|Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क|
- 1 Mention by Panini
- 2 History
- 3 Kalinga Country
- 4 In Bhagavata Purana
- 5 Kalinga in Mahabharata
- 6 Kalinga by Megasthenes
- 7 Visit by Xuanzang in 639 AD
- 8 The Kalinga script
- 9 Jat rulers in Kalinga
- 10 Other Jat clans associated with Kalinga
- 11 References
Mention by Panini
Rajatarangini mentions the victory of Kashmira king Lalitaditya over various kingdoms. ...He marched thence with his army towards the east. He passed Kalingga, where elephants were caught. And then he came to Goura. Thence he reached the Eastern Sea, and pursued his course along the coast towards the south, conquering as he went. Karnāta submitted on his approach. A beautiful Karnāti lady named Ratti who ruled supreme in the south, her territories extending
[p.69]: as far as the Vindhya hills, also submitted to him. The army then rested on the banks of the Kaveri beneath the palm trees, drinking the water of coconuts. Thence he marched to Chandanadri. And then the king crossed the sea passing from one Island to another ; and thence marched towards the west, the sea singing the songs of his victory. He then attacked the seven Kramuka and the seven Kongkana which suffered much thereby. His army was anxious to enter Dvaraka situated on the Western Sea. The army then crossed the Vindhya hills and entered Avanti where there was an image of Shiva named Mahakala.
Kalinga (कलिंग) in central-eastern India, which comprised of most of the modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the river Subarnarekha to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to Amarkantak range in the West. The kingdom had a formidable maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra and Java. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, Burma, and the Indonesia archipelago. Even today Indians are referred to as Keling in Malaysia because of this. Many Sri Lankan kings, both Sinhalese and Tamil, claimed decent from Kalinga dynasties.
In Bhagavata Purana
Kalinga in Mahabharata
Kalinga is mentioned in the Adiparva, Bhismaparva, Sabhaparva, Banaprava of Mahabharat so also is the conquest of Karna. Kalinga King Srutayu stated to have fought the Mahabharat war for the Kauravas.
Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 mentions this tribe in derogatory sense and advises to avoid this country:
- "The Karasakaras, the Mahishakas, the Kalingas, the Kikatas, the Atavis, the Karkotakas, the Virakas, and other peoples of no religion, one should always avoid."
- कारः करान महिषकान कलिङ्गान कीकटाटवीन
- कर्कॊटकान वीरकांश च दुर्धर्मांश च विवर्जयेत Mahabharata (8.30.45)
Mahabharata Shalya Parva mentions names of combatants armed with diverse weapons and clad in diverse kinds of robes and ornaments, All of them came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. Shalya Parva in Sanskrit mentions in shloka 59 Burdak along with Kalingas as under:
- पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ
- putra meṣaḥ pravāhaś ca tathā nandopanandakau
- dhūmraḥ śvetaḥ kaliṅgaś ca siddhārtho varadas tathā ।। 59 ।।
Sabha Parva in Sanskrit mentions kalinga as under;
- śūrasenāḥ kaliṅgāś ca bodhā maukās tathaiva ca
- matsyāḥ sukuṭyaḥ saubalyāḥ kuntalāḥ kāśikośalāḥ ।। 38 ।।
- विदेहका मागधाश च सुह्माश च विजयास तदा
- अङ्गा वङ्गाः कलिङ्गाश च यकृल लॊमान एव च ।। 44 ।।
- videhakā māgadhāś ca suhmāś ca vijayās tathā
- aṅgā vaṅgāḥ kaliṅgāś ca yakṛl lomāna eva ca ।। 44 ।।
Kalinga by Megasthenes
Kalinga is also mentioned as Calingae in Megasthenes' book on India - Indica:
- "The Prinas and the Cainas (a tributary of the Ganges) are both navigable rivers. The tribes which dwell by the Ganges are the Calingae, nearest the sea, and higher up the Mandei, also the Malli, among whom is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that region being the Ganges." (Megasthenes fragm. XX.B. in Pliny. Hist. Nat. V1. 21.9-22. 1.)
- "The royal city of the Calingae is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war." (Megasthenes fragm. LVI. in Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11.)
