shuravarmma and the other builders were reckoned as cows. There [at Ratnapura] adorned with cowsheds, where the kine roamed unrestricted, and which was washed by the waves of the Vitasta, she parted with her diseased body (died), At Nandikshetra she had raised religious schools, and in the principal places of the Yavanas she had built delightful mathas. In Dārvvā she built a town like the city of Indra, and named it after her name. It contained a beautiful and grand house befitting a king. The queen who was kind towards her dependants built various monuments consecrated to the memory of the great, the honored and the principal men who were dead.

The world held such jewels of women who were its ornaments.

The chief among the kings made his own matha a specially desirable object. He was without vanity, and gave away in gifts many villages, the principal among which was celebrated as Simhapura by those who knew of his gifts. In this place the son of the daughter of the lord of Kārapatha established a

[p.219]: Colony of the twice-born who were going to Sindhu and of the rough out caste people of Dravida who formerly lived at Siddhachchhatra.

What need is there of narrating about the construction of mathas &c. by the king who turned the whole of Kashmira into Villages and towns. Owing to the troubles of the time, the country had become like a wasted forest, but the king again made it wealthy, populous and full of houses. From the beginning, when he engaged himself in giving what was asked from him, men of skill built mathas and houses of gods. He was not jealous, and when he gave valuable riches, clothes and jewels for the use of the public, the citizens celebrated various great festivities.

About this time the shall crop was destroyed by the sudden fall of snow, by fire and similar troubles, but there was no severe famine. Strange things happened, for though at night the voices of the Rakshasas were heard, and omens like comets were seen, people did not die.

End of Book VIII (i)

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