Visit by Xuanzang in 639 AD
[p.516]: west of Ganjam. Both bearing and distance point either to Rajamahendri on the Godavari river, or to Koringa on the sea coast, the first being 251 miles to the south-west of Ganjam, and the other 246 miles in the same direction. But as the former is known to have been the capital of the country for a long period, I presume that it must be the place that was visited by the Chinese pilgrim. The original capital of Kalinga is said to have been Srikakola, or Chikakol, 20 miles to the south-west of Kalinga-patam. The kingdom was 5000 li, or 833 miles, in circuit. Its boundaries are not stated ; but as it was united to the west by Andhra, and to the south by Dhanakakata, its frontier line cannot have extended beyond the Godavari river, on the south-west, and the Gaoliya branch of the Indravati river on the north-west. Within these limits, the circuit of Kalinga would be about 800 miles. The principal feature in this large tract of country is the Mahendra range of mountains, which has preserved its name unchanged from the time of the composition of the Mahabharata to the present day. This range is mentioned also in the Vishnu Purana, as the source of the Rishikulya river, and as this is the well-known name of the river of Ganjam, the Mahendra mountains can at once be identified with the Mahendra Male range, which divides Ganjam from the valley of the Mahanadi.
Rajamahendri was the capital of the junior, or eastern branch of the Chalukya princes of Vengi, whose authority extended to the frontiers of Orissa. The kingdom of Vengi was established about A.D. 540, by the capture of the old capital of Vengipura, the remains of
[p.517]: which still exist at Vegi, 5 miles to the north of Ellur, and 50 miles to the west-south-west of Rajamahendri. About A.D.750, Kalinga was conquered by the Raja of Vengi, who shortly afterwards moved the seat of government to Rajamahendri.
The Calingae are mentioned by Pliny, as occupying the eastern coast of India below the Mandei and Malli, and the famous Mount Maleus. This mountain may perhaps be identified with the high range at the head of the Rishikulya river, in Ganjam, which is still called Mahendra Male, or the " Mahendra mountain." To the south, the territory of the Calingae extended as far as the promontory of Calingon and the town of Dandaguda, or Dandagula, which is said to be 625 Roman miles, or 574 British miles, from the mouth of the Ganges. Both the distance and the name point to the great port-town of Coringa, as the promontory of Coringon, which is situated on a projecting point of land, at the mouth of the Godavari river. The town of Dandaguda, or Dandagula, I take to be the Dantapura of the Buddhist chronicles, which, as the capital of Kalinga, may with much probability be identified with Raja Mahendri, which is only 30 miles to the north-east of Coringa. From the great similarity of the Greek Γ and Π, I think it not improbable that the Greek name may have been Dandapula, which is almost the same as Dantapura. But in this case, the Danta, or "tooth relic," of Buddha must have been enshrined in Kalinga as early as the time of Pliny,
[p.518]: which is confirmed by the statement of the Buddist chronicles, that the "left canine tooth" of Buddha was brought to Kalinga immediately after his death, where it was enshrined by the reigning sovereign, Brahmadatta. Dantapura, also, is said to have been situated on the northern bank of a great river, which can only be the Godavari, as the Kistna was not in Kalinga. This fact alone would be sufficient to fix the position of Dantapura at the old capital of Rajamahendri, which is situated on the north-eastern bank of the Godavari. The name of Mahendri is perhaps preserved in the Pitundra Metropolis of Ptolemy, which he places close to the Maisolos, or Godavari, that is, to the river of Masuli-patam.
A still earlier name for the capital of Kalinga was Sinhapura, which was so called after its founder, Sinha-bahu, the father of Vijaya, the first recorded sovereign of Ceylon. Its position is not indicated, but there still exists a large town of this name on the Lalgla river, 115 miles to the west of Ganjam, which is very probably the same place.
In the inscriptions of the Kalachuri, or Haihaya dynasty of Chedi, the Rajas assume the titles of "Lords of Kalanjjarapura and of Tri-Kalinga. Kalanjar is the well-known hill-fort in Bundelkhand; and Tri-Kalinga, or the " Three Kalingas," must be the three kingdoms of Dhanaka, or Amaravati, on the Kistna, Andhra or Warangol, and Kalinga, or Raja Mahendri.
[p.519]: The name of Tri-Kalinga is probably old, as Pliny mentions the Macco-Calingae and the Gangarides-Calingae as separate peoples from the Calingae while the Mahabharata names the Kaliagas three separate times, and each time in conjunction with different peoples. As Tri-Kalinga thus corresponds with the great province of Telingana, it seems probable that the name of Telingana may be only a slightly contracted form of Tri-Kalingana, or the " Three Kalingas." I am aware that the name is usually derived from Tri-Lingga, or the " Three Phalli", of Mahadeva. But the mention of Macco-Calingae and Gangarides-Calinga by Pliny, would seem to show that the " Three Kalingas" were known as early as the time of Megasthenes, from whom Pliny has chiefly copied his Indian Geography. The name must therefore be older than the Phallic worship of Mahadeva in southern India. Kalinga is three times mentioned in the Khandagiri inscription of Aira Raja, which cannot be later than the second century B.C., and at a still earlier date, during the lifetime of Sakya-Muni, it was noted for its manufacture of fine muslins, and at his death, the king of Kalinga is said to have obtained one of the teeth of Buddha, over which he built a magnificent stupa.
The Kalinga script
The Kalinga script (ref), derived from Brahmi, was used for writing. Among the offshoots, Kalinga script had the maximum resemblance with the parent script, Brāhmī and later modified to Oriya script in the beginning of the second millennium. This makes the Oriya Script as the most unique and least distorted script among the Indic scripts. ()
Jat rulers in Kalinga
- see main article Kharavela
Kharavela was a famous Jat king of Kalinga during the 2nd century BCE, who, according to the Hathigumpha inscription near Bhubaneswar, Orissa, attacked Rajagriha in Magadha, thus inducing the Indo-Greek king Demetrius to retreat to Mathura.
Other Jat clans associated with Kalinga
If Kharavela was Jat then there must be other Jat clans to assist him. Now we find from Hathigumpha inscription some clues about other Jat clans also.
It is revealed from Line-4 of the Hathigumpha inscription that Kharavela in the second year of his reign dispatched a strong force comprising cavalry, elephantry, infantry and chariotry to the western quarter without caring for or bothering about Sātakarnī, and Asikanagara was frightened on its reaching the river Kanhavemṇā. Some scholars prefer to read Masikanagara instead of Asikanagara and locate it in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh.
An article about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as under:
- Sanskrit - कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
- IAST - “Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”.
This translates that the city of 'Masiknagara' was obtained with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas [Kishori Lal Faujdar:Jat Samaj Monthly Magazine, Agra, January/February (2001) page-6]
According to Sadananda Agrawal interpretation of the city as Masikanagara is not well-supported. Kanhavemṇā is commonly equated with the river Krishna coastal flowing in Andhra Pradesh. However, Krishna lies much to the south of Kalinga, and not west as averred in the epigraph (Devanagari: पछिमदिसं). But there is another stream flowing to the west of Kalinga in Vidarbha and known locally at present as Kanhan which flows about 17 km northwest of Nagpur and joins the river Vena (Wainganga), and it is the combined flow of these two streams that is spoken as Kanhavemṇā in our records. [Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000]
The recent find of a sealing belonging to the Asikajanapada in course of intensive archaeological excavations at Adam (Nagpur district) has solved also the problem of locating Asikanagara whose king or and people became frightful at the arrival of Kharavela's army at Kanhavemṇā. In view of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam, Prof AM Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara of Hathigumpha inscription. It is worth noting in the present context that a terracotta sealing having a legend, has been discovered from Adam, situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga, which reads Asakajanapadasa (Devanagari: असकजनपदस). [Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000]
The township of Asikanagara to the west of Nagpur indicates the township of Asiagh or Siyak jats. This is also supported by Thakur Deshraj that Asiagh Jats moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Rajasthan. This must have been migration to Rajasthan of these people when their rule came to an end. After this period their rule is recorded in Jangladesh by the Historians James Tod and Thakur Deshraj.
From the above description we can interpret that Kaswan Jat was a chieftain who helped Kharavela in his war expedition. Kaswan Jats must also have moved along with Kharavela to Kalinga. It is also confirmed from following inscription:
X- Tatowāgumphā inscription (Cave No -1)
The record of this inscription is incised over one of the entrances to the inner chamber. The Text reads in Sanscrit as
- पादमुलिकस कुसुमस लेणं x [।।] (IAST: pādamulikas kusumas lenam x)
Translation: The cave of Kusuma, the padamulika.
Notes:- There is a syllable after the word lenam, which may be read as ni or phi,. padamulika literally means, one who serves at the feet [of king].
According to Kishori Lal Faujdar, Here Kusuma seems to be related with Kaswan clan of Jats. He refers an article ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Devanagari as under:
- कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
- IAST - Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ.
Translation:- This translates that the city of 'Masikanagara ' was obtained with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas.
There is one small inscription in Udayagiri caves about Prince Vaḍukha, which has not yet been interpreted by the historians. Had the historians knowledge about Jat clans it would have been easy to interpret it. The inscription details are as under.
III-Manchapuri cave inscription 'B' (Lower storey)'
This inscription has been engraved on the right wall of Veranda, to the right of the entrance to the right-hand side chamber of the main wing, consisting of one line. The text in Devanagari script is as under:
- कुमारो वडुखस लेणं (IAST: kumāro vadukhas lenam)
Translation - [This is] the cave of Prince Vaḍukha.
Note:- On palaeographic ground Prof Banergy considers this inscription to be a little earlier than the inscription of king Kudepasiri. According to Sadananda Agrawal, Prince Badukha stands an obscure figure in history, but Badukha seems to be the son or brother of Kudepasiri. Here Badukha is the prakrat form of Barduk or Burdak, which is again a Jat clan of northwest India.
IV- Inscriptions in the sarpagumpha (Over the door way)
This inscription consisting of one line, is incised over the doorway of the sarpagumpha. The text in Devanagari script is as under:
- चूलकमस कोठाजेया च (IAST: chūlakamas koţhājeyā cha)
Translation - The chamber and veranda/or side chamber of hūlakama. Note:- However Dr. Sahu interpreted Ajeya being united by a Sandhi qualifying Koṭha there by denoting invincible. But he ignored the conjunction ca (Devanagari: च) which follows Koṭha(Devanagari:कोठा) and Jeya (Devanagari:जेया).
VI- Haridas cave inscription
This inscription contains one line has been incised over one of the three entrances to the main chamber of the cave from the veranda. The text in Devanagari script is as under:
- चूलकमस पसातो कोठाजेया च (IAST: chūlakamas pasāto koţhājeyā cha)
Translation :- The chamber and veranda (or side chamber) are the gift of chūlakama.
Queen of Kharavela was Lal Jat
I- Mancapuri cave inscription (Upper storey)
This inscription is engraved on the raised space between the second and third doorways of the cave. The text in Devanagari script is as under:
- L.1- अरहंत पसादाय कलिंगानं समनानं लेनं कारितं राजिनो ललाकस
- L.2- हथिसिहस पपोतस धुतुना कलिंग चकवतिनो सिरिखारवेलस
- L.3- अगमहिसिना कारितं
Translation - By the blessings of Arhats the chief queen of Kharavela, the Cakravarti monarch of Kalinga, the great grand-daughter of Hathisiha (Hasti Simha) and the daughter of Lalāka or Lalārka caused to be excavated the cave for the sramanas of Kalinga.
The Line of Hathigumpha inscription mentions that in the seventh year of his reign [the Queen] of Vajiraghara was blessed with a son attained motherhood. Sometime before his coronation the prince very probably married chief queen as per presence was essentially required in anointation ceremony. The chief queen, whose record has been engraved in the upper storey of Mancapuri Cave, was the great-grand daughter of Hastisimha and the daughter of king Lalaka or Lalarka. It is to be pointed out here that nothing is known abouth Hastisimha and Lalarka from any other source.
Note:- It is to be noted here that historians do not have any idea about queen of Kharavela. Infact she was daughter of Lalaka or Lala gotra Jats found in Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. Lal (लल) gotra Jats live in Muzaffarnagar district in Badhai Kala, Barwala, Chunsa, Fahimpur, Lisad, Moghpur, Muzaffarnagar villages.
The famous Panjtar stone inscription, now in (Pakistan), written in the year 122 of Saka ara, refers to one “ Lala, the protector of the Kushana dynasty of Maharaja Kanishka”. This Lala, was a Lalli “Jat” It also refers to the gift of two trees by one Moika in the eastern region of “ Kasua”. That last word Kasua is the same as Kasuan the name of the Kushana clan (and territory) which is still existing. 
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.34, 37, 60, 425
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.472
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.60
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book IV,p.68-69
- Sabha Parva in Sanskrit Book 2 Chapter 31
- The Ancient Geography of India/Southern India, p.515-519
- Julieii's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 92. See Maps Nos. I. and XIII.
- Hist. Nat. vi. 21. "Gentea: Calingae proximo mari, supra Mandei, Malli, quorum mons Mallus, finisque ejus tractus est Ganges."
- Hist. vi. 23. Philemon Holland's translation has Dandagula.
- Turnour, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1837, p. 860, quoting the Dantha-dhatu-wanso, or " History of the Tooth-relic.
- Turnour, ' Mahawanso,' p. 46.
- Ibid. Appendix v. pp. 88, 89,, where the Princess Tilaka Sundari, of Kalinga, is said to have come from Sinhapura.
- H. H. Wilson, in ' Vishnu Purana,' pp. 185, 187 note, and 188.
- James Prinsep in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vi. 1082.
- Csoma de Koros, in ' Asiatic Researches,' xx. 85 and 317.
- EI, Vol.XIV, p-134